According to Martin Seligman, a person who reacts to negative events with an optimistic explanatory style uses:
external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have _____ use external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.
an optimistic explanatory style
According to research presented in the In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress, when they come home after a stressful day at work, fathers are more likely to _____ but mothers are more likely to ____.
initiate conflicts with or withdraw from family members; be more nurturing toward their children
According to the Critical Thinking box, “Do Personality Factors Cause Disease?” scientific research has shown that:
personality factors, such as hostility and pessimism, are correlated with an increased likelihood of developing poor health, but the research does not claim that there is a direct causal relationship between these variables.
According to the Psych for Your Life box, “Minimizing the Effects of Stress,” research has demonstrated:
that meditation reduces both the psychological and physical effects of stress.
According to The Social Readjustment Rating Scale shown in Table 13.1, which of the following life changes would receive the HIGHEST number of Life Event Units?
Death of a spouse
After her husband died last year, Sophia moved to a new city, started a new job, and returned to school part time after an absence of ten years. These major life events may create a ripple effect and generate a host of _____ that could significantly _____ Sophia’s stress level.
daily hassles; increase
After Lana got a low grade on her first French exam, she told her roommate that she was dropping the course because she wasn’t good at foreign languages and would never be able to figure out French grammar. Lana is best classified as having a pessimistic explanatory style because:
she uses internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events.
After three successful weeks on her low-fat diet, Luella goes to the cafeteria for lunch and is torn between sticking to her diet by having steamed vegetables or having one of her favorite high-fat dishes, fettuccine alfredo. Luella is probably experiencing a(n) _____ conflict.
Agnes was having a good day at work, until her mother called to tell her a very stressful story about getting into a fight with one of the other ladies at the local senior citizen’s center. After listening to her mother’s story, Agnes perceived the rest of the day as being very stressful. Which of the following terms best describes Agnes’ experience?
Andy suffered from chronic back pain. After weeks of unsuccessful treatment, Andy’s doctor gave him some pill samples, describing them as a new experimental medication for back pain. In reality, the pills were just sugar pills and contained no medication at all. After a few days, Andy’s backache was much better. Andy’s response to the sugar pills is an example of:
the placebo effect.
_____ are hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal and include adrenaline and noradrenaline.
As compared to men, women are more likely to _____ under stressful circumstances.
seek out social support
As her car spun out of control on an icy road, Mia’s muscles tensed and her blood pressure, heartbeat, and pulse increased dramatically. This rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions is called the:
The body system that produces specialized white blood cells that defend the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells is called the _____ system.
The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called:
Brandon came down with viral pneumonia. His body’s immune system will produce _____ to defend him against the infection.
Carl has been under stress for a long time. The stress first started when Carl’s grandfather had a heart attack. Carl took charge of his grandfather’s round-the-clock care. At first, Carl was really stressed, but after a while he acclimated to his new routine and felt like he was just barely able to cope with the new level of stress in his life. Carl’s acclimation corresponds to which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?
Carl has had a lot of readjustments in the last few months. First, he was fired from his job. Next, his home was foreclosed upon, and then, his wife filed for divorce. Based on The Social Readjustment Rating Scale shown in Table 13.1, which of the following answers shows how Carl’s readjustments would rank (from largest to smallest) in terms of Life Event Units?
divorce, fired at work, foreclosure
Carl is undergoing a chronic stressor-providing 24-hour care for his elderly grandfather who is recovering from heart surgery. Which of the following issues is Carl LEAST likely to experience?
Compared to physically inactive people, physically fit people:
are less physiologically reactive to stressors and produce lower levels of stress hormones.
The definition of _____ is a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person’s resources or ability to cope.
Dr. Gordon uses the biopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factors influence health, illness, and treatment. Dr. Gordon is most likely a:
Dr. Kelly is a researcher in the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology. Like most other specialists in this field, Dr. Kelly would most likely DISAGREE with which of the following statements?
The immune system response cannot be classically conditioned.
Dr. Mendez is a researcher who believes that physical and emotional health are affected by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, behavioral, and social factors. Thus, Dr. Mendez tends to follow the _____ model in her research.
During particularly busy and stressful shifts, Kyle and some of his co-workers in the morgue often find themselves making jokes and facetious remarks among themselves. Making jokes about a stressful situation is a form of:
emotion-focused coping called distancing.
During the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body’s energy reserves become depleted, leading to physical disorders and, potentially, death.
Early stress researchers Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe:
believed that any change that required a person to adjust their behavior or lifestyle would cause stress.
