chapter 11 industry and manufacturing Essay

question

1) The cottage industry system involved manufacturing A) of hand-made luxury goods. B) in the home. C) of steam engines and other cottage-sized machines. D) in small factories. E) cheeses and pastries
answer

B
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2) In the 1700s, water pollution increased significantly when the chemical industry began to contribute to the textile industry through methods of A) bleaching and processing. B) dyeing and purification. C) food processing and purification. D) bleaching and dyeing. E) dyeing and the creation of synthetic fabrics
answer

D
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3) An analysis of this map of Europe indicates that railways A) were more concentrated in France and Germany before they appeared in the United Kingdom. B) tended to be built first in Eastern Europe before spreading westward. C) were built in France before they were built in the United Kingdom. D) in the United Kingdom first appeared near London and were later built in northern England. E) were built in northern England before they appeared in southern England.
answer

E
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4) An analysis of this map indicates that railways A) were not built in Russia until 1836. B) were not built in France until 1826. C) were not built in Russia until after 1876. D) were built in Russia, France, and Serbia by 1856. E) were not built in Greece until after 1876.
answer

E
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5) This map of railway diffusion indicates that during the Industrial Revolution A) nearly all of Eastern Europe was connected by rail in 1848. B) rail lines connected Paris to France’s southern coast by 1848. C) France had a more comprehensive rail network than the United Kingdom in 1848. D) Poland had no rail lines in 1848. E) rail lines connected London to many parts of the island of Britain by 1848.
answer

E
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6) Given the earlier history of the chemical industry, we can hypothesize that its 20th-century contributions to the textile industry began to include A) bleaching and processing. B) dyeing and water purification. C) food processing and purification. D) the creation of synthetic fabrics. E) bleaching and dyeing.
answer

D
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7) The Industrial Revolution began in A) Great Britain. B) Japan. C) Russia. D) the United States. E) the Fertile Crescent.
answer

A
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8) The Industrial Revolution began in A) the late 1500s. B) the late 1600s. C) the late 1700s. D) the late 1800s. E) the late 1900s.
answer

C
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9) Prior to the Industrial Revolution, industry was geographically A) clustered. B) concentrated. C) dispersed. D) random. E) nonexistent.
answer

C
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10) What two location factors influence more industries to remain in the northeastern United States and northwestern Europe? A) global communications and fluid capital B) cheap labor and high consumer demand C) availability of raw materials and cheap energy D) fluid capital and advantageous tariffs E) skilled labor and rapid delivery to market
answer

E
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11) Approximately three-fourths of the world’s industrial production is concentrated in three regions, including which of the following? A) Eastern North America and Southeast Asia B) Eastern Europe and southern Europe C) northwestern Europe and eastern South America D) East Asia and Southwest Asia E) eastern North America and northwestern Europe
answer

E
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12) Outside of the three world regions where industry is concentrated, the next two largest industrial producing countries are A) India and Pakistan. B) Brazil and Canada. C) Russia and Brazil. D) China and India. E) Brazil and India
answer

E
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13) The Po River basin in Italy A) contains one-fourth of the country’s industry. B) has cheaper labor compared to southern Italy and the island of Sicily. C) has expensive hydroelectricity from the Alps but inexpensive nuclear energy from France. D) is Southern Europe’s newest industrial area. E) has inexpensive hydroelectricity from the Alps.
answer

E
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14) The map of North America’s industrial areas shows that A) industry is dispersed evenly throughout the United States and Canada. B) the industrial regions of California are more extensive than those of the Midwest and the Northeast combined. C) Canada’s far west and the U.S. South have become the continent’s principal industrial zones. D) Canada’s industrial areas are nearly as extensive as those of the northeastern United States. E) much of the region’s industry is concentrated around or near the Great Lakes.
answer

E
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15) Western Europe’s principal industrial areas include all but which of the following? A) the United Kingdom B) the Rhine-Ruhr valley C) the Mid-Rhine D) Northern Italy E) Portugal and western Spain
answer

