chapter 11 dev psych physical and cognitive development in adolescence

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body image
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conception of and attitude toward their physical appearance
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late
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the female image in magazines is a girlish shape that favors the — developer
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early
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the male image fits the – maturing boy in magazines
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early maturing, white girls
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——- ——– tend to report a less positive body image than their on-time and late maturing agemates.
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caucasian
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compared with african american and hispanic girls —- girls are more likely to have internalized the cultural ideal of female attractiveness. most want to be thinner.
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early maturers
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with boys, although less consistent than girls ——- and rapid —— are more likely to be satisfied with their physical characteristics.
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self esteem
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body image is a strong predictor of young peoples ————.
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stressors
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the negative effects of pubertal timing on body image and emotional adjustment are amplified when accompanied by other ——–.
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spermarche
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first ejaculation for a boy. while the penis is growing the prostate gland and seminal vesicles enlarge and around 13 and 1/2 ——- occurs.
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menarche
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first menstruation, typically occurs around age 12 1/2 for north american girls, 13 western europeans. ranges 10 1/2 to 15 and 1/2 years old.
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breast, pubic
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following menarche, ——- and —— growth are completed and underarm hair appears.
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height spurt
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nature delays sexual maturity until the girls body is large enough for childbearing. menarche takes place after the peak of the ——-.
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emotional health, physical health
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threats to —— health accelerate puberty, whereas threats to ——- health delay it.
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secular trend
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a ———– or generational change in pubertal timing lends added support to the role of physical well-being in pubertal development.
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industrialized
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in —— nations, age of menarche declined steadily, by about 3-4 months per decade due to nutrition, health care, sanitation, control of infectious disease improved greatly.
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overweight, obesity
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in the US soaring rates of —— and —- are responsible for a continuing trend toward earlier menarche.
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self regulation
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adding to these —— difficulties of being a teenager, are changes in the brains emotional/social network.
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excitatory neurotransmitters
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in humans, neurons become more responsive to ————— during puberty.
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stressful, intensely
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because in humans at this age, neurons become mroe responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters during puberty, as a result, adolescents react more strongly to —— events, and experience pleasurable stimuli more ———–.
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cognitive control network
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during puberty, theres an issue because the ——- is not yet functioning optimally, so teens have issues handling their intense feelings.
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novel experiences
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the imbalance between excitatory neurotransmitters causing teens to react more strongly to stressful events and experience pleasurable stimuli more intensely and the cognitive control network not being fully formed, this contributes to teens drive for ———- like drug taking, reckless driving, unprotected sex, delinquent activities
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emotional/social
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changes in the adolescent brains ————– network outpace development of the cognitive control network.
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emotions, reward seeking
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over time, teens are able to effectively manage their ——– and ——– behavior.
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anorexia nervosa
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is a tragic eagting disorder in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat.
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25-50 percent
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people with anorexia lose between ———- percent of their body weight in attempt to reach perfect slimness
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15 percent
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to have a normal menstrual cycle tyou must have a body fat percentage of ——
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true
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t or f? less than 50 percent of young people with anorexia recover fully.
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increase
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there has been a recent ——- in contraceptive use amongst teens.
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20%
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although there has been a recent increase in contraceptive use amongst teens, ——– are still sexually active and dont use contraceptives consistently.
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lower
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contraceptive use is much ——– in US than other countries
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access, abstinence only, decisions, cost, embarassment, religion, context, health care, parents
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why is contraceptive use much lower in the US than in other countries? well, first its hard to get and more —– in other countries. also, ——- education exists. additionally, age plays a factor in decisions on contraceptive use because the brain is forming, also, ——-, it can be expensive. additionally, there is ———– in a small town especially. additionally, there are reasons related to ———. lastly, ——– plays a role. ———, and not wanting to approach your —— about it.
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40%
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———– of teen pregnancies end in abortion.
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less likely
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teens today are ——– to marry than in the past before childbirth.
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true
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today, true or false, few girls give up their babies for adoption.
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younger, wedlock
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lower SES teens are ——- when they have kids, and more than 1 are out of ———-.
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abortion
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higher SES teens are more likely to get ——— rather than chose to keep the baby.
