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Chapter 10 Cardiovascular, Immune, Lymphatic System and Blood (part 2)

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congenital heart disease
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heart abnormality present at birth
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coronary artery disease (CAD)
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• condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries • to the myocardium that may progress to denying the heart tissue sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function normally; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis. CAD is a common cause of heart failure or cyocardial infarction
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deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
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• clot in deep vein • condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities A clot, or part of a cot, can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
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Heart failure (HF)
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condition in which there is an inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen (also called congestive heart failure [CHF])
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hypertensive heart disease (HHD)
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disorder of the heart caused by persistent high blood pressure
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intermittent claudication
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pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in peripheral arterial disease
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ischemia
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• condition of deficient blood flow due to constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel. • Myocardial ischemia, or deficient blood to the heart muscle through coronary arteries, is most commonly caused by vessel constriction due to atherosclerosis and can lead to myocardial infarction
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mitral valve stenosis
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• narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever • narrowing of the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
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peripheral arterial disease (PAD)
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• disease of the arteries in the arms and legs, resulting in narrowing or complete obstruction of the artery. • This is caused most commonly by atherosclerosis, but occasionally by inflammatory diseases, emboli, or thrombus formation. The most common symptom of peripheral arterial disease is intermittent claudication (also called peripheral vascular disease [PVD])
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myocardial infarction (MI)
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death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (also called heart attack)
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rheumatic heart disease
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damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever
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varicose veins
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distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities
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anemia
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• condition in which there is a reduction in the number of erythrocytes. • Anemia may be caused by blood loss or increase in the destruction of red blood cells.
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embolus (pl. emboli)
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blood clot or foreign material, such as air or fat, that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation
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hemophilia
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inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VII
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leukemia
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• malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells) formed in the bone marrow • is a malignant disease in which the number of abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow is excessively increased.
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sepsis
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• is a systemic inflammatory response to an infection • condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the bloodstream causing a system inflammatory response to the infection (also called septicemia)
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Hodgkin disease
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malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes
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infectious mononucleosis
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• acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva. • infectious disease that affects mostly young people; characterized by swollen lymph glands
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acute coronary syndrome
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• is insufficient blood supply to the heart, • indicating unstable angina or myocardial infarction.
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deep vein thrombosis
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is the condition of a thrombus, most often occurring in the lower extremities.
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Episodes of rheumatic fever can cause
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mitral valve stenosis and rheumatic heart disease
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acute compression of heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity is known as
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cardiac tamponade
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a reduction in the number of erythrocytes results in a condition known as
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anemia
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angioplasty
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• surgical repair of a blood vessel
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atherectomy
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• excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter)
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endarterectomy
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• excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall). This procedure is usually named for the artery to be cleaned out, such as carotid endarterectomy, which means removal of plaque from the wall of the carotid artery.
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pericardiocentesis
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• surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium) (used to remove fluid or air, usually to relieve cardiac tamponade)
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phlebectomy
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• excision of a vein
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phlebotomy
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• incision into a vein (with a needle to remove blood or to give blood or intravenous fluids) (also called venipuncture)
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valvuloplasty
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• surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous)
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splenectomy
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• excision of the spleen
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splenopexy
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• surgical fixation of the spleen
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thymectomy
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• , Excision of the thymus gland
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aneurysmectomy
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•, surgical excision of an aneurysm
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atrial fibrillation ablation
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•, a procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using a device that heats or freezes tbye cells
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cardiac pacemaker
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• battery-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart; used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm, usually one that is too slow, secondary to an abnormal sinus node.
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coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
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• surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries
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coronary stent
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• support scaffold device placed in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or artherectomy; used to treat an artery occluded by plaque
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embolectomy
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• surgical removal of an embolus or clot, usually with a ballon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, then pulling the baloon back to the incision and bringing the clot with it
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femoropopliteal bypass
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• surgery to establish and alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction
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implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD)
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• device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. If life threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm
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intracoronary thrombolytic therapy
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• injection of a medication either intravenously or intraarterially to dissolve blood clots in the coronary arteries before they become hardened. It is often used in emergency departments for acute myocardial infarction.