E
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16) The map of East Asia’s industrial areas indicates that the region’s chief manufacturing bases include A) the Rhine-Ruhr valley. B) parts of southeastern China. C) parts of northwestern China. D) northern Japan. E) South Korea
answer

B
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17) The map of East Asia’s industrial areas indicates that the chief concentrations of manufacturing in the region include A) the White River valley. B) the river valley east of Wuhan. C) the river valley east of Shanghai. D) the western coast of Japan and eastern coast of Korea. E) central China.
answer

B
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18) According to the map, Canada’s most important industrial area is A) Vancouver, British Columbia. B) the St. Lawrence Valley and Ontario Peninsula. C) the northern shore of Lake Superior. D) the sea ports of Nova Scotia. E) the entire southern border shared with the United States.
answer

B
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19) The main source of power for steam engines and blast ovens is produced from A) coal. B) dross. C) iron ore. D) nuclear power. E) biomass fuels.
answer

A
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20) What mining region has the most varied mineral deposits of the world, with over 1,000 minerals? A) the Ural mountains B) the Tibetan plateau C) the mountains of central Thailand D) the Chilean Andes E) South Africa
answer

A
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21) The only step of the copper production process that is not significantly bulk-reducing is A) refining. B) concentration. C) mining. D) smelting. E) ore extraction.
answer

A
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22) The step of the copper production process that involves the crushing and grinding of particles is A) concentration. B) refining. C) mining. D) smelting. E) transportation.
answer

A
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23) The world’s chief source for copper is A) Chile. B) Arizona. C) China. D) Brazil. E) Cuba
answer

A
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24) A copper concentration mill tends to locate near a copper mine because it is a A) bulk-reducing industry. B) perishable industry. C) bulk-gaining industry. D) specialized manufacturer. E) fabrication concentration point.
answer

A
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25) An analysis of this map of the copper industry in the United States indicates that A) New Mexico has more foundries than Texas. B) more copper is mined in Utah than in Arizona, Nevada, and Montana. C) the largest numbers of foundries are in California, Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. D) the largest numbers of foundries are in California, Illinois, Arizona, Texas, Florida, and Oregon. E) the largest numbers of foundries are in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Montana
answer

C
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26) An analysis of this map of the copper industry in the United States indicates that A) New Mexico has more foundries than Texas. B) more copper is smelted in Utah than in Arizona, Nevada, and Montana. C) more copper is mined in Utah, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Montana. D) the largest numbers of copper smelters are in California, Illinois, Arizona, and Florida. E) the largest numbers of copper smelters are in California, Arizona, and Utah.
answer

C
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27) Proximity to Russian consumers is the most significant industrial asset of which region? A) Moscow B) Kuznetsk C) Urals D) Volga E) Kamchatka
answer

A
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28) Metal fabrication plants are an example of a bulkgaining industry because A) the mills are near the mines. B) separate parts are combined to make more complex and massive products. C) refineries import most material from other countries. D) parts suppliers package shipments in bulk containers for processing in the plants. E) parts suppliers supply components with just-in-time management
answer

B
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29) Situation costs are critical to a firm that wishes to A) avoid skilled laborers. B) minimize production costs inside the plant. C) minimize transport costs. D) identify unique characteristics of a particular industry. E) utilize a new technology.
answer

C
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30) Producers of automobiles select assembly plant locations primarily for their closer access to A) government subsidies. B) labor markets. C) markets for finished automobiles. D) raw materials. E) water transportation.
answer

C
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31) Beer bottling is an example of a A) perishable industry. B) specialized industry. C) bulk-gaining industry. D) communications-oriented industry. E) labor intensive industry.
answer

C
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32) Fabricated metal production is an example of a A) perishable industry. B) specialized industry. C) bulk-gaining industry. D) communications-oriented industry E) labor intensive industry.
answer

