Chapter 10 – Forensic Serology
abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid – the molecules carrying the body’s genetic information; DNA is double stranded in the shape of a double helix.
The fluid portion of unclotted blood
A red blood cell.
The liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed.
A substance, usually a protein, that stimulates the body to produce antibodies against it.
A protein that destroys or inactivates a specific antigen; antibodies are found in the blood serum.
Blood serum that contains specific antibodies.
The clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.
Antibodies produced by injecting animals with a specific antigen; a series of antibodies are produced responding to a variety of different sites on the antigen.
A collection of identical antibodies that interact with a single antigen site.
Fused spleen and tumor cells; used to produce identical monoclonal antibodies in a limitless supply.
A red blood cell protein that transports oxygen in the bloodstream; it is responsible for the red color of blood.
The most sensitive chemical test that is capable of presumptively detecting bloodstains diluted to as little as 1 in 100,000; its reaction with blood emits light and thus requires the result to be observed in a darkened area.
An antibody that reacts with its corresponding antigen to form a precipitate.
A unit of inheritance consisting of a DNA segment located on a chromosome.
a rodlike structure in the cell nuclueus, along which the genes are located; it is composed of DNA surrounded by other material, mainly proteins.
The female reproductive cell
The Male reproductive cell
The cell arising from the union of an egg and a sperm cell.
The Female sex chromosome.
The Male sex chromosome
The physical location of a gene on a chromosome
Any of several alternative forms of a gene located at the same point on a particular pair of chromosomes; for example, the genes determining the blood types A and B are alleles.
Having two identical alletic genes on two corresponding positions of a pair of chromosomes.
Having two different alletic genes on two corresponding positions of a pair of chromosomes.
The particular combination of genes present in the cells of an individual.
The physical manifestation of a genetic trait such as shape, color, and blood type.
An enzyme found in high concentration in semen.
An abnormally low sperm count
The absence of sperm; sterility in males.
Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be classified by its ________.
T/F: No two individuals, except for identical twins, can be expected to have the same combination of blood types or antigens ________.
_____ is the fluid portion of unclotted blood.
The liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed is called ______.
Red Blood Cells
_______ Transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
On the surface of red blood cells are chemical substances called ________, which impart blood type characteristics to the cells.
Type A individuals have _____ antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.
Type O individuals have _________, A and B Antigens on their red blood cells
A and B
The Presence or Absence of ____ and _____ antigens on the red blood cells determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O System.
The D antigen is also known as the ____ antigen.
Serum contains proteins known as ____, which destroy or inactivate antigens.
Only a Specific
An antibody reacts with ______ antigen.
T/F: Agglutination describes the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.
B and A
Type B blood contains ______ antigens and anti-____ antibodies.
Neither anti A nor anti B
Type AB Blood has ____________ nor _________ antigens.
A drug-protein complex can be injected into an animal to form specific _______ for that drug.
The term _______ describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions.
Type AB blood (is/is not) agglutinated by both Anti-A and Anti-B serum.
Type B red blood cells agglutinate when added to type ___ blood.
Type A red blood cells agglutinate when added to type ____ blood.
radioimmunoassay or enzyme-multiplied immuno-assay technique (EMIT)
An immunological assay technique used to detect the presence of minute quanities of drugs in blood and urine is ______.
The distribution of type A blood in the United States is approximately ____ %.
The distibution of type AB blood in the United States is approximately ____%.
(all/most) Blood hemoglobin has peroxidase-like activity
For many years, the most commonly used color test for identifying blood was the _____ color test.
_____ reagent reacts with blood, causing it to luminesce.
Blood can be characterized as being human origin by the _____ test.
Antigens and antibodies (can/cannot) be induced to move toward each other under the influence of an electrical field.
Antibodies designed to interact with a specific antigen site are (monoclonal/polyclonal)
T/F: Hybridoma cells are used to produce antigens designed to attack one and only one site on an antibody.
The basic unit of heredity is the _______.
Genes are positioned on threadlike bodies called ______.
All nucleated cells in the human body, except the reproductive cells have ______ pairs of chromosomes.
The sex of an offspring is always determined by the (mother/father)
Genes that influence a given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair are known as _________.
When a pair of alletic genes is identical, the genes are said to be (homozygous/heterozygous)
A (phenotype/genotype) is an observable characteristic of an individual.
The combination of genes present in the cells of an individual is call the ______.
A gene (will/will not) appear in a child when it is present in one of the parents.
A Type B individual may have the genotype _____ or the genotype _____.
A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible genotypes?
A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible phenotypes?
The _____ color test is used to locate and characterize seminal stains.
Semen is unequivocally identified by the microscopic appearance of ________.
Males with a low sperm count have a condition known as as _______.
The protein _______ is unique to seminal plasma.
T/F: DNA may be transferred to an object through the medium of perspiration.
T/F: Seminal constituents may remain in the vagina for up to six days after intercourse.