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percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
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• procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. Inflation of the balloon compresses the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the innter diameter of the blood vessel, which allows the blood to circulate more freely (also called balloon angioplasty)
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bone marrow aspiration
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• procedure to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study: used to circulate more freely (also called balloon angioplasty)
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bone marrow biopsy
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• procedure to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of blood cells
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bone marrow transplant
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• infusion of healthy bone marrow cells to a recipient with matching cells from a donor.
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angiography
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• radiograpic imaging of blood vessels (the procedure is named for the vessel to be studied, e.g., femoral angiography or coronary angiography)
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angioscope
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• instrument used for visual examination (of the lumen) of a blood vessel
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angioscopy
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• visual examination (of the lumen) of a blood vessel
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aortogram
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• radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contract media)
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arteriogram
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• radiographic image of an artery (after an injection of contrast media)
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venogram
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radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media)
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The procedure used to treat atrial fibrillation using a device that heats or freezes the cells is called Artial Fibrilation
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Ablation
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The procedure in which a ballon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to compress plaque against the vessel wall when the balloon is inflated is called
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percutaneous transtluminal coronary
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To regulate the heart rate, the physician may insert a
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cardiac pacemaker with leads onor in the patients heart
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Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are used to diagnose, stage and onitor disease and condition of
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blood cells
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The surgery performed to detour blood around a blocked artery so that a new blood supply can ge given to heart muscles is called
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Coronary artery bypass graft
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implantable cardiac defibrillator
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used to treat life threatening arrhythias
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echocardiogram (ECHO)
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record of the heart (structure and motion) using sound (used to detect valvular disease and evaluate heart function)
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electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
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A recording of the electrical activity of the heart
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electrocardiograph
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instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart
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electrocardiography
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process of recording the electrical activiety of the heart.
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Doppler ultrasound
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study that uses high frequency sound waves for detection of blood blow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities
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exercise stress test
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study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill. Electrocardiography, echocardiography, and nuclear medicine scanning are three types of stress test performed to measure cardiac function while exercising
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single-photo emission computed tomography (SPECT)
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nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles, producing three-dimensional images; used to assess damage to cardiac tissue
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hematocrit (HCT)
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• blood test to measure the volume of erythrocytes. It is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients
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hemoglobin (Hgb)
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• blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in erythrocytes
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prothrombin time (PT)
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• blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin, and oral anticoagulant medicaiton, (Activiated partial thromboplastin time [APTT] is used to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking heparin, an intravenous anticoagulant medication.)
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thallium test
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• nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and asses revascularization after cooronary artery bypass surgery.
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transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
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ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures
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cardiac catheterization
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• passage of a catheter into the heart to evaluate coronary artery disease • diagnostic procedure perfromed by passing a catheter into the heart through a blood vessel to examine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease (also called coronary angiography)
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blood pressure (BP)
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pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls. A blood pressure measurement written as systolic pressure (120) and diastolic pressure (80) is commonly recorded as 120/80
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pulse
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• rhythmic expansion of an artery, created by the contraction of the heart, that can be felt with a fingertip. • The pulse is most commonly felt over the radial artery (in the wrist); however, the pulsations can be felt over a number of sites, including the femoral (groin) and carotid (neck) arteries
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sphygmomanometer
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device used for measuring blood pressure
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C-reactive protein (CRP)
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blood test used to measure the level of creatine phosphokinase, an enzyme of heart and skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis. The test is useful in evaluating patients with acute myocardial infarction.
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homocysteine
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blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood.Hoocysteine is an amino acid that, if elevated, ma indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
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lipid profile
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• A blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. This test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. Results provide levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides
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troponin
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• blood test that measures toponin, a heart muscle enzyme. • Troponins are released into the blood approx 3 hours after necrosis of the heart muscle and ay remain elevated from 7 to 10 days
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coagulation time
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blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to for a clot
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complete blood count (CBC) and differential count (Diff)
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• basic blood screening test • laboratory test for basic blood screening that measures various aspects of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; this automated test quickly provides a tremendous amount of information the blood.