C
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33) Eastern North America became the continent’s manufacturing center in part because it had access to the continent’s A) largest markets. B) most extensive sources of essential raw materials. C) newest highway systems. D) most advantageous climate. E) oceangoing transportation links to Asia
answer

A
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34) The Chicago area became a significant asset for the Western Great Lakes region owing to its steel industries and its A) access to the nation’s transportation network. B) large market area. C) greater distance from raw materials essential for the steel industry. D) skilled labor force. E) cheap migrant labor.
answer

A
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35) The shift in steel production locations in the United States from the mid-nineteenth century until the midtwentieth century can best be described as A) starting in the Pittsburgh area and then migrating towards the Midwest before ending up on the East and West coasts, as well as the Chicago area. B) starting in the Pittsburgh area and then migrating towards the East and West coasts before moving to the South and Southeast. C) starting on the East and West coasts and then migrating towards the Midwest before ending up in the Pittsburgh area, as indicated by the football team called the Pittsburgh Steelers. D) starting on the East and West coasts and then migrating towards Pittsburgh before ending in the Midwest. E) starting in the Midwest and then migrating towards Pittsburgh before ending up on the East and West coasts
answer

A
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36) In addition to integrated mills, about one-fourth of U.S. steel production is now attributed to A) minimills which utilize scrap metal in many U.S. locations. B) traditional mills in the South and Southeast. C) minimills which have revitalized the old steel producing center of Pittsburgh. D) nuclear-pellet generating plants in the Northeast. E) scrap metal from materials transported to the United States from China
answer

A
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37) Because the motor vehicle assembly industry is typically described as a bulk-gaining industry as well as a just-in-time delivery system, the most important factor when selecting a location for a new Toyota or Honda assembly plant in the United States was A) minimizing the cost of shipping finished vehicles to its customers. B) minimizing the cost of shipping inputs and outputs in relation to customers. C) maximizing delivery time to customers. D) the location of railroads. E) the location of waterways.
answer

A
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38) New U.S. automobile assembly plants have been built primarily in the A) Midwest and South, to minimize national distribution costs and reduce labor competition. B) Northeast and Midwest, to minimize access to labor markets and maximize access to Northeastern markets. C) Sunbelt, to minimize labor costs. D) West, to maximize access to Japan, South Korea, and China. E) Southeast, to avoid winter production costs.
answer

A
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39) The U.S. steel industry moved westward in the nineteenth century primarily because of better access to A) coal. B) iron ore. C) labor. D) transport. E) markets.
answer

B
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40) Minimills are more likely than integrated steel mills to select locations because of access to A) government subsidies. B) unskilled labor. C) markets. D) raw materials. E) fluid capital.
answer

C
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41) A company which uses more than one ________ will often locate near break-of-bulk points. A) mode of transport B) consumer market C) raw material D) type of labor E) energy supply
answer

A
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42) In order to become a global industrial power, Japan had to overcome which of the following problems? A) high labor costs B) abundant energy sources C) distance from consumers D) weak consumer demand E) proximity to China
answer

C
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43) As indicated on this map of automobile assembly plants, in an effort to reduce labor competition and thus keep wages lower, there are only A) three plants in Tennessee, one in South Carolina, two in Mississippi, and three in Illinois. B) three plants in the Midwest, four plants in the Northeast, and five plants in the South. C) two plants in the Midwest and more than 20 in the South. D) four plants in Tennessee, one in South Carolina, three in Mississippi, and three in Illinois. E) three plants in Tennessee, three in Kentucky, one in South Carolina, and four in Mississippi.
answer

A
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44) Although transportation costs rise because breaks in transportation, we can surmise that over very long distances the lowest-cost form of transporting goods is by A) truck. B) train. C) ship. D) airplane. E) rocket.
answer

C
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45) Containerization was developed to facilitate longdistance transport by ________ before transferring to trucks and trains. A) truck B) train C) ship D) airplane E) rocket
answer

