Chapter 12 Quiz Answers

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According to the discussion in your text, which of the following is TRUE about the effect of attitudes on behavior?
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Attitudes do influence behavior in many instances.
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According to the textbook, what helped John Gacy escape detection as a ruthless murderer for so many years?
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Gacy’s behavior in many situations contradicted the implicit personality theory that people have for a mass murderer.
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According to your textbook, _____ is an area of social psychology that studies the effect of situational factors and other people on an individual’s behavior.
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social influence
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The American social psychologist who is best known for his controversial series of studies investigating destructive obedience to an authority is:
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Stanley Milgram.
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A(n) _____ is a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way that may be either positive, negative, or ambivalent.
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attitude
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An important social psychology concept is your sense of _____, which is an individual’s unique sense of identity that has been influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences.
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self
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Attitudes:
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can have cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components.
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The automatic, nonconscious mental processes that influence perceptions, judgments, decisions, and reasoning are called:
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implicit cognition.
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Based on the information in your textbook, which of the following drivers is most likely to be the aggressor in a road rage situation?
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Ben, a 21 year-old male.
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Before Mark had even heard the details of how Allison’s car accident had happened, he commented, “Allison is so absentminded, I’m sure it happened because she was probably talking on her cell phone and not paying attention.” Mark’s response illustrates an attributional pattern called:
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blaming the victim.
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Being aware that your social group is associated with a particular stereotype can negatively impact your performance on tests or tasks that measure abilities thought to be associated with that stereotype. This is a description of:
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the stereotype threat.
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The branch of psychology that studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations is called:
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social psychology.
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The bus is fairly crowded when you get on. You make a rapid evaluation and quickly decide to sit next to a well-dressed senior citizen because you think that it will be safer to sit next to him than some of the other people on the bus. This example illustrates:
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the process of person perception.
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Chantée has a very specific goal to marry a man with inherited wealth. As a consequence, whenever she meets new prospective mates, she consciously judges them based on the presence or absence of what she considers to be external indicators of wealth, including expensive clothing and accessories and straight, sparklingly white teeth. In this example, Chantée is using _____ to categorize her prospective mates.
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explicit cognition
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The common tendency in individualistic cultures to attribute the behavior of others to internal, personal characteristics, while ignoring or underestimating the effects of external, situational factors is called:
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the fundamental attribution error.
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Conformity is defined as:
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adjusting your opinions, judgments, or behavior so that it matches the opinions, judgments or behavior of other people, or the norms of a social group or situation.
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Daniella invited Nicole to her house for a party, which turned out to be a sales pitch for the cosmetic line that Daniella had recently started selling. Nicole didn’t need any cosmetics, but since she was already at Daniella’s house and enjoying the complimentary food and drink, she felt obligated to purchase some lipstick. Daniella is using the:
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rule of reciprocity.
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Dr. Krane studies questions such as why we conform to group norms, what compels us to obey authority figures, and the conditions under which people will help a stranger. Dr. Krane’s research focuses on an area of social psychology called:
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Social influence
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During a discussion about junk food with her two adolescent children, Mrs. Kozena made it very clear that she thought junk food was disgusting and that it upset her to see her children eat it. Mrs. Kozena’s negative feeling about junk food best illustrates the _____ component of attitudes.
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emotional
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During Nick’s first trip abroad he was surprised to find that people in other cultures ate such foods as snails, squid, insects, lizards, earthworms, seaweed, and rotten-looking cheeses. “One day they will become civilized like us and eat normal foods like Krispy Kreme donuts, pizza, hot dogs, and hamburgers and cheese fries,” he wrote to his parents. Nick’s remarks illustrate a form of in-group bias called:
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ethnocentrism.
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During Stanley Milgram’s original obedience study, most of the subjects:
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showed extreme tension and conflict as they continued to shock the learner.
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Dylan is working with six other employees to produce a joint report. If he is typical of most people in individualistic cultures who are involved in a collective task, he is likely to:
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expend less effort than if he were working on the task alone.
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The _____ effect refers to the fact that when people feel good, successful, happy, or fortunate, they are more likely to help others.
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“feel-good, do-good”
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Every Halloween, Mrs. Herlihy puts a bowl of candy on her porch with a sign that says, “Take one.” But this year, the bowl was empty after just a few minutes, leading Mrs. Herlihy to believe that one group of children took more than their fair share. In order to discourage such dishonest actions, Mrs. Herlihy positioned a mirror above the candy bowl. Mrs. Herlihy’s plan should work because:
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seeing your own face in a mirror heightens self-awareness, counteracting deindividuation that can lead to irresponsible behavior.
