Chapter 1 Quiz: Evolution of Psychology

Applied psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with
Select one:
a. practical problems.
b. mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
c. unique qualities of people.
d. the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.
a. practical problems.

Two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of:
Select one:
a. philosophy and chemisty
b. physiology and chemistry
c. physics and philosophy
d. physiology and philosophy
d. physiology and philosophy

Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by
Select one:
a. studying observable behavior.
b. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
c. studying the function or purpose of consciousness.
d. analyzing conscious experience in its basic elements.
b. focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.

The emerging field in psychology that uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human experience is
Select one:
a. evolutionary psychology
b. creative psychology
c. humanism
d. positive psychology
d. positive psychology

Isabel is listening to a piece of classical music and tape recording all her feelings and impressions as she experiences them. Isabel is using a technique similar to the research methodology of
Select one:
a. behaviorism.
b. structuralism.
c. functionalism.
d. humanism.
b. structuralism.

_____ psychologists are concerned with changes in behavior throughout the life span.
Select one:
a. Developmental
b. Personality
c. Social
d. Cognitive
a. Developmental

Which of the following psychologists believed that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes?
Select one:
a. William James
b. Carl Rogers
c. B.F. Skinner
d. Sigmund Freud
c. B.F. Skinner

Functionalism was founded by
Select one:
a. William James Correct
b. Wilhelm Wundt
c. John Watson
d. Sigmund Freud_____ psychologists work in schools and primarily help individual children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems.
Select one:
a. Educational
b. Social
c. Counseling
d. School
d. School

The type of psychologist who would be most likely to study rats in a laboratory setting would be a
Select one:
a. psychoanalyst
b. structuralist
c. behaviorist
d. humanistic psychologist
c. behaviorist

Which of the following areas is most similar to clinical psychology?
Select one:
a. counseling psychology
b. school psychology
c. industrial psychology
d. social psychology
a. counseling psychology

The area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders is
Select one:
a. research psychology
b. applied psychology
c. medical psychology
d. clinical psychology
d. clinical psychology

____ psychologists work in schools and primarily help individual children having difficulties in school and aid parents and teachers in solving school-related problems.
Select one:
a. Educational
b. Social
c. Counseling
d. School
d. School

Decision-making, reasoning, problem-solving, and language are topics MOST likely to be studied by _____ psychologists.
Select one:
a. cognitive
b. evolutionary
c. behavioral
d. biological
a. cognitive

The widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations BEST describes a persons _____ heritage.
Select one:
a. cultural
b. legal
c. religious
d. socio-historical
a. cultural

The school of psychology that states “the task of psychology is to analyze conscious experience into its basic elements” is
Select one:
a. functionalism.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. structuralism.
d. behaviorism.
c. structuralism.

If you are like most students, cramming for an exam is aNo _____ study strategy.
Select one:
a. effective
b. beneficial
c. time-efficient
d. ineffective
d. ineffective

Which of the following psychologists is/are considered a humanistic psychologist?
Select one:
a. B.F. Skinner
b. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
c. Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener
d. Sigmund Freud
b. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

Which of the following BEST characterizes a psychologists current understanding of the relationship between heredity and environment?
Select one:
a. genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior
b. our cultural backgrounds exert a considerable influence over our behavior
c. motives and expectations can color our experiences
d. theoretical diversity is an important component of science
a. genetic factors and experience interact to shape behavior

According to the definition of psychology that appears in your textbook, psychology is both
Select one:
a. a school of thought and an occupation
b. a theory and an academic discipline
c. a science and a profession
d. a cognitive process and an undergraduate major
c. a science and a profession

Which of the following areas of research in psychology is concerned with understanding the role of the endocrine system in the regulation of behavior?
Select one:
a. developmental psychology
b. cognitive psychology
c. psychometrics
d. physiological psychology
d. physiological psychology

The term that refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge is
Select one:
a. empiricism.
b. cognition.
c. introspection.
d. pedagogy.
b. cognition.

