Chapter 10 – Forensic Serology

DNA
abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid – the molecules carrying the body’s genetic information; DNA is double stranded in the shape of a double helix.

Plasma
The fluid portion of unclotted blood

Erythrocyte
A red blood cell.

Serum
The liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed.

Antigen
A substance, usually a protein, that stimulates the body to produce antibodies against it.

Antibody
A protein that destroys or inactivates a specific antigen; antibodies are found in the blood serum.

Antiserum
Blood serum that contains specific antibodies.

Agglutination
The clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.

Polyclonal Antibodies
Antibodies produced by injecting animals with a specific antigen; a series of antibodies are produced responding to a variety of different sites on the antigen.

Monoclonal Antibodies
A collection of identical antibodies that interact with a single antigen site.

Hybridoma Cells
Fused spleen and tumor cells; used to produce identical monoclonal antibodies in a limitless supply.

Hemoglobin
A red blood cell protein that transports oxygen in the bloodstream; it is responsible for the red color of blood.

Luminol
The most sensitive chemical test that is capable of presumptively detecting bloodstains diluted to as little as 1 in 100,000; its reaction with blood emits light and thus requires the result to be observed in a darkened area.

Precipitin
An antibody that reacts with its corresponding antigen to form a precipitate.

Gene
A unit of inheritance consisting of a DNA segment located on a chromosome.

Chromosome
a rodlike structure in the cell nuclueus, along which the genes are located; it is composed of DNA surrounded by other material, mainly proteins.

Egg
The female reproductive cell

Sperm
The Male reproductive cell

Zygote
The cell arising from the union of an egg and a sperm cell.

X-Chromosome
The Female sex chromosome.

Y-Chromosome
The Male sex chromosome

Locus
The physical location of a gene on a chromosome

Allele
Any of several alternative forms of a gene located at the same point on a particular pair of chromosomes; for example, the genes determining the blood types A and B are alleles.

Homozygous
Having two identical alletic genes on two corresponding positions of a pair of chromosomes.

Heterozygous
Having two different alletic genes on two corresponding positions of a pair of chromosomes.

Genotype
The particular combination of genes present in the cells of an individual.

Phenotype
The physical manifestation of a genetic trait such as shape, color, and blood type.

Acid Phosphatase
An enzyme found in high concentration in semen.

Oligospermia
An abnormally low sperm count

Aspermia
The absence of sperm; sterility in males.

Type
Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be classified by its ________.

True
T/F: No two individuals, except for identical twins, can be expected to have the same combination of blood types or antigens ________.

Plasma
_____ is the fluid portion of unclotted blood.

Serum
The liquid that separates from the blood when a clot is formed is called ______.

Red Blood Cells
_______ Transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs.

Antigens
On the surface of red blood cells are chemical substances called ________, which impart blood type characteristics to the cells.

A
Type A individuals have _____ antigens on the surface of their red blood cells.

Neither
Type O individuals have _________, A and B Antigens on their red blood cells

A and B
The Presence or Absence of ____ and _____ antigens on the red blood cells determines a person’s blood type in the A-B-O System.

Rh
The D antigen is also known as the ____ antigen.

Antibodies
Serum contains proteins known as ____, which destroy or inactivate antigens.

Only a Specific
An antibody reacts with ______ antigen.

True
T/F: Agglutination describes the clumping together of red blood cells by the action of an antibody.

B and A
Type B blood contains ______ antigens and anti-____ antibodies.

Neither anti A nor anti B
Type AB Blood has ____________ nor _________ antigens.

Antibodies
A drug-protein complex can be injected into an animal to form specific _______ for that drug.

Serology
The term _______ describes the study of antigen-antibody reactions.

Is
Type AB blood (is/is not) agglutinated by both Anti-A and Anti-B serum.

A
Type B red blood cells agglutinate when added to type ___ blood.

O
Type A red blood cells agglutinate when added to type ____ blood.

radioimmunoassay or enzyme-multiplied immuno-assay technique (EMIT)
An immunological assay technique used to detect the presence of minute quanities of drugs in blood and urine is ______.

42
The distribution of type A blood in the United States is approximately ____ %.

3
The distibution of type AB blood in the United States is approximately ____%.

All
(all/most) Blood hemoglobin has peroxidase-like activity

Benzidine
For many years, the most commonly used color test for identifying blood was the _____ color test.

Luminol
_____ reagent reacts with blood, causing it to luminesce.

Precipitin
Blood can be characterized as being human origin by the _____ test.

Can
Antigens and antibodies (can/cannot) be induced to move toward each other under the influence of an electrical field.

Monoclonal
Antibodies designed to interact with a specific antigen site are (monoclonal/polyclonal)

False
T/F: Hybridoma cells are used to produce antigens designed to attack one and only one site on an antibody.

Gene
The basic unit of heredity is the _______.

Chromosomes
Genes are positioned on threadlike bodies called ______.

23
All nucleated cells in the human body, except the reproductive cells have ______ pairs of chromosomes.

Father
The sex of an offspring is always determined by the (mother/father)

Alleles
Genes that influence a given characteristic and are aligned with one another on a chromosome pair are known as _________.

Homozygous
When a pair of alletic genes is identical, the genes are said to be (homozygous/heterozygous)

Phenotype
A (phenotype/genotype) is an observable characteristic of an individual.

Genotype
The combination of genes present in the cells of an individual is call the ______.

WIll
A gene (will/will not) appear in a child when it is present in one of the parents.

BB/BO
A Type B individual may have the genotype _____ or the genotype _____.

AA;BB;AB
A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible genotypes?

A;B;AB
A type AB mother and type AB father will have offspring of what possible phenotypes?

Acid Phosphatase
The _____ color test is used to locate and characterize seminal stains.

Spermatozoa
Semen is unequivocally identified by the microscopic appearance of ________.

Oligospermia
Males with a low sperm count have a condition known as as _______.

P30
The protein _______ is unique to seminal plasma.

True
T/F: DNA may be transferred to an object through the medium of perspiration.

True
T/F: Seminal constituents may remain in the vagina for up to six days after intercourse.

Tagged In :

Get help with your homework


image
Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample For Only $13.90/page

Sarah from studyhippoHi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out