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For as long as she can remember, Farrah has avoided talking to any Yumtucks because she thinks that all Yumtucks are self-centered and irresponsible. However, when Farrah’s 4-year-old wandered out of the yard and strayed a couple of blocks, it was a Yumtuck who found the child and brought him safely back home. Based on this direct experience with a Yumtuck, Farrah is likely to:
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think that this particular Yumtuck is an exception to the stereotype.
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“Hal got hit by a car when he was jogging? Really? Well, it doesn’t surprise me,” Erin commented. “He never wears reflective gear, so I bet the driver couldn’t even see him.” Erin’s response illustrates an attributional pattern called:
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blaming the victim
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How long did the Stanford Prison Experiment last before the situation became “out of control”?
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six days
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In a series of experiments, Stanley Milgram systematically varied the conditions of his obedience study. Under which of the following conditions were subjects LEAST likely to continue administering shocks to the full 450-volt level?
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when the teacher observed two other teachers who refused to continue with the experiment
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In many collectivistic cultures individuals work harder when they are in groups than when they are alone. This phenomenon is called:
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social striving.
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In Milgram’s original obedience experiment, subjects who were assigned the role of “teacher”
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were deceived about the real role of the learner and the level of shock that he actually received.
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In order to earn his “Community Service” badge as a Boy Scout, young Miguel is a weekend volunteer in the “Up With Trees” program. Miguel’s behavior in this situation is an example of:
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prosocial behavior.
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In social psychology the concept of sense of self is important because:
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the sense of self is influenced by social, cultural, and psychological experiences, and it plays a key role in how we perceive and react to others.
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In some cultures, individuals tend to work harder when they are in groups than when they are alone, a phenomenon called:
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Social striving
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In the process of person perception, we initially form a very rapid first impression based largely on looking at other people’s faces. According to the textbook, if you glanced at a stranger’s face for only one tenth of a second:
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you could evaluate the other person’s attractiveness, likeability, competence, trustworthiness, and aggressiveness.
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In which of the following scenarios is the person MOST likely to be helped by other people?
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Carla’s car won’t restart and partially blocks the exit drive as her fellow employees are walking to their own cars.
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_____ is any behavior that helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving or selfless.
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Prosocial behavior
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_____ is any verbal or physical behavior intended to cause harm to other people.
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Aggression
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_____ is defined as a negative attitude toward people who belong to a specific group.
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Prejudice
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_____ is the tendency of people to believe that the world is fair and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
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The just-world hypothesis
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_____ is to how we interpret the meaning of other people’s behavior as _____ is to how our behavior is affected by situational factors and other people.
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Social cognition; social influence
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Kidnapped at knifepoint from her bedroom in the middle of the night, 14-year-old Elizabeth Smart was held captive for over nine months by a drifter and his female companion. When police finally found her and the details of her captivity were widely publicized, some observers publicly questioned why the girl never tried to escape or get the attention of the police. Such responses illustrate an attributional pattern called:
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Blaming the victim
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Kitty Genovese was murdered outside her New York City apartment. This tragic event led to intense psychological research on:
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altruism and prosocial behavior.
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Lacey has reviewed the literature on conformity and obedience for a term paper. If her conclusions are similar to those presented in the textbook, she is likely to suggest that:
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conformity and obedience are not necessarily bad in and of themselves and are important for an orderly society.
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Leslie is concerned about the environment and consistently sorts her garbage by placing paper, plastic, metal, and glass in their respective recycling containers. This example best illustrates the _____ component of attitudes.
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Behavioral
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The mental process of inferring the causes of people’s behavior, including one’s own, is called:
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attribution.
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Milgram was influenced by Asch’s conformity research, but he wanted to take Asch’s research a step further and investigate a more important question. What was the question that Milgram wanted to study?
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Could people be pressured by others into committing an immoral act or taking an action that violated their conscience, such as hurting a stranger?
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The most significant factor in attraction is:
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physical appearance.
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Mrs. Juarez divides her class into small, ethnically diverse groups. She then requires each student to become an “expert” in one aspect of an overall project and then teach it to other members of his or her group. Mrs. Juarez is using:
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the jigsaw classroom technique
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Muzafer Sherif helped clarify the conditions that produce intergroup _____ and _____.
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conflict; harmony
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Nadine is a casual dresser who loves wearing jeans and hates worrying about clothes. However, when she went for a job interview she decided to wear a good tailored suit. Nadine’s behavior best illustrates the importance of:
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normative social influence.
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Nestor belongs to the cross-country ski club at his college but is not a member of the downhill ski club. In terms of basic social categories, Nestor’s cross-country club members are the _____ and the members of the downhill ski club are the _____.
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in-group; out-group
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Of the following factors, which is NOT one that will make you more likely to conform to the group’s norms?
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You have already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion.