Which of the following areas of specializations in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?
Select one:
a. school psychology
b. educational psychology
c. industrial/ organizational psychology
d. experimental psychology
b. educational psychology

The texts definition of psychology states that psychology is both a science and aNo
Select one:
a. academic subject
b. career
c. art
d. profession
d. profession

Which of the following is good advice for getting more out of class lectures?
Select one:
a. read along in the text as the instructor is lecturing
b. concentrate on writing down the definitions of terms
c. avoid interrupting the instructor by asking questions
d. read the relevant pages in the text before the lecture
d. read the relevant pages in the text before the lecture

Freud believed that we are often not the masters of our mind because of
Select one:
a. environmental influences acting on us.
b. the physiological functioning of our bodies.
c. introspection.
d. the unconscious.
d. the unconscious.

Skinner would agree with all the following statements except:
Select one:
a. individuals have free will
b. all behavior is governed by external consequences
c. organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes
d. organisms tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes
a. individuals have free will

The school of psychology that emphasizes unique qualities of people compared to other animals is
Select one:
a. cognitive psychology.
b. behaviorism.
c. humanism.
d. evolutionary psychology.
c. humanism.

The school of psychology associated with understanding the purpose of consciousness is
Select one:
a. behaviorism.
b. neodynamism.
c. psychoanalysis.
d. functionalism.
d. functionalism.

The biological perspective contends that to fully understand behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
Select one:
a. the adaptive value of a behavior
b. the role of the unconscious
c. internal mental events
d. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior
d. the interrelations among the mind, body, and behavior

Watson believed that psychology should
Select one:
a. only study observable behavior.
b. study the function or purpose of consciousness.
c. analyze conscious experience into its basic elements.
d. focus on unconscious determinants of behavior.
a. only study observable behavior.

Introspection is MOST likely to be used by _____ psychologists.
Select one:
a. humanist
b. behaviorist
c. structuralist
d. functionalist
c. structuralist

John Watson differed with Sir Francis Galton on this matter related to the field of psychology.
Select one:
a. home schooling vs .public schooling of children
b. behavioral vs. psychoanalytic clinical approaches
c. genetic vs. environmental influence on behavior
d. the relative effectiveness of reinforcement vs. punishment
c. genetic vs. environmental influence on behavior

Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle school children and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as
Select one:
a. psychometrics.
b. educational psychology.
c. cognitive psychology.
d. developmental psychology.
b. educational psychology.

A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics is most likely to be interested in
Select one:
a. explaining development across the life span
b. the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits
c. conducting psychotherapy
d. the development of techniques to monitor the functioning of the nervous system
b. the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits

The area of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders is
Select one:
a. applied psychology
b. medical psychology
c. clinical psychology
d. research psychology
c. clinical psychology

The cognitive perspective contends that to fully understand human behavior, psychologists need to focus attention on
Select one:
a. the adaptive value of a behavior
b. internal mental events
c. the role of the unconscious
d. the interrelations among the mind, body and behavior
b. internal mental events

Structuralism is the historical school of psychology that asserted that the purpose of psychology was to
Select one:
a. discover the smaller elements that comprise consciousness.
b. explore the unconscious.
c. study behavior.
d. examine the purpose of conscious processes.
a. discover the smaller elements that comprise consciousness.

While the term psychology has existed since at least the early 1700s, psychology did not come to be considered a science until
Select one:
a. the early 1800s.
b. the late 1800s.
c. the 1750s.
d. the 1940s.
b. the late 1800s.

Which of the following areas is MOST likely to be classified as an applied area of specialization in psychology?
Select one:
a. developmental psychology
b. experimental psychology
c. counseling psychology
d. psychometrics
c. counseling psychology

With which of the following individuals is B. F. Skinner MOST in agreement on the issue of internal mental events?
Select one:
a. John Watson
b. Abraham Maslow
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Wilhelm Wundt
a. John Watson