Chapter 1 Human Anatomy And Physiology Pearson Answers

Flashcard maker : Stephen Sanchez
Gross/Macroscopic Anatomy
Large structures and easily observable
Microscopic Anatomy
Very small structures and can only be viewed with a micrscope
Cytology
Form of microscopic anatomy. Considers cells of body
Histology
Form of microscopic anatomy. Study of tissues.
Levels of Structural Organisms
Chemical Level, Cellular Level, Tissue Level, Organ Level, Organ System, Organismal System
Tissues
Groups of similar cells that have common function. For complex organisms
Basic Tissue Types
Epithelium, Muscle, Connective tissue, Nervous tissue
Organ
Discrete structure composed of 2+ types of tissues
Necessary Living Fuctions
Maintaining boundaries, Movement, Responsiveness, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, Reproduction, Growth
Survival Needs
Nutrients, Oxygen, Stable Body Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure, Water
Homeostasis
“Wisdom of the body”/ ability to maintain stable internal conditions/state of balance
Chemical Level
Atoms combine to form molecules
Cellular Level
Cells are made up of molecules
Tissue Level
For complex organisms, consist of similar types of cells
Organ Level
Made up of different types of tissues
Organ System Level
Different organs that work together for common purpose
Organismal Level
Highest level, sum of structural levels working together to promote life
Integumentary System
Forms external body covering, protects deep tissues from injury, site of feeling receptors, and sweat oil glands (hair,skin,nails)
Skeletal System
Protects and supports body organs, provides frameworks for muscles to cause movement, stores minerals (bones, joints)
Metabolism
broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells
Muscular System
Allows manipulation of environment, facial expression, maintains posture, produces heat (skeletal muscles)
Lymphatic System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood; Maintains blood volume and pressure, immunity (red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, lymph nodes)
Respiratory
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lung, bronchus)
Digestive System
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible foods are eliminated as feces (oral cavity, esophagus, liver, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, anus)
Nervous System
fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands (brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord, nerves)
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells (pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovary, testis)
Cardiovascular System
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood (blood vessels, heart)
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood (Kidney, Ureter, Urinary Bladder, Urethra)
Male Reproductive System
Main function is to produce and deliver sperm (prostate gland, seminal vesicles, penis, vas deferens, testis, scrotum)
Female Reproductive System
Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
Sagittal Plane
Divides body into left and right portion
Midsagittal/Median Plane
Sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
Frontal/Coronal Plane
Lies vertically, divides body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse/Horizontal Plane
Runs horizontally dividing body into superior and interior parts
Dorsal Body Cavity
Protects nervous system organs and has 2 subdivisions; cranial cavity and vertebral/spinal cavity
Cranial Cavity
Subdivision of dorsal body cavity;in skull (encloses brain)
Spinal Cavity
Subdivision of dorsal body cavity (encloses spinal cord)
Ventral Body Cavity
anterior cavity has two subdivisions; thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Thoracic Cavity
superior subdivision of ventral body cavity, surrounded by ribs and muscles of chest (contains the heart, lungs, trachea, thymus gland)
Mediastinum
subdivision of thoracic cavity, area between lungs; contains the pericardial cavity
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Subdivision of ventral body cavity; consist of abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity (contains digestive system, reproductive system, some urinary system organs)
Abdominal Cavity
Superior portion of abdominopelvic cavity contains stomach, intestines and
Pelvic Cavity
Inferior portion of abdominopelvic cavity lies in pelvis; contains reproductive organs, rectum and bladde
Nasal
Nose
Cervical
Neck
Acromial
point of shoulder
Axillary
armpit
Brachial
Arm
Antecubital
front of elbow
Antebrachial
forearm
Carpal
wrist
Palmar
Palm
Digital
fingers and toes
Patellar
anterior knee
Crural
leg
Pedal
foot
Tarsal
ankle
Fibular/Peroneal
side of leg
Femoral
thigh
Inguinal
groin
Coxal
hip
Thoracic
chest
Sternal
breastbone
Mental
chin
Buccal
cheek
Orbital
eye
Frontal
forehead
Cephalic
head
Occipital
back of head, base of skull
Acromial
point of shoulder
Vertebral
spinal column
Scapular
Shoulder blade
Dorsum/ Dorsal
Back
Olecranal
back of elbow
Lumbar
Loin; lower back side
Sacral
area between hips (from back)
Gluteal
buttocks
Popliteal
back of knee
Sural
calf
Calcaneal
heel
Plantar
sole
what usually reacts quicker the nervous system or the endocrine system? why?
The nervous system because its a direct link to the brain to send messages
Physiology
study of how the body and the parts work and function
Anatomy
Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts
Effectors
Negative Feedback, Positive Feedback
Complete process of homeostasis through the homeostatic control mechanism
1. stimulus provides change in the environment
2. receptor detects change
3. message sent through afferent pathway to control center
4. message sent through efferent pathway from control center to effector
5. effecter sends response to increase, decrease, or stop initial stimulus
Responsiveness
necessary life function that is the ability to sense changes in the environment and to react to them; so if you cut your hand on glass, you will pull your hand back from the painful stimulus
homeostasis
the body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even thought the outside world is continuously changing

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