Faced with the financial and personal problems associated with returning to school as an adult student, Amanda estimated how much she would need to live on, how much time she could devote to working, and how much study time she would need to succeed academically. Amanda is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
problem-focused; planful problem solving
The final exam period was very stressful for Maria, and at the end of the semester she got very sick with a viral infection. Her body’s _____ will produce _____ to help fight against the virus.
immune system; lymphocytes
Georgia is undergoing an acute, 50-minute stressor-a comprehensive final exam in her psychology class at State University. Which of the following issues is Georgia likely to experience?
an increase in catecholamine release
Health psychology is guided by the _____ model of health, illness, and well-being.
Helena has a large network of social relationships that is comforting to her in times of need. However, because relationships tend to be reciprocal, Helena has to respond to many demands placed on her by friends and family. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Helena may find these demands physically and psychologically taxing, especially if any are long term.
The hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex and that play a key role in the body’s response to long-term stressors are called:
How do stimulant drugs such as caffeine or nicotine affect people’s ability to handle stress?
Stimulants like caffeine and nicotine heighten the negative physiological effects of stress by increasing physiological arousal.
In a study described in the text, over 250 doctors were monitored for their health status beginning when they were in medical school. What did the study find over the course of 25 years?
Those doctors who scored low on hostility were much more likely to be alive at age 50 than those doctors who scored high on hostility.
In a study that focused on married couples, researchers investigated possible gender differences in the frequency of daily hassles. What did the study show?
Women experienced more daily hassles and higher levels of stress than their husbands.
In an important research study involving elderly nursing home residents, psychologists Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer investigated the:
effects of a sense of personal control on psychological and physical health.
The In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress presents Shelley Taylor’s proposal that women “tend-and-befriend” in response to stress. In this model, “befriend” refers to:
seeking social support, protection, and resources from others.
The In Focus box on gender differences in responding to stress presents Shelley Taylor’s proposal that women “tend-and-befriend” in response to stress. In this model, “tend” refers to:
taking cover and protecting offspring.
In September, Bryant started classes at State University. In December, he took a month-long vacation, during which he went back to his hometown to celebrate Christmas with his family. Based on The Social Readjustment Rating Scale shown in Table 13.1, which of the following answers shows how Sandy’s readjustments would rank (from largest to smallest) in terms of Life Event Units?
beginning school, vacation, Christmas
In studying the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold, psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues have found that:
when they are exposed to a cold virus, people who are under chronic stress are much more likely to develop colds than people who are not under chronic stress.
In terms of daily hassles, what gender differences have been found?
Daily hassles for men are most commonly related to school- and job-related issues, while daily hassles for women are most commonly due to family demands and interpersonal conflict.
In their research, Dr. Grayson and his colleagues discovered there was a link between the number of daily hassles people experienced and psychological distress and physical ailments, such as headaches and backaches. One explanation for this phenomenon is that:
while each minor stressor may be relatively unimportant in itself, the effect of daily hassles can be cumulative.
In their survey research, investigators interested in the relationship between racism and chronic stress found that three-quarters of African American adolescents reported being treated as incompetent or dangerous, or both, because of their race. Such subtle instances of racism are called:
_____ is an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
_____ is primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.
Jasmine is a police detective. To cope with her high level of stress, she goes to aerobic classes and works out in the gym four or five times a week. Jasmine is using a(n) _____ coping strategy called _____.
Ken delivers fresh produce to health food stores around the city. Laid-back and easygoing, he loves his job because it allows him to meet people and get daily exercise at the same time. Ken is likely to be classified as having a:
Type B behavior pattern.
Lacking a sense of control over stressful events can result in a(n):
increase in corticosteroid and catecholamine levels.
The main component of the Type A behavior pattern that predicts the development of coronary heart disease is:
Mia almost had a car accident. The experience caused her to have a fight-or-flight reaction. Now that the threat has been removed, how long will it take her high level of bodily arousal to subside?
20 to 60 minutes
Michelle uses regular aerobic exercise to minimize the physical effects of stress; Justine uses meditation and progressive muscle relaxation for the same reason. Which of the following statements about minimizing the physical effects of stress is TRUE?
Both Michelle and Justine’s strategies are likely to have beneficial effects on their physical well-being.
Minor everyday stressors such as taking an exam:
can temporarily alter immune system functioning.
Mrs. Prouli has been taking care of her husband, who has Alzheimer’s disease, for a number of years. The prolonged stress involved in caring for her husband may:
result in reduced immune system functioning
Most people use multiple coping strategies in stressful situations. In the initial stages we often rely on _____ to help us step back emotionally from a problem, but once we’ve regained our emotional equilibrium, we may rely more on _____ to identify potential solutions to the situation.
emotion-focused coping strategies; problem-focused coping strategies
Nikki, an air traffic controller, experiences prolonged and chronic stress. According to Hans Selye, Nikki is probably experiencing high levels of:
One physiological difference in the body’s response to chronic stress, as compared to acute stress, is activation of the:
pituitary gland and adrenal cortex.