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educational achievement
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teen moms have many risks one is that there is less ———————-, and therefore theyre more likely to drop out of high school.
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single parents
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teen moms spend more time as ———–, theyre less likely to marry.
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economic problems
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teen moms have many ————–because childcare is expensive, no degree, jobs pay little
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parenting skills
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teen moms have a lack of ———— theyre less responsive.
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prenatal care
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teen moms have pregnancy and birth complications due to not enough ————–. mom is stressed, not taking good care of herself while shes pregnant.
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10th grade
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by ——— 33 percent of US young people have tried cigarette smoking, 58 percent drinking, and 37 percent at least one illegal drug. at the end of high school, 11 percent smoke cigarettes regularly, and 27 percent have engaged in heavy drinking during the past month. about 25 percent have tried at least one highly addictive and toxic substance, such as amphetamines, cocaine, phencyclidine, ecstasy, inhalants, heroin, sedatives, or oxycontin.
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decline
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substance use and abuse has seen a substantial —– since the mid 1990s, resulting from a greater parent, school, and media focus on the hazards of drug use.
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marijuana, inhalants, sedatives, oxycontin
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the use of ————, ———-., —— and ——– has risen slightly in recent years.
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lsd, pcp, ecstasy
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drugs like ——-, —— and ——- have made a comeback as adolescents knowledge of their risks faded.
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sensation
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drug taking in teens reflects the ——- seeking of the teenage years.
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cultural
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teens live in drug dependent ——- contexts
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true
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t or f? compared to a decade or two ago, today doctors more often prescribe and parents frequently seek medication to treat childrens problems
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self-medicate
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teens often ———– when stressed using substances
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true
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t or f? most teens who dabble in alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are not headed for a life of addiction
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minimal experimenters
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teens who dabble in alochol, tobacco, and marijuana are not headed for a life of addiction theyre alled ———, theyre usually psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people.
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poverty
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—- is linked to family and peer contexts that promote illegal drug use.
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african americas
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use of diverse drugs is lower among ———- than among hispanic and caucasian americans
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native american
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——- youths rank highest in drug taking.
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abuse
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a worrisome minority of teenagers move from substance use to ——–, taking drugs regularly, requiring increasing amounts to achieve the same effect, moving on to harder substanes and using enough to interfere with their ability to meet daily responsibilities.
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judgment, volatility
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the brain of the teen is still a work in progress, its still developing. this may help explain lack of sound ——, and emotional ———–.
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prefrontal cortex
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the ——– is still developing til the mid 20s. in the teen which is important in decision making, controlled attention, organization, impulse inhibition
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pruning
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in the teen brain the —— continues in the frontal lobes. the cognitive advances are attention, planning, integrating information and self regulation on two types.
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growth, myelination
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in the teen brain ——- and —– speed up and strengthens connections among regions allowing attention, planning, integrating info, self-regulation of two types.
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excitatory messages
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in the teen brain, the neurotransmitter response changes and its more sensitive to —————– which intensifies reactions to stress, pleasure, novelty.
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11
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according to piaget the formal operational stage begins at age ——-.
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hypothetico-deductive reasoning
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in piagets formal operational stage there is —————— which is deducing hypotheses from a general theory, isolating variables in problems.
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hypothetico-deductive reasoning
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the penduulum problem tests —————–.
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propositional thought
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evalutating the logic of verbal propositions…its an if….then. ex- all dogs are poodles, 101 dalmatians are dogs, therefore 101 dalmatians are poodles. teens evaluate given the propisition to see validity.
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abstractly
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teen think ———–
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pendulum problem
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piagets formal operational stage in which the teen must think what is gonna effect how quickly this pendulum swings, objects of diff weight, string size, height with which you swing it. what efects how fast it swings? string length.
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pendulum problem
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Piaget’s classic test to formal operations, in which persons are asked to figure out what determines the speed at which a pendulum sways from side to side.
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hypothetico-deductive reasoning
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when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical testable inferences. then they systematically isolate and combine variable to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
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formal operational stage
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In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
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propositional thought
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adolescents ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without referring to real world circumstances 101 dalmatians example
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imaginary audience
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a consequence of abstract thought, in which there is self-consciousness and self-focusing. this is a consequence in which everyones looking at you, youre the focus, everyone sees the zie on my nose.
