Chapter 12: Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

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chronic disease
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an illness hat is prolonged, does not resolve spontaneously, and is rarely cured
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cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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disease of the heart and blood vessels
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types of cardiovascular disease
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-atherosclerosis -peripheral arterial disease (PAD) -coronary heart disease (CHD) -angina pectoris -arrhythmia -congestive heart failure (CHF) -stroke
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reduce risk of CVD
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-avoid tobacco -cut back on saturated fat & cholesterol -maintain a healthy weight -exercise regularly -control diabetes -control blood pressure -manage stress
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cardiovascular system
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organ system, consisting of the heart and blood vessels, that transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, metabolic wastes, and enzymes throughout the body
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atria (singular: atrium)
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the heart’s two upper chambers, which receive blood
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ventricles
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the heart’s two lower chambers, which pump blood through the blood vessels
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arteries
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vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other regions of the body
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arterioles
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branches of the arteries
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capillaries
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minute blood vessels that branch out from the arterioles and venules; their thin walls permit exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products among body cells
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veins
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vessels that carry blood back to the heart from other regions of the body
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venules
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branches of the veins
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sinoatrial node (SA node)
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cluster of electric pulse-generating cells that serves as a natural pacemaker for the heart
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arteriosclerosis
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a general term for thickening and hardening of the arteries
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atherosclerosis
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condition characterized by deposits of fatty substances (plaque) on the inner lining of an artery
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plaque
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buildup of deposits in the arteries
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ischemia
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reduced oxygen supply to a body part or organ
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peripheral artery disease (PAD)
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atherosclerosis occurring in the lower extremities, such as in the feet, calves, or legs, or in the arms
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coronary heart disease (CHD)
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a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
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myocardial infarction (MI; heart attack)
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a blockage of normal blood supply to an area in the heart
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angina pectoris
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chest pain occurring as a result of reduced oxygen flow to the heart
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arrhythmia
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an irregularity in heartbeat
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fibrillation
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a sporadic, quivering pattern of heartbeat that results in extreme inefficiency in moving blood through the cardiovascular system
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congestive heart failure (CHF)
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an abnormal cardiovascular condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping and blood flow; pooling blood leads to congestion in body tissues
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stroke
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a condition occurring when the brain is damaged by disrupted blood supply; also called cerebrovascular accident
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aneurysm
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a weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and, in severe cases, burst
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transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
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brief interruption of the blood supply to the brain that causes only temporary impairment; often an indicator of impending major stroke
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hypertension
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sustained elevated blood pressure
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systolic blood pressure
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the upper number in the fraction that measures blood pressure, indicating pressure on the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts
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diastolic blood pressure
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the lower number in the fraction that measures blood pressure, indicating pressure on the walls of the arteries during the relaxation phase of heart activity
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cardiometabolic risks
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risk factors that impact both the cardiovascular system and the body’s biochemical metabolic processes
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metabolic syndrome (MetS)
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a group of metabolic conditions occurring together that increases a person’s risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes
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C-reactive protein (CRP)
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a protein whose blood levels rise in response to inflammation
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homocysteine
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an amino acid normally present in the blood that, when found at high levels, may be related to higher risk of cardiovascular disease
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electrocardiogram (ECG)
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a record of the electrical activity of the heart; may be measured during a stress test
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angiography
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a technique for examining blockages in heart arteries
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coronary bypass surgery
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a surgical technique whereby a blood vessel taken from another part of the body is implanted to bypass a clogged coronary artery
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angioplasty
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a technique in which a catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a clogged artery; the balloon is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against artery walls and a stent is typically inserted to keep the artery open
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five-year survival rates
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the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive 5 years after they were diagnosed with or treated for cancer
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remission
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a temporary or permanent period when cancer is responding to treatment and under control. this often leads to the disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer
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cancer
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a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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types of cancers
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-carcinomas -sarcomas -lymphomas -leukemia
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carcinomas
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cancer that affects the outer layer of skin and mouth as well as mucous membranes, solid tumors.
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sarcomas
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cancer that occurs in middle layers of tissue such as bones, muscles, and connective tissue, solid tumors.
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lymphomas
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cancer that develops in lymphatic system-infection fighting regions in the body- solid tumors.
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leukemia
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cancer of the blood forming parts of the body, bone marrow and spleen, nonsolid tumor, abnormal number of white blood cells.
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neoplasm
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a new growth of tissue that serves no physiological function and results from uncontrolled, abnormal cellular development
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tumor
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a neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue
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malignant
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very dangerous or harmful; refers to a cancerous tumor
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benign
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harmless; refers to a noncancerous tumor
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biopsy
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microscopic examination of tissue to determine whether a cancer is present
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metastasis
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process by which cancer spreads from one area to different areas of the body
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mutant cells
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cells that differ in form, quality, or function from normal cells
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carcinogens
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cancer-causing agents
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oncogenes
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suspected cancer-causing genes
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malignant melanoma
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a virulent cancer of the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) of the skin
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prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
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an antigen found in prostate cancer patients
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Pap test
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a procedure in which cells taken from the cervical region are examined for abnormal activity
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magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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a device that uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computers to generate an image of internal tissues of the body for diagnostic purposes without the use of radiation
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computed tomography scan (CT scan)
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a scan by a machine that uses radiation to view internal organs not normally visible on X-ray images
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radiotherapy
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use of radiation to kill cancerous cells
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chemotherapy
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use of drugs to kill cancerous cells

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