One way researchers try to disentangle the relationship between personality and health is by conducting carefully controlled prospective studies. The important aspect of this research approach is that:
an initially healthy group of subjects are assessed on variables thought to be risk factors and are tracked over a period of time.
People in the _____ socioeconomic levels of society tend to have the _____ levels of psychological distress, illness, and death.
People who must cope with crime, poverty, substandard housing, and unemployment in their everyday environment often experience:
Recently, Spencer lost his job, and a long-term relationship ended in a bitter fight. Thinking it might help, Spencer visited his family, but it made him feel worse. The only time he felt better was when he was with the family dog. It is possible that Spencer perceived his family as _____, and the dog as _____.
being judgmental and critical; being nonjudgmental and unconditionally supportive
Researchers investigated the effects of rather commonplace stressors such as the numerous exams that medical students have to take each year. They discovered that exposure to such ordinary stressors of life:
adversely affects immune system functioning.
Research on the relationship between daily hassles and psychological distress and physical symptoms has shown that the:
number of daily hassles people experience is a better predictor of psychological distress and physical illness than the number of major life events experienced.
Research shows that less than _____ percent of those who experience major disasters—such as floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes—develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Resilience refers to:
the ability to cope with stress and adversity, to adapt to negative or unforeseen circumstances, and to rebound after negative experiences.
Robert Ader is to _____ as Hans Selye is to _____.
psychoneuroimmunology; general adaptation syndrome
Robert and Beth are a married couple in their late-30s and have different professional careers. They also have an eight-year-old son named Noah, two cats, a nervous gerbil, and relatives that live in the same city. Based on what you have read in the text, which of the following statements is most likely to be TRUE?
The health benefits of being married are greater for Robert than they are for Beth.
A study looking at the effects of daily moods found that:
the effectiveness of people’s immune systems increased when people experienced good moods and decreased when people experienced bad moods
A study of first-year law students found that the students who had an optimistic outlook:
had stronger immune systems than the students with a pessimistic outlook.
Studies investigating close relationships and physical health have repeatedly found that:
the lack of social relationships is related to an increased risk of health problems.
Tangible support is to _____ as informational support is to _____.
direct assistance, such as financial aid; helpful suggestions and advice
Traumatic events are events or situations that:
are negative, severe, and far beyond our normal expectations for everyday life.
Tyler is a very competitive and impatient stockbroker who often gets annoyed over insignificant matters. He has a reputation for being hostile and angry and tends to be suspicious, mistrustful, and to blame others for his losses. Tyler is likely to be classified as having a:
Type A behavior pattern.
What has research shown about the relationship between hostility and heart disease?
Hostility levels are positively correlated to heart disease: the higher the level of hostility, the greater the likelihood of developing heart disease.
When Harry got a failing grade in one of his courses, he decided to talk to his professor about the personal problems he had during the term and discuss the possibility of doing a makeup final exam or writing an extra paper. Harry appears to be reacting to a stressful situation by trying to exercise some personal control. If Harry’s approach is realistic and successful, it is likely to:
enhance his feelings of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and autonomy.
When Konya emigrated to the United States he found it very difficult to adapt to the new culture. Konya probably experienced:
When Mrs. Anderson had a stroke that left her partly paralyzed and cognitively impaired, her husband took care of her. After four months, Mr. Anderson has adjusted to the daily routine, but he seems tense, and his ability to cope with new stressors is diminished. It is very likely that Mr. Anderson is now in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, but if the situation gets worse and continues for a prolonged period of time, he may enter the _____ stage.
When Rachel completed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) her score, based on events during the previous year, was 350 life change units. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
It is not possible to make an accurate prediction about Rachel’s future health because scores on the SRRS are only weakly correlated with the development of physical and psychological problems.
When Ramona encountered a new cultural environment she was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society?” and “Is my original culture of value to me, and should I try to maintain it?” Which of the following is NOT one of the four possible patterns of acculturation that Ramona might adopt?
When sales were down for the third month in a row, the sales manager called a meeting of all sales staff in order to analyze the situation and attempt to come up with some solutions. This example illustrates:
Which of the following is NOT a potential drawback of social support?
Individuals who accept social support from others risk being labeled as weak, dependent, or incompetent.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
The more extensive social networks of women can have both positive and negative health consequences.
Which of the following types of conflict, generally speaking, produces the highest levels of stress?
Yoko is very dedicated to her career as a partner in a large, prestigious law firm. She often works sixty hours a week and thoroughly enjoys the challenges of her high-pressure job. Yoko hates to waste time because keeping up with the demands of family life and her career require that she manage her time very efficiently. Although she is very ambitious, Yoko is also a good-natured person who rarely raises her voice and never has an unkind word to say about anyone. Based on this description, you could probably conclude that:
because Yoko is low in hostility, her risk of developing coronary disease is no higher than that of anyone else