*Chapter 13* (Form A and B) {ECE 201}

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Children’s “increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control” all contribute to their sense of:
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autonomy
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Which of the following is Erikson’s fourth stage of phychosocial crises?
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industry versus inferiority
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According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
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repression of his psychosexual needs
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What percentage of U.S. students taking the TIMSS were confident of their math ability?
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53%
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If a child experiences a stressor, the child’s ___ can impact their resilience.
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interpretation of the stressor
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Joey, age 8, lives in a very stressful, chaotic home where he sometimes witnesses his mother being physically abused. Joey’s problems may be overcome by:
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denying they exist
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Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:
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functions of a family
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Adoptive families account for ___ percent of school-age children’s family structure.
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2%
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A family that consists of one man, several wives, and the biological children of the man and women is a(n):
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polygamous family
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Community support seems to be especially important for the well-being of:
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single-parent families.
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Research on twins in Sweden found:
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conflict itself impacts a child’s well-being.
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How do friendships of 10 year olds differ from those of 6 year olds?
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10 year olds change friends less often
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Some unpopular children are ___, not rejected.
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neglected
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Girls who bully typically:
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mock and ridicule their victim
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What period is the prime for moral development?
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middle childhood
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The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg’s stage of pre conventional morality is:
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concrete operations
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The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:
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“I am careful not to get caught.”
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Kohlberg’s theory has been criticized because:
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the theory is seen as not taking into account cultural differences.
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Research has found that compared to younger children, older children tend to ___ when engaging in moral reasoning.
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use complex rationalizations
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Stella’s parents observed that she has begun to participate in moral arguments on issues of right and wrong. Her matured moral thinking is due to:
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concrete operational thinking and peer experience
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One thing that may contribute to moral advances in childhood is:
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conversation about moral situations.
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Which of the following is a sign of psychosocial maturation in a child between the ages of 6 and 11?
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strives for independence from parents
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Barbara is in 3rd grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara’s developing a healthy sense of:
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self-control
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According to Erikson, if 9 year old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a(n) ___ view of herself.
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latent
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Which of the following attributes is typical of school-age children?
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Their self-concept becomes more logical and specific.
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Kristopher is extremely unsure of himself. He gets angry when his teachers or friends try to offer him constructive criticism and is extremely impulsive. When he takes a test in school, rather than studying, he bases his answers on “what feels correct.” Which of the following statements best explains Kristopher’s behavior?
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He is lacking effortful control.
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The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is termed as:
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resilient
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The statement, “All children are not the same. Some children are resilient, coping easily with stressors that cause harm in other children,” describes the prevailing view in America in the year:
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1975
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The period in the United States in which the idea of cultural variation of strengths came to the forefront was:
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2010
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In childhood, how children react to a serious stressor depends primarily on:
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how many other stressors are present.
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Because John’s mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, John is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping him keep his positive attitude?
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his circle of friends and their activities
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A major coping measure that helps children and families deal with problems and stress is:
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social support
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Family structure refers to:
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legal and genetic relationships of family members
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Military families often struggle to provide ___ for their children.
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stability
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Compared with nuclear families, extended families typically:
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involve more people
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What percentage of school-age children in the United States live in a single-parent home?
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31%
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The crucial question regarding family structure is:
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Whatever the structure, does it fulfill the five essential functions of school-age children?
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The family stress model illustrates that:
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the parents’ reaction to the poverty is the crucial factor in family stress.
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School-age children would most admire:
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Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane.
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Liv is extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n):
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withdrawn-rejected child.
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Around fifth grade, what type of children are popular?
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athletic, cool, dominant, aggressive, arrogant
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Most bullies pick on:
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members of their own sex.
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Male bullies are often:
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above average in size.
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Over time, the consequences of bullying:
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may lead to problems with relationships for the bullies and their victims.
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Children may struggle to develop moral values if they are slow to develop:
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theory of mind
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Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ___ in his description of the stages of moral development.
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Jean Piaget
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Preconventional morality involves:
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an emphasis on reward and punishment.

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