Chapter 1 intro

A psychologist determines that children who are exposed
to violent television are more likely to be physically
aggressive in the future than children who are not exposed
to violent television. This psychologist has met the goal of:
prediction

The goal of psychology that is most concerned with using
psychological knowledge to help bring about desirable
behavioral outcomes is
control / Influence

An early school of psychology that was concerned with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their envoirment
functionalism

The idea that human behavior is influenced by (unconscious!!)
forces that are outside of a person’s awareness
(particularly sexual and aggressive forces) is advocated by
which area of psychology
psychoanalysis (childhood experiences)

A researcher who believes that all humans are innately
good and have free will is concerned with assessing the
factors that lead a person to develop to their fullest
potential. This researcher is most likely what type of
psychologist?
humanist (seeing something in a different way)

The field of psychology that believes that human
experience CANNOT be studied appropriately by breaking
down the experience into its smaller component parts is
called
Gestalt (see something in a whole, wit small things)

When psychologists carry out research, they should do all
of the following to ensure the integrity of their results
EXCEPT
Search for information in favor of their hypothesis

One criticism of many research methods, such as
experiments, is their artificiality in trying to capture behavior
as it might occur in the real world. One method that can be
used to overcome this by recording behavior as it occurs
in real time is called
Naturalistic observation

A researcher is interested in studying the effects of music
on academic performance in college students in the United
States. To make sure that the researcher gets a
representative sample of the population she wants to study,
she must:
engage in random sampling

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses
the strongest relationship between levels of stress and
likelihood of cancer?
-.90 (p. 21)

The only research method that can be used to draw a
cause and effect relationship between two variables is:
Experiment (p. 23)

Which provides a baseline measure of behavior for
comparing whether or not the independent variable
had an effect on the dependent variable?
A control group (p. 25)

A researcher examines the effects of marijuana on
cognitive functioning. He assigns adults who receive less
than 5 hours of sleep per night to the experimental
condition, and adults who receive 8 hours of sleep or more
per night to the control condition, and concludes that
marijuana does lower cognitive functioning. Sleep is
A confounding variable (p. 26)

A double blind study is one in which:
both the researcher and experimenter do not know to which group the subject has been assigned. (p.26)

All of the following are ethical guidelines set forth by the
American Psychological Association EXCEPT
The importance of research findings outweighs any potential harm to a handful of subjects (p. 29)

People usually fall in love with someone very different from themselves. In other words, opposites attract
false

People with one eye still can see in three dimensions.
true

It is an optical illusion when the moon appears larger on the horizon than it does when it is overhead.
true

Homosexuality is a mental disorder
false

Hypnosis can help people to accurately recall a crime scene
false

Blind people have more sensitive senses of hearing and touch
false

Psychology is a science
true

psychology
study of behavior and mental emotions

What are the goals of psychology?
Describe, Explain, Predict, Change

What are the 7 steps in psychology?
Observe, Research, Hypothesis, create testable study, conduct, results, conclusion

What are the 4 Descriptive researches?
Naturalistic Observation, Law Observation, Case Study, Population/Sample

What are the 2 Experimental Methods?
IV/DV Control, experimental bias

What are the Ethics in research?
Animal use, children, drugs

What are the 4 D’s?
Dysfunction, Danger, Distress, Deviance

What are the five features of idiographic?
Culture, Religion, Background, Environment, Media

scientific method
systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify research problem, design a study to investigate the problem, collect and analyze data, draw conclusions, and communicate their findings.

theory
A general principle or set of principles proposed to explain how a number of separate facts are related

hypothesis
A prediction about a relationship between two or more variables

What are the steps for scientific method?
observe and theorize, formulate a hypothesis, design a study, collect data, apply results to the hypothesis

replication
the process of repeating a study with different participants and preferably a different investigator to verify research findings

description
describe behavior or mental process as accurately as possible

Explanation (Explain)
Suggest causes for behavior or mental processes of interest

Prediction
Specify conditions under which behavior or mental process is likely to occur

Influence (Change)
Apply the results of a study to change a condition in order to bring about a desired real-world outcome or prevent an undesired real-world outcome

Who were the first three to systematically study behavior and mental processes?
Ernst Weber, Gustav Fechner, Hermann von Helmholts

basic research
Research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding

applied research
Research conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life

structuralism
the first formal school of thought in psychology , which endeavored to analyze the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience

Applied research addresses the ________ goal
Influence

The four goals of psychology are___________
describe,explain, predict, influence(change)

__________ is the process of repeating a study to determine whether the results were reliable
replication

The orderly, systematic procedures scientists follow in acquiring a body of knowledge comprise the ____________
scientific method

behaviorism
the school of psychology founded by John B. Watson that views observable, measurable,behavior as the the appropriate subject matter for psychology and emphasizes the key role of environment as a determinant of behavior

Humanistic Psychology
the school of psychology that focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychology health

cognitive psychology
the school of psychology that views humans as active participants in their environment; studies mental processes such as memory, problem solving, reasoning, decision making, perception, and language

information processing theory
An approach to the study of mental structures and processes that uses the computer as a model for humans thinking

evolutionary psychology
the school of psychology that studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental pressures over the long course

biological psychology
the school of psychology that looks for links between specific behaviors and equally specific biological processes that often help explain individual differences

Neuroscience
An interdisciplinary field that combines the work of psychologists, biologists,biochemists, medical researchers, and others in the study of the structure and function of the nervous system

sociocultural approach
The view the social and cultural factors may be just as powerful as evolutionary and physiological factors in affecting behavior and mental processing and that these factors must be understood when interpreting the behavior of others

psychological perspectives
general points of view used for explaining people’s behavior and thinking, whether normal or abnormal

critical thinking
the process of objectively evaluating claims, propostions, and conclusions to determine whether they follow logically from the evidence presented

pseudoscience
the distortion of theories, and / or research for the purpose of supporting some kind of claim

descriptive research methods
research methods that yield descriptions of behavior

naturalistic observation
A descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural setting, without attempting to influence or control it

Laboratory observation
A descriptive research method in which behavior is studied in a laboratory setting, where researchers can exert more control and use more precise equipment to measure responses

case study
A descriptive research method in which a single person or a small number of individuals are studied in great depth, usually over an extended period of time

survey
A descriptive research method in which researches use interviews and / or questionnaires to gather information about the attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviors of a group of people

population
the entire group of interest to researches, to which they wish to generalize their findings; the group from which a sample is selected

sample
A part of a population that is studied in order to reach conclusions about the entire population

representative sample
a sample that mirrors the population of interest interest; it includes important subgroups in the same proportions as they are found in that population

correlational method
A research method used to establish the degree of relationship between two characteristics, events, or behaviors

correlation coefficient
A numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables; ranges from +1.00 to -1.00

experimental method
the only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more conditions or variables

causal hypothesis
A prediction about a cause effect relationship between two or more variables

independent variable
In an experiment, a factor or condition that is deliberately manipulated in order to determine whether it causes any changes in another behavior condition

dependent variable
the factor or condition that is measured at the end of an experiment and is presumed to vary as a result of the manipulations of the independent variables

experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to an independent variable

control group
In an experiment, group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment; used for purposes of comparison

selection bias
The assignment of partcipants to experimental or control groups in such a way that systematic differences among the groups are present at the beginning of the experiment

placebo
An invert or harmless substance given to the control group in an experiment as a control for the placebo effect

placebo effect
the phenomenon that occurs in an experiment when a participant’s response to a treatment is due to his or her expectations about the treatment rather than to the treatment itself