C
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46) As indicated on the map of minimill facilities in the U.S., A) minimills are primarily situated close to Northeastern markets. B) most Nucor operations are concentrated in Mississippi, California, Illinois, Kentucky, and Maine. C) most Nucor operations are concentrated in Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, and Florida. D) minimills operate in nearly every U.S. state. E) Nucor has operations in at least 20 different states
answer

E
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47) According to these charts, the U.S. share of global steel production A) decreased from 30 percent in 1980 to 18 percent in 2010. B) decreased from 44 percent in 1980 to 7 percent in 2010. C) increased from 16 percent in 1980 to 19 percent in 2010. D) decreased from 16 percent in 1980 to 8 percent in 2010. E) decreased from 16 percent in 1980 to 6 percent in 2010
answer

E
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48) According to these pie charts, between 1980 and 2010 the share of global steel production from developing countries A) increased from 7 percent to 44 percent. B) increased from 14 percent to 19 percent of the total, if Russia is considered a developing country. C) increased from 5 percent to 23 percent of the total, if Russia is considered a developing country. D) decreased from 68 percent to 21 percent, if Russia is considered a developing country. E) increased from 21 percent to 68 percent of the total, if Russia is considered a developing country.
answer

E
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49) Although many factory laborers in MDCs are paid $________ per hour, factory laborers in LDCs may be paid less than $________ per hour. A) 35; 1 B) 75; 15 C) 35; 10 D) 100; 20 E) 45; 2
answer

A
question

50) According to this map of cotton yarn production, after China, India, and Pakistan the world leaders in yarn production include A) Argentina, Russia, and Australia. B) Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Egypt, the United States, Turkey, Russia, and Australia. C) Egypt, France, Germany, Belgium, and Poland. D) Argentina, the United States, Iraq, Iran, and Russia. E) Argentina, the United States, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and Russia
answer

E
question

51) According to this map of cotton weaving distribution, between 1 billion and 3 billion square meters of fabric are produced annually in both A) the United States and Canada. B) the United States and Mexico. C) Russia and Australia. D) China and India. E) the United States and Egypt.
answer

E
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52) As indicated on this map, the world leaders in blouse production include the United States, China, A) Russia, South Africa, and Australia. B) Pakistan, and India. C) Egypt, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. D) Mexico, South Africa, and Australia. E) Egypt, Spain, and Brazil.
answer

E
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53) As a country’s per capita income increases, its per capita carbon dioxide emissions A) also decrease. B) also increase. C) begin to decrease, at first slowly and then rapidly. D) remain about the same. E) increase for a few years, then remain stable, and then begin to decrease.
answer

B
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54) The average temperature of Earth’s surface has increased by about A) 2°C since 1980. B) 1°C since 1880. C) 2°C since 1880. D) 3°C since 1880. E) 2°C since 1680.
answer

B
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55) According to this graph, carbon dioxide emissions were approximately 300 PPM A) in the year 1900 and 400 PPM in the year 2000. B) in the year 1900 and 375 PPM in the year 2000. C) in the year 1980 and 375 PPM in the year 2000. D) in the year 1900 and 350 PPM in the year 2000. E) in the year 1950 and 400 PPM in the year 1980.
answer

B
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56) Compared to other industries, aluminum manufacturers are more likely to locate near sources of A) low-cost labor. B) low-cost coal-fired power plants. C) low-cost hydroelectricity. D) aluminum oxide. E) fluid capital and transportation infrastructure.
answer

C
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57) The Tennessee Valley Authority brought A) temporary relief in the form of government construction jobs to people in Tennessee in the 1920s and 1930s. B) irrigation systems to much of the rural South in the 1930s. C) electricity to much of the rural South, Midwest, and East Coast in the 1930s. D) electricity to much of the rural South in the 1930s. E) electricity to much of the rural West, South, and Midwest in the 1930s.
answer

D
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58) Despite the risks to the environment, the U.S. Gulf Coast has become an important industrial area because of A) shrimp trawling and seafood processing. B) just-in-time inventory management. C) proximity to markets in Southwest Asia. D) access to oil imports from Mexico and Venezuela. E) access to oil and natural gas fields.
answer

