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Chapter 1 Introduction to Social Psychology Essay

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Social Influence
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The effect of real or imagined others on your behavior/emotions/thoughts. Direct vs Indirect Clothes on our back.
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Social Psychology vs Folk Wisdom
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Purpose of Folk Wisdom Opposites attract/Bird’s of a feather Distance makes the heart grow fonder
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Social Psychologists
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Seek to understand what causes human behavior Social influence on individual behavior What influence does the media have on body image?
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Personality Psychologists
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Seek to understand what causes human behavior Individual differences in behavior Are certain types of people more altruistic?
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Sociologists
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Seek to understand what causes human behavior Group behavior How does proposition 32 affect the socio-economic status of minorities?
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Tendency to blame the personality not the situation Getting cut off while driving. My professor is a jerk!
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
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Have an expectation. Interpret ambiguous information based on the expectation. Other person reacts to your biased interpretation/actions. You observe what you expect.
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Behavioral Approach
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Observable behavior depends on observable stimuli Little Albert Study Rat and levers
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Gestalt Psychology
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A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s minds rather than the objective, physical attributes of the object. Perception > Reality The Israeli Negotiators Breaking up
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Construal
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The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world
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Two Basic Human Motives
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the need to feel good about ourselves and the need to be accurate.. 1. Accuracy -Social Cognition Approach 2. Self-Esteem -Self-Esteem Approach What happens when they clash? The need to feel good about our decisions can fly in the face of the need to be accurate and can have catastrophic consequences.
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Social Psychology to Solve Problems
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Mirrors and Stealing Eyes and Cheating Raising Children’s Intelligence
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social congnition
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how people think about themselves and the social world or more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
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what is social psychology and how is it different from other disciplines?
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It is the scientific study of the ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of other people. At the heart of social psychology is social influence: We are all influenced by other people!
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how social psychology differs from its closest cousins?
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When trying to explain social behavior—how an individual act within a social context (in relation to others)–personality psychologists explain the behavior in terms of the person’s individual character traits.While social psychologists would agree that personalities do vary, they explain social behavior in terms of the power of the social situation (as it is construed by the individual) to shape how one acts.
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what is more important: personality or situation?
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The power of the situation. When trying to convince people that their behavior is greatly influenced by the social environment, the social psychologist is up against a formidable barrier: All of us tend to explain people’s behavior in terms of their personalities.
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How did behaviorism and Gestalt psychology contribute to the development of social psychology thought?
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The Power of Social Interpretation:To understand social influence it is more important to understand how people perceive and interpret the social world than it is to understand that world objectively.
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what is the difference between the self-esteem approach and the social cognition approach?
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The Self-Esteem Approach: The Need to Feel Good about Ourselves Most people have a strong need to maintain reasonably high self-esteem, to see themselves as good, competent, and decent. Given the choice between distorting the world in order to feel good about themselves and representing the world accurately, people often take the first option. The Social Cognition Approach: The Need to Be Accurate The Social Cognition perspective is an approach to social psychology that takes into account the way in which human beings think about the world. Individuals are viewed as trying to gain accurate understandings so that they can make effective judgments and decisions that range from which cereal to eat to whom they will marry. In actuality, individuals typically act on the basis of incomplete and inaccurately interpreted information.
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how does social psychology differ from personality psychology?
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Soc Psych focuses on the processes that people have in common with one another that make them susceptible to social influence where as personality psychology focuses on individual differences
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Researchers who try to understand human behavior from the perspective of social cognition assume that…
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people try to view the world as accurately as possible
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The fundamental attribution error is best defined as the tendency to
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psychological process of individuals placing too much emphasis on the person and not the situation