Chapter 13 – Blood System

A
mononuclear white blood cell (agranulocyte) formed in lymph tissue; it is a phagocyte and the precursor of a macrophage
monocyte

thrombocyte or cell fragment that helps blood clot
platelet

cell in the bone marrow that give rise to different types of blood cells
hematopoietic stem cell

mononuclear leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies
lymphocyte

leukocyte with dense, reddish granules having an affinity for red acidic dye; associated with allergic reactions
eosinophil

red blood cells
erythrocyte

leukocyte (polymorphonuclear granulocyte) formed in the bone marrow; granules do not stain intensely and have a pale color
neutrophil

leukocyte (granulocyte) with dark-staining blue granules; releases histamine and heparin
basophil

B
coagulation
blood clotting

granulocyte
white blood cell with dense, dark staining granules (neutrophil, basophil, and eosinophil)

mononuclear
pertaining to (having) one (prominent) nucleus (monocytes and lymphocytes are mononuclear leukocytes)

polymorphonuclear
pertaining to (having) a many-shaped nucleus (neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes)

globulins
plasma proteins in blood; immunoglobulins are examples

erythroblast
immature red blood cell

megakaryocyte
forerunner (precursor) or platelets (formed in the bone marrow)

macrophage
large phagocytes formed from monocytes and found in tissues; they destroy worn-out red blood cells and engulf foreign material

hemoglobin
blood protein found in red blood cells, enables the erthrocyte to carry oxygen

plasma
liquid portion of blood

reticulocyte
immature, developing red blood cell with a network of granules in its cytoplasm

myeloblast
immature bone marrow cell that is the forerunner of granulocytes

C
liquid portion of blood
plasma

orange-yellow pigment produced from hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed
bilirubin

iron-containing nonprotein part of hemoglobin
heme

protiens in plasma; separted into alpha, beta, and gamma types
globulins

hormone secreted by the kidneys to stimulate bone marrow to produce red blood cells
erythropoietin

foreign material that stimulates the production of an antibody
antigen

plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
albumin

proteins made by lymphocytes in response to antigens in the blood
antibodies

D
Name four types of plasma proteins
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and prothrombin

What is the Rh factor?
an antigen normally found on red blood cells of Rh-positive individuals

What is hemolysis?
destruction of red blood cells when incompatible bloods are mixed

A person with type A blood has______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
A; anti-B

A person with type B blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
B; anti-A

A person with type O blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
no A or B; anti-A and anti-B

A person with type AB blood has ______ antigens and ______ antibodies in his or her blood.
A and B; no anti-A and no anti-B

Can you transfuse blood from a type A donor into a type B recipient? ______ Why or why not?
no; A antigens will react with the anti-A antibodies in the type B recipients bloodstream

Can you transfuse blood from a type AB donor into a type O recipient? ______ Whe or why not?
no; A and B antigens will react with the anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the type O receipient’s bloodstream

What is electrophoresis?
a method of separating substances (such as protiens) by electrical charge

What is immunoglobulin?
gamma globulin (blood protein) that contains antibodies

What is differentiation?
change in the structure and function (specialization) of as it matures

What is plasmapheresis?
process of using a certrifuge to separte or remove blood cells from plasma

Why is type O the universal donor?
type O does not contain A or B antigens and therefore will not react with antibodies in any recipients bloodstream

E
anticoagulant substance found in liver cells, bloodstream and tissues
heparin

protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
fibrin

plasma protein that is converted to thromin in the clotting process
prothrombin

plasma minus clotting proteins and cells
serum

drug given to patients to prevent formation of clots
warfarin (Coumadin)

plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
fibrinogen

process of clotting
coagulation

enzyme that helps convert fibrinogen to fibrin
thrombin

F – word parts
anticoagulant
anti/coagul/ant – a substance that prevents clotting

hemoglobinopathy
hemoglobin/o/pathy – disease (abnormality) of hemoglobin

cytology
cyt/o/logy – study of cells

leukoctopenia
leuk/o/cyt/o/penia – deficiency of white (blood) cells

morphology
morph/o/logy – study of the shape of form (of cells)

megakaryocyte
mega/kary/o/cyte – cell with a large (mega-) nucleus (kary); platelet precursor

