Chapter 13 – Blood System

A
mononuclear white blood cell (agranulocyte) formed in lymph tissue; it is a phagocyte and the precursor of a macrophage
monocyte
thrombocyte or cell fragment that helps blood clot
platelet
cell in the bone marrow that give rise to different types of blood cells
hematopoietic stem cell
mononuclear leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies
lymphocyte
leukocyte with dense, reddish granules having an affinity for red acidic dye; associated with allergic reactions
eosinophil
red blood cells
erythrocyte
leukocyte (polymorphonuclear granulocyte) formed in the bone marrow; granules do not stain intensely and have a pale color
neutrophil
leukocyte (granulocyte) with dark-staining blue granules; releases histamine and heparin
basophil
B
coagulation
blood clotting
granulocyte
white blood cell with dense, dark staining granules (neutrophil, basophil, and eosinophil)
mononuclear
pertaining to (having) one (prominent) nucleus (monocytes and lymphocytes are mononuclear leukocytes)
polymorphonuclear
pertaining to (having) a many-shaped nucleus (neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes)
globulins
plasma proteins in blood; immunoglobulins are examples
erythroblast
immature red blood cell
megakaryocyte
forerunner (precursor) or platelets (formed in the bone marrow)
macrophage
large phagocytes formed from monocytes and found in tissues; they destroy worn-out red blood cells and engulf foreign material
hemoglobin
blood protein found in red blood cells, enables the erthrocyte to carry oxygen
plasma
liquid portion of blood
reticulocyte
immature, developing red blood cell with a network of granules in its cytoplasm
myeloblast
immature bone marrow cell that is the forerunner of granulocytes
C
liquid portion of blood
plasma
orange-yellow pigment produced from hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed
bilirubin
iron-containing nonprotein part of hemoglobin
heme
protiens in plasma; separted into alpha, beta, and gamma types
globulins
hormone secreted by the kidneys to stimulate bone marrow to produce red blood cells
erythropoietin
foreign material that stimulates the production of an antibody
antigen
plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
albumin
proteins made by lymphocytes in response to antigens in the blood
antibodies
D
Name four types of plasma proteins
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and prothrombin
What is the Rh factor?
an antigen normally found on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals
What is hemolysis?
destruction of red blood cells when incompatible bloods are mixed
A person with type A blood has______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
A; anti-B
A person with type B blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
B; anti-A
A person with type O blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
no A or B; anti-A and anti-B
A person with type AB blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
A and B; no anti-A and no anti-B
Can you transfuse blood from a type A donor into a type B recipient? ______ Why or why not?
no; A antigens will react with the anti-A antibodies in the type B recipients bloodstream
Can you transfuse blood from a type AB donor into a type O recipient? ______ Whe or why not?
no; A and B antigens will react with the anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the type O receipient’s bloodstream
What is electrophoresis?
a method of separating substances (such as protiens) by electrical charge
What is immunoglobulin?
gamma globulin (blood protein) that contains antibodies
What is differentiation?
change in the structure and function (specialization) of as it matures
What is plasmapheresis?
process of using a certrifuge to separte or remove blood cells from plasma
Why is type O the universal donor?
type O does not contain A or B antigens and therefore will not react with antibodies in any recipients bloodstream
E
anticoagulant substance found in liver cells, bloodstream and tissues
heparin
protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
fibrin
plasma protein that is converted to thromin in the clotting process
prothrombin
plasma minus clotting proteins and cells
serum
drug given to patients to prevent formation of clots
warfarin (Coumadin)
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
fibrinogen
process of clotting
coagulation
enzyme that helps convert fibrinogen to fibrin
thrombin
F – word parts
anticoagulant
anti/coagul/ant – a substance that prevents clotting
hemoglobinopathy
hemoglobin/o/pathy – disease (abnormality) of hemoglobin
cytology
cyt/o/logy – study of cells
leukoctopenia
leuk/o/cyt/o/penia – deficiency of white (blood) cells
morphology
morph/o/logy – study of the shape of form (of cells)
megakaryocyte
mega/kary/o/cyte – cell with a large (mega-) nucleus (kary); platelet precursor
sideropenia
sider/o/penia – deficiency of iron
phagocyte
phag/o/cyte – cell that eats or swallows other cells
myeloblast
myel/o/blast – immature bone marrow cell (gives rise to granulocytes)
plateletpheresis
platelet/pheresis – separation of platelets from the rest of the blood
monoblast
mon/o/blast – immatue monocyte
myelopoiesis
myel/o/poiesis – formation of bone marrow cells
hemostasis
hem/o/stasis – controlling or stopping the flow of blood
thrombolytic
thromb/o/lytic – pertaining to destruction of clots
hematopoiesis
hemat/o/poiesis – formation of blood
G – concerning red blood cells
any irregularity in the shape of red blood cells
poikilocytosis
oxygen-containing protein in red blood cells
hemoglobin
formation of red blood cells
erythropoiesis
deficiency in numbers of red blood cells
anemia
destruction of red blood cells
hemolysis
pertaining to reduction of hemoglobin in red blood cells
hypochromic
variation in size of red blood cells
anisocytosis
abnormal numbers of round, rather than normally biconcave-shaped, red blood cells
spherocytosis
increase in number of small red blood cells
microcytosis
general increase in numbers of red blood cells; erythremia
polycythemia vera
increase in numbers of large red blood cells
macrocytosis
separation of blood so that the percentage of red blood cells in relation to the volume of a blood sample is measured
hematocrit
H – Describe the problem in each of the following forms of anemia.
iron deficiency anemia
lack of iron leading to insufficient hemoglobin production
pernicious anemia
lack of mature erythrocytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B 12 into the bloodstream (gastric juice lacks a factor that helps absorb B 12)
sickle cell anemia
abnormal shape (crescent shape of erthrocytes caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin (hereditary disorder)
aplastic anemia
lact of all types of blood cells due to lack of development of bone marrow cells
thalassemia
defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, leading to hypochromia
I – blood dyscrasias
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura
multiple pinpoint hemorrhages due to a deficiency of platelets (patient makes an antibody that destroys her or his own platelets
granulocytosis
abnormal condition of excess numbers of granulocytes (eosinophilia and basophilia)
homphilia
excessive bleeding caused by a hereditary lack of factor VIII or factor IX necessary for clotting
hemochromatosis
excessive deposits of iron in tissues of the body
multiple myeloma
malignant neoplasm of bone marrow
mononucleosis
infectious disease marked by increased numbers of mononuclear leukocytes
J
relapse
Symptoms of the disease return
remission
Symptoms of the disease disappear
palliative
Relieving but not curing
Bence Jones protein
Immunoglobulin fragment found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma
ecchymoses
Large blue or purplish patches on skin (bruises)
pancytopenia
Deficiency of all blood cells
apheresis
Separation of blood into its parts
eosinophilia
Increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditons
petechiae
Tiny purple or flat red spots on skin as a result of small hemmorhages
packed cells
preparation of erythrocytes separated from plasma
bas/o
base (alkaline, the opposite of acid)
chrom/o
color
coagul/o
clotting
cyt/o
cell
erythr/o
red
granul/o
granules
hem/o
blood
hemat/o
blood
hemoglobin/o
hemoglobin
is/o
same, equal
kary/o
nucleus
leuk/o
white
mon/o
one, single
morph/o
shape, form
myel/o
bone marrow
neutr/o
neutral (neither base nor acid)
nucle/o
nucleus
phag/o
eat, swallow
poiki/o
varied, irregular
sider/o
iron
spher/o
globe, round
thromb/o
clot
eosin/o
red, dawn, rosy
-apheresis
removal, a carrying away
-blast
immature cell, embryonic
-cytosis
abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)
-emia
blood condition
-globin
protein
-globulin
protein
-lytic
pertaining to destruction
-oid
derived from
-osis
abnormal conditon
-penia
deficiency
-phage
eat, swallow
-philia
attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
-plasia
development; formation; growth
-poiesis
formation
-stasis
stop, control
a-, an-
no, not, without
anti-
against
hypo-
deficient, under
macro-
large
mega-
large
micro-
small
mono-
one,
pan-
all
poly-
many, much