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Chapter 1 – The Sociological Imagination: An Introduction

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the Hull House
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The Chicago School’s Jane Addams founded the first American settlement house, an institution to help the poor by offering aid, educational services, and more. This house was known as:
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Karl Marx
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Which of the following founders of sociology is known, in part, for having his writings become the basis of Communism?
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feminism
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Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
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xenophobia
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Feeling discomfort about rural Chinese society, where many generations of a family sleep in the same bed, is known as:
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is nothing more than a sum of individual stories told between pairs of individuals
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The “grand narrative” that constitutes a social identity:
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young
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As a formal field, sociology is a relatively ____________ discipline, as discussed in Chapter 1.
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Robert Park
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Which early U.S. sociologist told other sociologists in the Chicago School to “go out and get the seats of [their] pants dirty in real research”?
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anomie
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According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called:
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interpretive and positivist sociology
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Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exists between:
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the city of Chicago itself
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The Chicago School’s main laboratory for sociological research was:
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Emile Durkheim
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Which of the following sociologists wrote Suicide in 1897?
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competition versus consensus
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Two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are:
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Ann Oakley
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Which feminist sociologist wrote Sex, Gender, and Society (1972), which argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?
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Max Weber
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Who wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism?
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conflict theory
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In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
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symbolic interactionism
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Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?
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shared meaning
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What do symbolic interactionists study?
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postmodernism
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Native Americans may see the history of the United States differently than white Europeans. Which theory is concerned with the fact that history may be interpreted differently by these dissimilar groups?
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Verstehen
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Max Weber would say we need to understand from their perspective, not from our own, why many generations of Chinese sleep together in rural China. He called this:
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sociological imagination
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A female manager is attempting to climb her way to the top of the corporate ladder. She works as hard, if not harder, than her male colleagues, but nothing she does seems to help her advance. She begins to notice that males are being promoted, but females tend to be overlooked for advancement. The realization that many women in her circumstance are experiencing the same discrimination is an example of:
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Verstehen
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The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as:
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dramaturgical theory
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Erving Goffman used the language of theater to describe how people present themselves in everyday social life. This is known as:
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families
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All of the following are examples of social institutions used to prevent websites from undermining colleges’ degree‐conferring abilities EXCEPT:
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supra‐individual
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In sociology’s “cousin,” psychology, the focus is on the individual. In sociology, the focus is above and beyond the individual, on group‐level dynamics and social structures. This is known as:
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the postscientific stage
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Each of the following is known as one of the three epistemological stages of human society, as explained by Comte, EXCEPT:
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Emile Durkheim
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The Division of Labor in Society was the first of many sociological contributions from:
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The population was rapidly growing due to foreign immigration and the influx of African Americans from the rural South
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The Chicago School was a good place to study community‐based social ecology. Why?
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the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained
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According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine:
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rational actors; emotional motivations
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Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________.
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midrange theory
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Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain social institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as:
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commonalities
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While historians are more likely to focus on the unique case, sociologists would more likely focus on:
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the nomothetic approach
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Explaining unique cases is the focus of most historians, whereas the comparative method is the staple of the sociologist. This comparative method is also known as:
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microsociology
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Which of the following focuses its analyses on face‐to‐face encounters and interactions?
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supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it
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The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the United States until about the 1950s. C. Wright Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for:
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economics
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The examination of human behavior within a rational actor model is the focus of which of the following “cousins” of sociology?
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social constructs
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Postmodern sociologists argue that all so‐called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all “facts” are really:
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the study of human society.
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Sociology
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the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
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Sociological imagination
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a complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time; also defined in a narrow sense as any institution in a society that works to shape the behavior of the groups or people within it.
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Social institution
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The concept that forms the object of inquiry for interpretive sociology—to study how social actors understand their actions and the social world through experience.
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Verstehen
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a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be predictable; too little social regulation; normlessness.
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Anomie
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a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships (akin to a social physics).
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Positivist sociology
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a concept conceived by W. E. B. DuBois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans.
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Double consciousness
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the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important (or necessary) function to keep society running.
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Functionalism
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the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general.
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Conflict theory
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a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
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Symbolic interactionism
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a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of progress and history, the replacement of narrative within pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities resulting from disjointed affiliations.
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Postmodernism
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an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated as people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed-upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity.
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Social construction
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a theory that attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function.
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Midrange theory
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seeks to understand local interactional contexts; its methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observation and in-depth interviews.
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Microsociology
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generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis—that is, across the breadth of a society.
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Macrosociology