Chapter 12: Social Psychology

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Social Psychology
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The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations.
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Social Cognition
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The study of the mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment.
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Social Influence
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The study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
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Person Perception
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The mental processes we sue to form judgement and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of others.
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Social Norms
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The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.
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Social Categorization
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The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics.
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Implicit Personality Theory
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A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
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Attribution
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The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior.
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
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Blaming the Victim
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The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somewhere caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
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Just-World Hypothesis
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The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
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Actor-Observer Discrepancy
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The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal, personal causes; especially likely to occur with regard to behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.
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Self-Serving Bias
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The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
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Attitude
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A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent.
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Cognitive Dissonance
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An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perception (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.
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Prejudice
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A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
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Stereotype
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A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
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In-Group
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A social group to which one belongs.
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Out-Group
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A social group to which one does not belong.
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Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
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The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.
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In-Group Bias
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The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.
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Ethnocentrism
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The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
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Social Influence
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The study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
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Conformity
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The tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure.
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Normative Social Influence
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Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
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Informational Social Influence
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Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct.
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Obedience
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The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status.
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Muzafer Sherif
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(1906-1988) American social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments to study prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes.
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Solomon Asch
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(1907-1996) American social psychologist who is best known for his pioneering studies of conformity.
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Stanley Milgram
answer
(1933-1984) American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority.
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question
Social Psychology
answer
The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations.
question
Social Cognition
answer
The study of the mental processes people use to make sense out of their social environment.
question
Social Influence
answer
The study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
question
Person Perception
answer
The mental processes we sue to form judgement and draw conclusions about the characteristics and motives of others.
question
Social Norms
answer
The "rules," or expectations, for appropriate behavior in a particular social situation.
question
Social Categorization
answer
The mental process of categorizing people into groups (or categories) on the basis of their shared characteristics.
question
Implicit Personality Theory
answer
A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors.
question
Attribution
answer
The mental process of inferring the causes of people's behavior, including one's own. Also refers to the explanation made for a particular behavior.
question
Fundamental Attribution Error
answer
The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors; an attributional bias that is common in individualistic cultures.
question
Blaming the Victim
answer
The tendency to blame an innocent victim of misfortune for having somewhere caused the problem or for not having taken steps to avoid or prevent it.
question
Just-World Hypothesis
answer
The assumption that the world is fair and that therefore people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
question
Actor-Observer Discrepancy
answer
The tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing the behavior of others to internal, personal causes; especially likely to occur with regard to behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.
question
Self-Serving Bias
answer
The tendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internal causes and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
question
Attitude
answer
A learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way; such evaluations may be positive, negative, or ambivalent.
question
Cognitive Dissonance
answer
An unpleasant state of psychological tension or arousal (dissonance) that occurs when two thoughts or perception (cognitions) are inconsistent; typically results from the awareness that attitudes and behavior are in conflict.
question
Prejudice
answer
A negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific social group.
question
Stereotype
answer
A cluster of characteristics that are associated with all members of a specific social group, often including qualities that are unrelated to the objective criteria that define the group.
question
In-Group
answer
A social group to which one belongs.
question
Out-Group
answer
A social group to which one does not belong.
question
Out-Group Homogeneity Effect
answer
The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to one another.
question
In-Group Bias
answer
The tendency to judge the behavior of in-group members favorably and out-group members unfavorably.
question
Ethnocentrism
answer
The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
question
Social Influence
answer
The study of the effects of situational factors and other people on an individual's behavior.
question
Conformity
answer
The tendency to adjust one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real or imagined group pressure.
question
Normative Social Influence
answer
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
question
Informational Social Influence
answer
Behavior that is motivated by the desire to be correct.
question
Obedience
answer
The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status.
question
Muzafer Sherif
answer
(1906-1988) American social psychologist who is best known for his Robbers Cave experiments to study prejudice, conflict resolution, and group processes.
question
Solomon Asch
answer
(1907-1996) American social psychologist who is best known for his pioneering studies of conformity.
question
Stanley Milgram
answer
(1933-1984) American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority.