Chapter 1 Chemistry Review

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What is chemistry?
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The study of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and their changes
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What branch of chemistry is most concerned with the study of carbon compounds?
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Organic
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What is meant by the word “chemical”, as used by scientists?
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A substance that has a definite composition
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Briefly describe the differences between basic research, applied research, and technological development. Provide an example for each.
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Basic research is carried out to increase knowledge; (Ex. How and why a reaction occurs). Applied research is practical problem solving; (Ex. Developing new compounds useful as refrigerants). Technological development involves using existing knowledge to improve quality of life (Ex. Using optical fibers for communications networks).
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What is mass?
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A measure of amount of matter
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What is volume?
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A measure of an amount of space
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How does the composition of a pure compound differ from that of a mixture?
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The proportions of elements in a pure substance are fixed
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Define property
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Any characteristic of a substance or material
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How are properties useful in classifying materials?
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Useful for classifying unknown materials as members of known groups or subgroups of substances, or to identify substances directly
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What is the difference between extensive properties and intensive properties?
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Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present. Intensive properties help to identify the substance.
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Define physical property and list 2 examples of physical properties
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A property that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance (Ex. color, odor, length, size, and melting point)
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Define chemical property and list 2 examples of chemical properties
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A property that describes the ability of a substance to undergo changes that alter its identity (Ex. burning coal, and of iron to rust)
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Distinguish between a physical change and a chemical change
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Physical change does not involve a change in a substance’s identity; Chemical change converts on substance into other substances.

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