E
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59) In Western Europe, ________ has experienced the most rapid manufacturing growth since the late twentieth century, especially after joining the European Union. A) Denmark B) Germany C) France D) Italy E) Spain
answer

E
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60) Both Europe and the United States have seen interregional shifts of manufacturing, but one difference is A) in the United States, government policies have encouraged relocation. B) in Europe, government policies have encouraged relocation. C) the concentration of industries in Europe and diffusion in the United States. D) the concentration of industries in the United States and diffusion in Europe. E) movement to the west in Europe and to the east in the United States
answer

B
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61) Twenty-three U.S. states have so-called “right-towork” laws that A) are more numerous and anti-union in northern states than in southern states. B) send a powerful signal to employers that workers have the right to join a labor union, whether or not this unionization might cause inconveniences for management. C) make it much more difficult for employers to limit wages, cut health benefits, and stop unions from forming. D) fight the efforts of factory management to break unions and keep future unions from forming. E) cause a great deal of trouble for labor unions attempting to organize workers and bargain with employers.
answer

E
question

62) An analysis of these maps showing changes in U.S. manufacturing from 1950 to 2010 indicates that A) the percentage of manufacturing jobs remained largely unchanged. B) the number of manufacturing jobs increased in nearly all “right-to-work” states. C) the number of manufacturing jobs in Indiana increased when it became a “right-to-work” state. D) the number of manufacturing jobs increased in most “right-to-work” states and decreased in most other states. E) the number of manufacturing jobs increased in California and Colorado, which are not “right-to-work” states.
answer

E
question

63) An analysis of these maps showing changes in U.S. manufacturing from 1950 to 2010 indicates that A) the percentage of manufacturing jobs increased in California. B) the percentage of manufacturing jobs decreased only in the Midwest and Northeast. C) the number of manufacturing jobs increased only in “right-to-work” states. D) the number of manufacturing jobs increased markedly in Ohio, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. E) the number of manufacturing jobs decreased markedly in Ohio, Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania.
answer

E
question

64) Mexico’s maquiladora plants A) must operate far from the U.S.-Mexico border. B) employ more than five million laborers. C) have an advantage of proximity to Latin American markets. D) have an advantage of proximity to U.S. markets. E) have grown in number as factories have been closed in China.
answer

D
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65) Mexico’s maquiladora plants A) are distributed evenly across central Mexico. B) rely on high tariffs that suppress U.S. sales. C) are using obsolete production processes compared with most U.S. assembly plants. D) may be taking advantage of lax environmental enforcement. E) cannot find enough laborers to manufacture products in northern Mexico.
answer

D
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66) Maintaining control over all phases of a highly complex production process, as opposed to outsourcing, is known as A) vertical integration. B) the new international division of labor. C) convergence. D) right-to-work. E) outsourcing.
answer

A
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67) The new international division of labor reflects the growing importance of A) outsourcing. B) vertical integration. C) access to raw materials. D) new infrastructure. E) just-in-time inventory management
answer

A
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68) This chart regarding U.S.-made clothing indicates that the percentage of U.S.-made blouses and skirts being sold A) decreased from about 38 percent in 2000 to about 3 percent in 2010. B) decreased from about 25 percent in 2000 to about 5 percent in 2010. C) decreased from about 25 percent in 2000 to about 3 percent in 2010. D) decreased from about 30 percent in 2000 to about 1 percent in 2010. E) decreased from about 32 percent in 2000 to about 3 percent in 2010.
answer

E
question

69) The chart on manufacturing value as a percentage of GDP indicates that the share of manufacturing in developed countries A) began to be surpassed by manufacturing in developing countries in the mid-1990s. B) was less than manufacturing in developing countries in the mid-1970s. C) was greater than manufacturing in developing countries in the late 1980s. D) was roughly equal to manufacturing in developing countries in the early 1990s. E) was roughly equal to manufacturing in developing countries in the early 1980s.
answer

E

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