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Chapter 12 – Microbial Chemotherapy

question

Which is mismatched? A) Fleming – penicillin B) Domagk – sulfonamide C) Ehrlich – tetracycline D) Florey and Chain – penicillin E) none of the choices are correct
answer

Ehrlich – tetracycline
question

Salvarsan was A) discovered in the mid-1900’s B) used to treat syphillis C) formulated from the red dye prontosil D) first discovered as a product of Penicillium notatum E) discovered by Robert Koch
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used to treat syphilis.
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Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called A) antibiotics B) narrow-spectrum drugs C) semisynthetic drugs D) synthetic drugs E) broad-spectrum drugs
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antibiotics.
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Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed A) antibiotics B) narrow-spectrum drugs C) semisynthetic drugs D) synthetic drugs E) broad-spectrum drugs
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broad-spectrum drugs.
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Antibiotics are derived from all the following except A) Penicillium B) Bacillus C) Staphylococcus D) Streptomyces E) Cephalosporium
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Staphylococcus.
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Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include A) low toxicity for human tissues B) high toxicity against microbial cells C) do not cause serious side effects in humans D) stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids E) all of the choices are correct
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All of the choices are correct
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Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body’s normal flora often cause A) nephrotoxicity B) superinfections C) allergic reactions D) drug toxicity E) all of the choices are correct
answer

superinfections.
question

Penicillins and cephalosporins a. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis. b. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis. c. damage cell membranes. d. block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
answer

block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
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Sulfonamides A) interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan B) are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis C) attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis D) damage cell membranes E) block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
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are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
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Aminoglycosides A) interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan B) are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis C) attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis D) damage cell membranes E) block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
answer

attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
question

Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have a. a beta-lactam ring. b. resistance to the action of penicillinase. c. a semisynthetic nature. d. an expanded spectrum of activity. e. all of the choices
answer

a. a beta-lactam ring
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A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is A) synercid B) penicillinase C) aztreonam D) clavulanic acid E) imipenem
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D. clavulanic acid.
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All of the following pertain to cephalosporins except A) have a beta-lactam ring B) greater resistance to beta-lactamases C) newer generations have activity against gram negatives D) many administered by injection not orally E) are synthetic drugs
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E. they are synthetic drugs.
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Which antimicrobic does not inhibit cell wall synthesis? A) gentamicin B) vancomycin C) cephalosporins D) penicillins E) clavamox
answer

a. gentamicin
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Gram negative rods are often treated with A) penicillin G B) vancomycin C) aminoglycosides D) synercid E) isoniazid
answer

C. aminoglycosides.
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This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis A) penicillin G B) vancomycin C) aminoglycosides D) synercid E) isoniazid
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E. isoniazid.
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Which antimicrobic does not interfere with protein synthesis? A) aminoglycosides B) tetracyclines C) erythromycin D) trimethroprim E) chloramphenicol
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D. trimethroprim
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Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus? A. tetracycline B. isoniazid C. linezolid D. aminoglycosides E. cephalosporins
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C. linezolid
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All of the following pertain to fluoroquinolones except A) broad spectrum B) include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin C) are nephrotoxic D) used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections E) readily absorbed from intestines
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C. are nephrotoxic.
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Antimicrobics that are macrolides A) disrupt cell membrane function B) include tetracyclines C) include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin D) are very narrow-spectrum drugs E) are hepatotoxic
answer

C. include azithromycin, clarithromcyin, and erythromycin
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The drug that can cause aplastic anemic, and is used to treat typhoid fever and brain abscesses is A) chloramphenicol B) clindamycin C) ciprofloxacin D) bacitracin E) gentamicin
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A. chloramphenicol.
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The drug used against intestinal anaerobic bacteria, that can also alter normal flora causing antibiotic-associated colitis is A) chloramphenicol B) clindamycin C) ciprofloxacin D) bacitracin E) gentamicin
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B. clindamycin.
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The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is nystatin. griseofulvin. amphotericin B. sulfa drugs. metronidazole.
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C. amphotericin B.
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The drug used for several protozoan infections is A) nystatin B) griseofulvin C) amphotericin B D) sulfa drugs E) metronidazole
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E. metronidazole.
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Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections. A) bacterial B) fungal C) protozoan D) helminthic E) virus
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D. helminthic
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Ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole are broad-spectrum azoles used to treat _____ infections. A) bacterial B) fungal C) protozoan D) helminthic E) virus
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B. fungal
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There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms A. do not cause many human infections. B. are not affected by antimicrobics. C. are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult. D. are parasites found inside human cells. E. have fewer target sites compared to bacteria
answer

C. are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.
question

Which of the following is not a mode of action of an anti-viral? A. block penetration B. block transcription and translation C. inhibit DNA synthesis D. block maturation E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
answer

E. bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
question

An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that a. blocks penetration. b. blocks DNA replication. c. inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking. d. blocks maturation. e. bonds to ergosterol in the cell membrane.
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B. blocks DNA replication.
question

Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat A. influenza A virus. B. HIV. C. herpes zoster virus. D. respiratory syncytial virus. E. hepatitis C virus.
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B. HIV.
question

Acyclovir is used to treat A. influenza A virus. B. HIV. C. shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes. D. respiratory syncytial virus. E. hepatitis C virus.
answer

C. shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.
question

The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include a. bacterial chromosomal mutations. b. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. c. prevention of drug entry into the cell. d. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets. e. All of the choices are correct.
answer

E. All of the choices are correct.; bacterial chromosomal mutations.; synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. ; prevention of drug entry into the cell. ; alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
question

The multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause A. bacterial chromosomal mutations. B. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. C. prevention of drug entry into the cell. D. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets. E. All of the choices are correct.
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C. prevention of drug entry into the cell.
question

Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following except a. development of resistance to the drug. b. hepatotoxicity. c. nephrotoxicity. d. diarrhea. e. deafness
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A. development of resistance to the drug.
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A superinfection results from A. build up of a drug to toxic levels in the patient. B. the wrong drug administered to the patient. C. an immune system reaction to the drug. D. decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species. E. All of the choices are correct.
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D. decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.
question

Drug susceptibility testing A. determines the patient’s response to various antimicrobics. B. determines the pathogen’s response to various antimicrobics. C. determines if normal flora will be affected by antimicrobics. D. determines if the drug is increasing to toxic levels in a patient. E. determines the pathogen’s identity
answer

B. determines the pathogen’s response to various antimicrobics.
question

A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, and then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient’s isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up? A. Kirby-Bauer B. antibiogram C. E-test D. MIC E. therapeutic index (TI)
answer

D. MIC
question

A ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans versus the minimum effective dose for that pathogen is assessed to predict the potential for toxic drug reactions. This is called the A. Kirby-Bauer. B. antibiogram. C. E-test. D. MIC. E. therapeutic index (TI).
answer

E. therapeutic index (TI).
question

Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed A. antibiotics. B. narrow-spectrum drugs. C. semisynthetic drugs. D. synthetic drugs. E. broad-spectrum drugs.
answer

B. narrow-spectrum drugs.
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A “shotgun” approach to antimicrobial therapy involves A. giving a narrow spectrum drug. B. culturing the pathogen and identifying it. C. performing the disk diffusion assay. D. using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater. E. using antiviral and antibiotic drugs in combination.
answer

D. using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater.
question

Which of the following will influence a physician’s decision to prescribe an antimicrobial? a. patient age b. pregnancy c. liver function d. alcohol use e. All of the choices are correct
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E. All of the choices are correct.;
question

All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except A. the inability of the drug to diffuse into the infected body compartment. B. a mixed infection where some of the pathogens are drug resistant. C. not completing the full course of treatment. D. a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic. E. diminished gastrointestinal absorption due to an underlying condition or age.
answer

D. a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic.
question

All of the following are correct about allergic reactions to drugs except A. the drug acts as an antigen. B. the greatest number of antimicrobic allergies are to the penicillins. C. hives may be the result after the drug is taken. D. anaphylaxis can occur. E. allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
answer

E. allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
question

Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs? A. Liver B. Kidneys C. Gallbladder D. Spleen E. Stomach
answer

A. Liver
question

Which of the following antimicrobials is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration? a. Penicillin G b. Tetraclycline c. Gentamicin d. Vancomycin e. Erythromycin
answer

B. Tetraclycline
question

Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds? a. Because it makes the animals grow too large. b. Because it causes infections in the cows and poultry fed them. c. Because it raises the price of the meat too high. d. Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem. e. All of the choices are correct.
answer

D. Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.
question

Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT? a. it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis b. it directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNA c. it inhibits the assembly of HIV particles d. it inhibits fusion of the viral envelope and host cell envelope. e. it prevents the viral DNA from integrating in the host chromosome
answer

A. It is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis.
question

All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza except A. they should be given early in an infection. B. they prevent assembly and release of the virus. C. they are used to treat infections by influenza A and B. D. they inhibit fusion and uncoating of the virus. E. they are effective prophylactics for influenza.
answer

B. they prevent assembly and release of the virus.
question

Which bacteria does Levaquin target? A. Streptococcus pneumoniae B. Haemophilus influenzae C. Moraxella catarrhalis D. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus E. All of the choices are correct
answer

A. Streptococcus pneumoniae
question

What does Vancomycin target? A. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus B. Clostridium difficile C. Streptococcus pyogenes D. Both A & B are correct choices
answer

D. Both A & B are correct choices;