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atrioventricular (AV)
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pertaining to the atrium and ventricle
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cardiac
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pertaining to the heart
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cardiogenic
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originating in the heart
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cardiology
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Study of the heart (a branch of medicine that deals with disease of the heart).
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cardiologist
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physician who studies and treats diseases of the heart
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hypothermia
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condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal) (sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery).
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intravenous (IV)
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pertaining to within the vein
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phlebologist
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physician who studies and treats diseases of the veins
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phlebology
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Study of veins (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins).
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hematologist
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Physician who studies and treats diseases of the blood
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hematology
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The study of the blood (a branch of medicine that deals with disease of the blood)
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hematopoiesis
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formation of blood (cells)
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hemolysis
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dissolution of (red) blood (cells)
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hemostasis
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stoppage of bleeding
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myelopoiesis
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formation of bone marrow
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plasmapheresis
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Removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood)
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thrombolysis
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Dissolution of a clot
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allergen
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environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergy). Common allerens are house dust, pollen, animal dander, and various foods.
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allergist
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physician who studies and treats allergic conditions
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allergy
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hypersensitivity to a substance, resulting in an inflammatory immune response.
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anaphylaxis
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exaggerated, life-threatening reaction to a previously encountered antigen such as bee venom, peanuts, or latex. Sumptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing, to severe symtoms such as drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway, which can lead to death within minutes (also called anaphylactic shock)
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antibody
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substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (also called immunoglobulins)
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autoimmune disease
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disease caused by the body’s inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, thus producing antibodies that attack its own tissue Rheumatoid arthritis and systeic lupus erythematosus are examples of autoimmune diseases
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immune
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being resistant to specific invading pathogens
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immunodeficiency
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deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease (HIV infection) or immunosupressive drugs (prednisone)
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immunologist
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physician who studies and treats immune system disorder
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immunology
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the branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders
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phagocytosis
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A process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism and old cells.
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vaccine
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suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, month, or nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity
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diastole
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phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax and fill with blood between contractions (diastolic is the lower number of a blood pressure reading)
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extracorporeal
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occurring outsid the body. During open-heart surgery extracorporeal circulation occurs when blood is diverted outside the body to a heart-lung machine.
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extravasasation
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escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue
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fibrillation
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rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria or ventricles
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hypercholesterolemia
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excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood; associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease
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hyperlipidemia
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excessive amount of fats (lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol) in the blood.
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hypertension
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blood press that is above normal (greater than 140/90)
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hypertriglyceriderma
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excessive amount of triglycerides in the blood; associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
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hypotension
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Blood pressure that is below normal (less than 90/60)
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lipids
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fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure
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lumen
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space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel
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murmur
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abnormal cardiac sound heard through auscultation, caused by turulent blood flow through the heart. Are short-duration sounds heard in the cardiac region that are distinct from normal heart sounds. Heart valve defects, such as mitral valve stenosis, create a distinctive murmur.
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occlude
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to close tightly, to block
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systole
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phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract and eject blood (systolic is the upper number of a blood pressure reading)
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vasoconstrictor
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agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels
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vasodilator
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agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels
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venipuncture
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procedure used to puncture a vein with a needle to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
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anticoagulant
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agent that slows the blood clotting process
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blood dyscrasia
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abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
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hemorrhage
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rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding
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bruit
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abnormal vascular sound heard through auscultation, caused by turbulnt blood flow through arteries or veins. Cardiovascular system abnormalities, such as aneurysm, create a distinctive bruit. Bruits may occur in numerous sites throughout the body where blood flow or body system functioning is abnormal.
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cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
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emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac compressions and artificial ventilation
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defibrillation
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application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm