Chapter 12- Physical Health

question

What were scientists two principal reasons for confining medical experiments on men?
answer

1) Women’s monthly hormonal fluctuations “complicated” research results 2) potential ethical and legal problems might arise from experimenting on women who would later bare children
question

_____ are the focus in the research of the leading cause of death among both men and women: heart disease
answer

men
question

Women, older people, and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in recent research on three of the leading causes of _______ death: lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer.
answer

cancer
question

Interactions between female patients and male physicians is often _______, with women patients treated as subordinates
answer

paternalistic
question

Women’s pain reports are taken _____ seriously than men’s, and they receive _____ aggressive treatment for it. Also more likely to be dismissed as “emotional” and thus not “real”.
answer

less
question

What 3 drugs are women consistently prescribed more than men?
answer

tranquilizers, anti-depressants, and anti-anxiety medication
question

Both men and women express more satisfaction with _____ physicians
answer

female
question

Women were ______ as likely as men to report negative feelings about the patient-physician relationship. (1/4 say they were “talked down to” by physician, 17% have been told that a medical condition they felt they had was “all in their head”)
answer

twice
question

When one looks at medical conditions that affect both women and men, women often receive ____adequate care even when the severity of the condition is the same for both -Ex: girls who are growing too slowly are referred to specialists only half as often as boys (could be sign of underlying disease) -Ex:Physicians often attribute older women’s chronic ailments to natural aging
answer

less
question

Women of color are more likely than white women to be _____ and _______
answer

poor, uninsured
question

Which ethnic group has the highest uninsurance rate?
answer

latinas
question

Medicaid for poor women allows them to receive mandated coverage of ______, while working and middle class women have mandated coverage of _________, which suggests…
answer

contraceptives, infertility treatments This policy discourages poor women from having children
question

______ women use prescription medications at a somewhat higher level than women of color
answer

white
question

Language and cultural differences in perceptions of illness can make communicating with the doctor especially problematic for _____________ women and men, resulting in greater difficulty following a prescribed regimen
answer

immigrant
question

___ women have the highest incidence of severe disability, followed by _____ and ______
answer

black, white, latinas
question

Lesbian and bisexual women may face ________ risks of breast and ovarian cancers
answer

heightened
question

What age-group of women is most likely to be uninsured?
answer

late 50’s early 60’s
question

Why don’t older women have health insurance?
answer

medicare benefits dont start until 65, and millions do not receive employer-based health insurance
question

A federal program designed to provide medical care for those who are over 65 or permanently disabled, regardless of income
answer

medicare
question

Medicare covers ______ of medical costs and it does not cover most long term care or home and supportive care
answer

less than half
question

A combined state and federal program designed to provide medical health care for the needy of any age
answer

Medicaid
question

Health care providers usually refuse to see people of medicare or medicaid because…
answer

the reimbursement is low
question

Individuals with high medical bills who do not qualify for medicaid ultimately become eligible once they have depleted most of their financial resources and assets (most common among residents of nursing homes, most of whom are women)
answer

spending down
question

____ rely more heavily on both medicaid and medicare…why?
answer

Women, they are more likely to be poor and live longer, and are less likely to have their own insurance because most don’t work full time jobs
question

The insurer pays part of the cost (usually 80%) for specified services, including hospitalization (up to a certain limit) and diagnostic services, but not preventative care
answer

fee-for-service insurance
question

Provides services to members for a flat fee and emphasizes preventative care and early detection of disease more than fee-for-service insurance does
answer

managed care
question

Which one is the leading means of financing health care?
answer

managed care
question

The most common types of managed care are…
answer

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs)
question

Managed care often limits access to specialists and _______ treatment options for many women, particularly older women who have many chronic ailments requiring treatment by different specialists
answer

reduces
question

Nearly half of all STD’s occur in …..
answer

teens and young adults
question

___ in 4 american teenage girls and nearly ____ of African American teenage girls are infected
answer

1, half
question

What is the most commonly reported STI in America?
answer

Chlamydia
question

STI’s are transmitted more easily to _____ and are more difficult to diagnose
answer

women
question

What are some factors that enhance a woman’s risk for contracting STI’s?
answer

being under 25, using condoms inconsistently, being sexually active at an early age, and having sex frequently with multiple partners
question

-Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and is the most devastating of all the STI’s -One of the leading causes of death worldwide
answer

AIDS
question

What is the fastest growing group of Americans infected with HIV?
answer

Women of color
question

_____ women, who constitute just 12 percent of the population, make up nearly 2/3 of women with AIDS in the US
answer

black
question

What is the leading cause of AID transmission?
answer

heterosexual sex
question

Women, especially ______ women, are sicker at the time of diagnosis with HIV or AIDS and die more quickly than men with the disease
answer

black
question

Why are women often diagnosed at a later stage of HIV than men?
answer

-Women are viewed as being at low risk for the disease so their physicians may overlook signs of HIV infections -Women are usually caregivers/breadwinners for family and may delay seeking health care for themselves until they are very ill -Many HIV-infected women live in poverty and don’t have access to health care
question

HIV-infected women have a _____% chance of passing the virus to their children. (women who take antrietroviral drugs during pregnancy, have C-section, avoid breastfeeding and give newborn antiretroviral drugs only have 1-2% chance of infecting child)
answer

25
question

AIDS in older women
answer

-Vaginal tissues thin and lubrication decreases which causes small tears during intercourse, increasing the chance of HIV to enter the bloodstream -Viagra has increased sexual activity in older people but without a corresponding increase in condom use (baby-boomers grew up before HIV epidemic and didn’t learn how to negotiate condom use so most report having unprotected sex) -Not expected to be sexually active so are diagnosed later or misdiagnosed -More likely to deteriorate rapidly bc of already week immune system
question

When the lining of the uterus (endometrium) migrates and grows on pelvic structures, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and bladder (chronic and painful condition, causes pelvic and menstrual pain and heavy bleeding. Severe endometriosis is major cause of infertility)
answer

endometriosis
question

noncancerous growths of the uterus (cause pelvic and menstrual pain, heavy bleeding, and possibly infertility and miscarriage)
answer

fibroid tumors
question

Fibroid tumors happen most often in what group of women?
answer

Black women
question

What is the most common cancers of the female reproductive tract? -Risk factors include estrogen replacement therapy, obesity, early menarche, late menopause, and never having children -More common in white women than black, but black women are more likely to die from it
answer

Endometrial or uterine cancer
question

Which is the most curable cancers of the reproductive system
answer

Endometrial or uterine cancer
question

What type of cancer is in the lower end of the uterus and the 3rd most common cancer of the female genital system? -Risk Factors: smoking, early age at first intercourse, multiple sex partners, extended use of oral contraceptives, HP infection
answer

Cervical cancer
question

An inexpensive and effective screening technique that has been used for several decades to identify precancerous changes in the cervix
answer

pap smear
question

What kind of cancer causes the most deaths out of all the female reproductive cancers? -AKA a silent killer bc symptoms usually don’t appear until it’s in an advanced stage
answer

Ovarian
question

The removal of the uterus
answer

hysterechtomy
question

By age 60, more than ____ in 4 American women will have their uterus removed
answer

1
question

What is the most common reason for hysterectomies?
answer

fibroid tumors
question

What are two less invasive procedures to get rid of fibroid tumors?
answer

fibroid embolization (blocks blood flow to the fibroids) and myomectomy (surgical removal of fibroids)
question

Do women who keep their ovaries in hysterectomies live shorter or longer than women who lose theirs?
answer

Longer
question

Excessive loss of bone tissue in older adults, which results in the bones becoming thinner, brittle, and more porous
answer

osteoperosis
question

80% of those effected by osteoporosis are….
answer

women
question

What helps build and maintain strong bones?
answer

Calcium, Vitamin D, estrogen
question

A synthetic estrogen marketed as Evista, decreases bone loss in postmenopausal women and reduces the risk of spinal fractures and breast cancer
answer

Raloxifene
question

More women die in the US of _______ than from all other forms of cancer combined, including breast cancer
answer

heart disease
question

Over __ in __ women will eventually die from heart disease
answer

1 in 3
question

Women and heart disease
answer

-Becomes apparent about 10 years later than in men (poorer prognosis) -Illness and death increases dramatically after menopause, partly due to declining estrogen levels -More likely than men to die after heart attack, if they survive they are more likely to have a second attack -More likely than men to die after treatment for disease, even when they are equally old and ill
question

What are major risk factors for heart disease?
answer

income level, ethnicity, family history, inactivity, smoking, obesity, hormone replacement therapy, bad diets, high blood pressure, diabetes
question

What is another major risk factor for heart attack and the most important risk factor for stroke?
answer

High blood pressure (hypertension)
question

Birth control pills ______ women’s risk of heart disease and stroke and hormone replacement therapy _______ the risk of heart disease
answer

decrease, increases
question

Other factors that increase risk of heart disease
answer

-Type A personality, depression, loneliness and low levels of social support (for women not men). women who are divorced, widowed, or unhappily married at greater risk than those who aren’t, job stress
question

Why do women receive poorer care when it comes to diagnosis and treatment of heart disease?
answer

-Women do not receive the aggressive treatment that men do -Women are less likely to show the “classic” male symptoms of chest pain and are more likely to show nausea, dizziness, shortness of breath, sweating, chest pressure, fatigue, sleep disturbance, heartburn etc. (misdiagnosed as indigestion, muscle pain, stress, or anxiety) -Less likely than men to get angiogram (most important diagnostic heart test), treatment medications and devices or referral to cardiac rehab centers
question

True or False: Women have poorer psychosocial health following a heart attack or coronary bypass than men
answer

True (more anxious and depressed, take longer to return to work and recover physically, feel guilty about not doing chores so resume household duties sooner)
question

What disease to women fear above every other?
answer

Breast cancer
question

Is breast cancer the number one cancer killer of women?
answer

No, it is lung cancer
question

1 out of every ____ women will develop breast cancer at one point in her life
answer

8
question

What is the greatest risk factor for breast cancer?
answer

Age
question

Four out of five breast cancers are diagnosed in women….
answer

over 50
question

____ women are slightly more likely to get breast cancer overall, but ____ women are far more likely to die from it (in addition to the socioeconomic reasons, tumors are faster growing and more malignant in black women)
answer

white, black
question

Recent use of birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy ____ risk of breast cancer
answer

increase
question

A low-dose X ray picture of the breast which detects suspicious lumps up to two years before they are large enough to be felt
answer

mammogram
question

the removal of the breast, underlying chest wall, and underarm lymph nodes
answer

radical mastectomy
question

removal of the breast and underarm lymph nodes
answer

modified radical mastectomy
question

removal of the breast only
answer

simple mastectomy
question

when only the lump and some surrounding tissue are removed
answer

lumpectomy (aka partial mastectomy)
question

Lung cancer is the ________cause of cancer deaths in women, killing more women each year then breast, uterine, and ovarian cancers combined
answer

leading
question

Although fewer men have been dying of lung cancer in the past several years, women have showed the _____ trend
answer

opposite
question

What is the biggest risk factor for lung cancer? Other factors?
answer

-Smoking- 80% of lung cancer cases -Second hand smoke, asbestos, radon
question

Women are at ______ risk than men for developing lung cancer among individuals who have never smoked.
answer

greater
question

Women with lung cancer tend to survive _____ than men at all stages of the disease, and tend to develop the cancer at _______ ages
answer

