Chapter 1 Chemistry Review

What is chemistry?
The study of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and their changes

What branch of chemistry is most concerned with the study of carbon compounds?

What is meant by the word “chemical”, as used by scientists?
A substance that has a definite composition

Briefly describe the differences between basic research, applied research, and technological development. Provide an example for each.
Basic research is carried out to increase knowledge; (Ex. How and why a reaction occurs).
Applied research is practical problem solving; (Ex. Developing new compounds useful as refrigerants).
Technological development involves using existing knowledge to improve quality of life (Ex. Using optical fibers for communications networks).

What is mass?
A measure of amount of matter

What is volume?
A measure of an amount of space

How does the composition of a pure compound differ from that of a mixture?
The proportions of elements in a pure substance are fixed

Define property
Any characteristic of a substance or material

How are properties useful in classifying materials?
Useful for classifying unknown materials as members of known groups or subgroups of substances, or to identify substances directly

What is the difference between extensive properties and intensive properties?
Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Intensive properties help to identify the substance.

Define physical property and list 2 examples of physical properties
A property that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance (Ex. color, odor, length, size, and melting point)

Define chemical property and list 2 examples of chemical properties
A property that describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes that alter its identity (Ex. burning coal, and of iron to rust)

Distinguish between a physical change and a chemical change
Physical change does not involve a change in a substance’s identity; Chemical change converts on substance into other substances.