Chapter 1 Pretest

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Psychology is a social science discipline. Psychologists scientifically study ________.
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the mind and behavior
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Which of the following psychologists was a behaviorist?
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John Watson
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What was the primary conclusion of Stanley Milgram’s obedience research?
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Average people will harm others if told to do so by an authority figure.
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Which of the following is an example of an objective measure used by functionalists?
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examination of anatomy and physiology
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For a scientific explanation to be testable, it must also be ________.
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perceivable and measurable
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Introspection refers to a process by which someone examines ________ as objectively as possible.
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her own conscious experience
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When studying personality traits, someone who is hardworking, dependable, and organized will score high on the ________ trait.
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conscientiousness
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Marta is pursuing a graduate degree in psychology. As part of her program she must write a long research paper based on the data she spent the last year gathering. What is the long research paper called?
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dissertation
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Peter is interested in pursuing a ________ training program with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after he receives his PhD, which will allow him to further develop his research on adolescent suicide and broaden his research skills under the supervision of CDC researchers.
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postdoctoral
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Which of the following is a criticism of evolutionary psychology?
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It ignores non-genetic factors in determining human behavior.
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Select the correctly ordered list of psychological theorists, with the earliest theorist listed first.
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Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, Noam Chomsky
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According to the biopsychosocial model, what determines health?
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interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors
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What do industrial and organizational psychology, health psychology, sport and exercise psychology, forensic psychology, and clinical psychology all have in common?
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They are all examples of applied psychology. a. Job growth is greatest in these fields. b. They all focus on groups instead of individuals. c. They are all areas of psychology that developed in the 19th century. d. They are all examples of applied psychology.
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Psychoanalytic theory focuses on ________ and early childhood experiences.
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a person’s unconscious
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Susan wants to study prejudice, attraction, how we explain our own behavior versus how we explain the behavior of others, and how we resolve interpersonal conflicts. Susan should conduct research in the area of ________.
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social psychology
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A(n) ________ is a chamber that isolates the subject from the external environment.
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Skinner box
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Which of the following exemplifies the empirical method?
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Dr. Sarkeesian observes and records how watching cartoons influences heart rates.
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When studying personality traits, someone who is calm, even-tempered, and secure will score low on the ________ trait.
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neuroticism
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Lucy wants to study changes in cognitive skills, moral reasoning, and social behavior across the lifespan. Lucy should specialize in ________ psychology.
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developmental
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What should be changed to make the following sentence true? Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for evil.
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The word \”evil\” should be changed to the word \”good.\”
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Which of the following is a reason that Gestalt psychology did not become more popular in the United States?
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The rise of behaviorism overshadowed Gestalt psychology.
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William James was the ________.
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first American psychologist
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Which theorist published research related to the psychology of personality?
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Sigmund Freud
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What should be changed to make the following statement true? Jean Piaget is famous for his theories regarding changes in emotional ability that occur as we move from infancy to adulthood.
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The word \”emotional\” should be changed to the word \”cognitive.\”
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Which aspect of the scientific method occurs first?
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hypothesis
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Why do scientists refer to Charles Darwin’s ideas about evolution as the theory of evolution?
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It is the best understanding that we have of that part of the natural world.
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Which theorist had the most influence in shaping how clinicians interact with people seeking psychotherapy?
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Carl Rogers
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Which of the following does not influence perception?
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Gestalt
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Functionalist psychologists focus on the function of behavior and ________.
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the operation of the whole mind rather than the individual parts
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In developmental psychology, there is an increasing interest in researching cognitive changes that occur later in life. Why?
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Populations of developed nations are living longer.
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Which of the following is an example of research someone might conduct in the area of health psychology?
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whether people working at a desk are more likely to be obese
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Guillermo spends some time each day applying the principles of structuralism to examine his own conscious experience as carefully as possible. Guillermo is engaged in ________.
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introspection
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Cognitive psychology focuses on studying ________.
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thoughts and their relationship to our experiences and our actions
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In the study of personality, the ________ model includes dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion.
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Five Factor
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The cognitive revolution created an impetus for psychologists to focus their attention on better understanding ________.
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the mind and mental processes that underlie behavior
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Naghemeh wants to focus on the emotional, social, vocational, and health-related outcomes of individuals who are considered psychologically healthy. Which area of psychology should she work in?
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counseling psychology
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In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the ________ include food, water, and shelter.
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basic survival needs
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What is the number one occupation employing graduates with a BA in psychology?
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mid- and top-level management
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Oona wants to conduct research on personnel management, workplace environment, and what type of environment results in high levels of employee productivity and efficiency. Oona should conduct research in the area of ________ psychology.
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industrial-organizational
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Char heard from her friends that marijuana use can cure glaucoma so it should be legal in all 50 states. Char knows that she is biased in favor of marijuana legalization, so she decides to exercise some skepticism about this claim. She researches where her friends got their information, how reliable it is, and what other sources say about legalizing marijuana. Char is ________.
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thinking critically

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