longer, younger
question

What is the difference between mortality and morbidity?
answer

mortality- death rates morbidity- illness
question

Women are ____, men die _____
answer

sicker, quicker
question

Women live longer than men, but in poorer health
answer

gender paradox (women live longer than men, but in poorer health)
question

The rate of miscarriage and stillbirth is higher for…
answer

boys
question

Life expectancy is about ___ for women, and ____ years less for men
answer

80, 5
question

What are some biological factors that may tell us why women outlive men?
answer

Male fetuses being attacked by mother in the womb because of male hormones, slower maturation of male fetuses, females second X chromosome protects against some lethal diseases, higher estrogen levels to protect the heart, lower metabolism, more robust immune systems,
question

Which ethnic group of women has the lowest smoking rates?
answer

Asian
question

Around the world, women and men with higher incomes and more education have _____ life expectancies and ____ health
answer

longer, better
question

____ women have the shortest life expectancy of any group and _____ have the longest
answer

black, asian
question

Although they live longer than men, women have more ________ conditions that cause suffering but do not kill
answer

chronic
question

When is one considered disabled?
answer

When the chronic condition restricts daily life or reduces the ability to take care of oneself
question

The degree of disability resulting from chronic conditions is assessed by measuring how well individuals carry out two groups of activities: ….
answer

Activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
question

basic, self-caring activities such as eating, bathing, toileting, walking, and getting in and out of bed or chair
answer

activities of daily living
question

go beyond personal care to include preparing meals, doing housework, shopping, doing laundry, attending social activities, using the telephone, taking medications, and managing money
answer

instrumental activities of daily living
question

True or false: Women of all ages are less apt to exercise than men
answer

true
question

What ethnic group of women exercises the least?
answer

Black women
question

What ethnic group of women exercises the most?
answer

White women
question

Sexual minority women may have ____ health risks, in part due to reduced access to medical care
answer

elevated
question

___ rely more heavily on Medicare and Medicaid
answer

women
question

True or false: American women have one of the highest hysterectomy rates in the world
answer

true
question

hormonal
answer

Scientists gave two principal reasons for confining medical experiments to men. First, women’s monthly ________________ fluctuations “complicated” research results, and second, potential ethical and legal problems might arise from experimenting on women who would later bear children.
question

True
answer

True or False *Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)*, caused by the *human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)*, is the most devastating of all the STIs.
question

chronic
answer

*80% of women over the age of 55* will have at least one ___________ illness.
question

chest pains
answer

Within heart disease symptoms, many women never had __________ __________.
question

Healy
answer

Bernadine ____________ was the first woman to head NIH (National Institute of Health), and was also the President of the American Heart Association; championed for understanding that heart disease is “not a man’s disease in disguise”.
question

negative, women
answer

Women are more likely to report _____________ [negative/positive] feelings about patient-physician relationship. Women and men more satisfied with _____________ [men/women] physicians.
question

HPV
answer

The most common STI is _________ (genital warts).
question

chlamydia
answer

The most commonly reported STI is ___________.
question

69
answer

Black females account for ____% of women who are HIV positive in US.
question

Benign
answer

_________ conditions of female reproductive disorders include endometriosis and fibroid tumors.
question

D
answer

Type ____ personality linked to *heart disease* and have more difficulty recovering from heart attacks; negative attitidues (worry, anger) and social inhibition (being reserved and lacking social support); (Type A in book).
question

sedatives
answer

Women more likely to abuse ___________, and men more likely to use know someone who sells illegal drugs.
question

smoking
answer

In 1987, *lung cancer* overtook breast cancer as *leading cause of cancer death for women*; ___________ increases the chances of lung cancer *more for women than for men*
question

suicide
answer

The top three leading causes of death in females are: 1) heart disease 2) cancer 3) stroke. In men, *unintentional injuries* come in third place and _________ comes in eighth place.
question

Human
answer

____________ brains and bodies were designed for *physical activity and social engagement*.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member