sideropenia
sider/o/penia – deficiency of iron

phagocyte
phag/o/cyte – cell that eats or swallows other cells

myeloblast
myel/o/blast – immature bone marrow cell (gives rise to granulocytes)

plateletpheresis
platelet/pheresis – separation of platelets from the rest of the blood

monoblast
mon/o/blast – immatue monocyte

myelopoiesis
myel/o/poiesis – formation of bone marrow cells

hemostasis
hem/o/stasis – controlling or stopping the flow of blood

thrombolytic
thromb/o/lytic – pertaining to destruction of clots

hematopoiesis
hemat/o/poiesis – formation of blood

G – concerning red blood cells
any irregularity in the shape of red blood cells
poikilocytosis

oxygen-containing protein in red blood cells
hemoglobin

formation of red blood cells
erythropoiesis

deficiency in numbers of red blood cells
anemia

destruction of red blood cells
hemolysis

pertaining to reduction of hemoglobin in red blood cells
hypochromic

variation in size of red blood cells
anisocytosis

abnormal numbers of round, rather than normally biconcave-shaped, red blood cells
spherocytosis

increase in number of small red blood cells
microcytosis

general increase in numbers of red blood cells; erythremia
polycythemia vera

increase in numbers of large red blood cells
macrocytosis

separation of blood so that the percentage of red blood cells in relation to the volume of a blood sample is measured
hematocrit

H – Describe the problem in each of the following forms of anemia.
iron deficiency anemia
lack of iron leading to insufficient hemoglobin production

pernicious anemia
lack of mature erythrocytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B 12 into the bloodstream (gastric juice lacks a factor that helps absorb B 12)

sickle cell anemia
abnormal shape (crescent shape of erthrocytes caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin (hereditary disorder)

aplastic anemia
lact of all types of blood cells due to lack of development of bone marrow cells

thalassemia
defect in the ability to produce hemoglobin, leading to hypochromia

I – blood dyscrasias
autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura
multiple pinpoint hemorrhages due to a deficiency of platelets (patient makes an antibody that destroys her or his own platelets

granulocytosis
abnormal condition of excess numbers of granulocytes (eosinophilia and basophilia)

homphilia
excessive bleeding caused by a hereditary lack of factor VIII or factor IX necessary for clotting

hemochromatosis
excessive deposits of iron in tissues of the body

multiple myeloma
malignant neoplasm of bone marrow

mononucleosis
infectious disease marked by increased numbers of mononuclear leukocytes

J
relapse
Symptoms of the disease return

remission
Symptoms of the disease disappear

palliative
Relieving but not curing

Bence Jones protein
Immunoglobulin fragment found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma

ecchymoses
Large blue or purplish patches on skin (bruises)

pancytopenia
Deficiency of all blood cells

apheresis
Separation of blood into its parts

eosinophilia
Increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditons

petechiae
Tiny purple or flat red spots on skin as a result of small hemmorhages

packed cells
preparation of erythrocytes separated from plasma

bas/o
base (alkaline, the opposite of acid)

chrom/o
color

coagul/o
clotting

cyt/o
cell

erythr/o
red

granul/o
granules

hem/o
blood

hemat/o
blood

hemoglobin/o
hemoglobin

is/o
same, equal

kary/o
nucleus

leuk/o
white

mon/o
one, single

morph/o
shape, form

myel/o
bone marrow

neutr/o
neutral (neither base nor acid)

nucle/o
nucleus

phag/o
eat, swallow

poiki/o
varied, irregular

sider/o
iron

spher/o
globe, round

thromb/o
clot

eosin/o
red, dawn, rosy

-apheresis
removal, a carrying away

-blast
immature cell, embryonic

-cytosis
abnormal condition of cells (increase in cells)

-emia
blood condition

-globin
protein

-globulin
protein

-lytic
pertaining to destruction

-oid
derived from

-osis
abnormal conditon

-penia
deficiency

-phage
eat, swallow

-philia
attraction for (an increase in cell numbers)

-phoresis
carrying, transmission

-plasia
development; formation; growth

-poiesis
formation

-stasis
stop, control

a-, an-
no, not, without

anti-
against

hypo-
deficient, under

macro-
large

mega-
large

micro-
small

mono-
one,

pan-
all

poly-
many, much