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criticism
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teens are sensitive to ——– certain comments are devastating.
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personal fable
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teens have this as a consequence of abstract thought, and this is the belief theyre special, nobodys ever felt or experienced what they feel this contributes to risky behavior. ie pregnancy with teens.
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idealism, criticism
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teens because of abstract thought have —– and —— which is they think of this is how the world should and could work which makes them critical of adults around them.
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inexperience
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with teens, there are not a lot of practice in making decisions so they dont always make good ones. this is from ————.
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overwhelming
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——— options for teens in terms of life choices ie what you wanna be, study, the limitless options are overwhelming.
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authoritative parenting
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in childhood, ——– is linked to higher grades among adolescents varying widely in SES, just as it predicts mastery oriented behavior in childhood.
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authoritarian, permissive
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—– and —— styles are associated with lower grades
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uninvolved
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——- parenting predicts the poorest grades and worsening school performance over time.
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decision, autonomy
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teens whose parents engage in joint ——- making, gradually permitting more —– with age, achieve especially well.
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reflective, self regulation
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warmth, open discussion, firmness, and monitoring of the adolescents whereabouts and activities make young people feel cared about and valued, encourage ——— thinking and ————– and increase awarenness of the importance of doing well in school.
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behavior
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although many dropouts achieve poorly and show high rates of norm violating acts, a substantial number have few ———problems, experience academic difficulties and quietly disengage from schiool.
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early
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the pathway to dropping out starts ——-
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first grade
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risk factors for dropping out in —— predict dropout nearly as well as risk factors in secondary school.
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low academic self-esteem
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——- is a huge factor in dropping out
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family background
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————– contributes to dropping out. compared with other students with the same grade profile, dropouts are more likely to have parents who are uninvoled in their teens education and engage in little monitoring of their teens daily activities
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single, high school, unemployed
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teen dropouts typically have —– parents, who never finished ——- themselves and are ———-
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grade retention, secondary schools, unsupportive teachers, active participation
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students who drop out oten have school experiences that undermine their chances for success: ———–, which marks them as academic failures; large, impersonal ———–, and classes with ——— teachers and few opportunities for ————–.
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general education, vocational tracks
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students in ———— and ———– are three times as likely to drop out as those in a college preparatoryu track.
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school age
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follow up research on formal operational thought reveals that ——— kids start developing abstract thinking skills.
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2
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school age kids can start developing abstract thinking skills. they can understand simple hypotheses with ——- or less variables.
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not
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formal operational thinking is ——— universal even well educated adults will fall back on easier thinking, training and context contribute and we often fall back on easier thinking.
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development
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adolescence is another phase of ——-
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puberty
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transition into ——- is the same as transition into baby with regard to brain development.
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overproduction
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in the frontal cortex was the ————- of cells just before puberty, this happens in womb too. this is second wave of production, thickening in thinking part.
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gray matter
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in teen brain teh ——– grows
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pruning
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——— of unused pathways gives brain shape or future
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practice
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what you —– consolidates parts of brain and not others
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prefrontal
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in charge of cognitivie flexibility, planning, this ceo still being built in teen years for strategies, inhibition, thats why teens feel invulnerable and risk taking behavior ensues.
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vulnerable
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when the brain is most ———- kids are more likely to experiment with drugs and alcohol
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2 years
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in teen brain development there are dramatic changes in mood due in part to changes in hormones after —— it levels off.
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prefrontal cortex
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regulating mood changes resides in ——
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read emotions
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teens are not able to correctly ————- in the adult face they see anger or sadness when not present some misscomm in what they think adult is feeling and bc teens use diff parts of the brain to read emotions.
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gut response
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in teens the —— region has more activity than in adults
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cerebellum
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changes most during teen years not done till early 20s coordination of muscles, thinking process
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circadian clock
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helps prop you up at the end of the day
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rem sleep
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longer sleep in this, more improed on tasks. good sleep-more advantageous.;
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people
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the —– in teens lives make the biggest difference

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