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Pamela observes that people don’t sit next to strangers on the subway when there are empty seats available. She notices this also happens on the bus, in the movie theater, and in the cafeteria. Pamela’s observations suggest that people’s behavior in these situations is governed by:
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social norms.
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The performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status is called:
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obedience.
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Person perception follows some basic principles. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
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Your reactions to others are not determined by your perceptions of them but rather by who or what they really are
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The perspective in psychology that is based on the premise that certain psychological processes and behavioral patterns evolved over hundreds of thousands of years because of their adaptive and survival value is called:
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evolutionary psychology.
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The phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present means the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress is called:
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the bystander effect.
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Physical attractiveness is:
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not correlated with intelligence, mental health, or self-esteem.
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Professional persuaders use a number of techniques to influence attitudes and behaviors. Which of the following is NOT one of those techniques?
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the foot-in-the-mouth technique
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Psychologist Cheryl Kaiser and her colleagues looked at how people with a strong belief in a just world psychologically resolved the fact that thousands of innocent people died in the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. Kaiser found that people with a strong belief in a just world advocated _____ those who committed the injustices because doing so would _____.
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revenge against; ensure that they got what they deserved and restore justice
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Randy is a gifted student. Though he could just as easily perform his experiments alone, Randy prefers to complete his chemistry projects with a lab partner. Randy feels more motivated and actually works harder when he is contributing to a collaborative effort. Randy’s behavior is an example of:
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social loafing.
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_____ refers to the phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any individual will help someone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.
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Diffusion of responsibility
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Remington, a successful lawyer, is hiring a new administrative assistant for his office. As he sorts through the applications for the position, he makes the comment, “I hope none of these applicants are blondes. I just hate blondes. They’re all dumb, and they’re ruining this country, in my opinion.” In this example, Remington is exhibiting:
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prejudice.
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Research has found that physically attractive people tend to:
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be less anxious in social situations.
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The self-serving bias is to _____ as the self-effacing bias is to _____.
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blaming failure on situational factors; blaming failure on internal, personal factors
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Similarity is a powerful predictor of attraction in:
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most Western cultures.
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Social facilitation is a phenomenon where, when a task is relatively simple or well rehearsed,
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the presence of other people enhances individual performance.
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Social loafing refers to the:
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tendency to expend less effort on a task when it is a group effort.
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Social psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on a broad range of topics. According to your textbook, the two key research areas in social psychology are:
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social cognition and social influence.
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Social psychologists have found that we are most likely to behave in accordance with our attitudes when:
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attitudes are formed through experience, and we have a vested interest in the subject.
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The Stanford Prison Experiment:
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involved Stanford University students playing the roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.
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Sylvester was thrilled when he received a large bonus from his company. Later that day, when he was asked if he could volunteer a few hours to help at the Food Bank, he readily agreed. This example best illustrates the:
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“feel-good, do-good” effect.
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The tendency, after an event has occurred, to overestimate one’s ability to have foreseen or predicted the outcome is called:
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the hindsight bias.
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The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance is called:The tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance is called:
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social facilitation.
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The tendency to judge the behavior of the members of your group more favorably than the behavior of members of other groups is called:
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in-group bias.
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The tendency to see members of out-groups as very similar to each other is called:
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the out-group homogeneity effect.
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The term social facilitation refers to:
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the tendency for the presence of other people to enhance individual performance.
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The textbook defines _____ as behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
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normative social influence
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When Catherine decided to major in engineering her parents thought she should reconsider her decision because engineering majors are “logical, analytical, conservative, aggressive, and always male.” Her parents’ view that all engineering majors are similar illustrates:
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the out-group homogeneity effect.
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When Raphael was in the elevator, he couldn’t help but notice a man and a woman in conversation. He decided that the woman in the suit was probably a college administrator and the gray-haired man in the glasses was probably a professor. Raphael was engaged in the process of:
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social categorization.
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When Yoshiko’s hard work and ability landed a big contract for her company, she would not accept the credit, insisting it was pure luck. When she failed to get the contract in another situation, however, she said it was her fault for not trying hard enough. This example illustrates:
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the self-effacing, or modesty, bias.
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While studying in the crowded library, Arlene hears a crashing noise and then someone moaning. The commotion appeared to come from behind closed doors marked “Staff Only.” Nobody near Arlene seems concerned, so Arlene goes back to her studying. This example best illustrates:
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the bystander effect.
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Your textbook discusses a number of problems associated with stereotyped thinking. Which of the following is one of those problems?
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Once formed, stereotypes are very hard to change.
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Your textbook suggests that the sheer number of bystanders who observed the death of Kitty Genovese may have been a factor in these people’s decision not to give her assistance because of:
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diffusion of responsibility.

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