Chapter 1-4 Study Questions

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The primary relationships studied by sociologists are the ones between
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individuals and society
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Which is an accurate description of sociology
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the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society, of how social relationships influence people’s behavior, and how major social institutions and individuals interact
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The sociological imagination
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is an awareness of the relationship between individuals and social forces
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One way to develop a sociological imagination is to view your own society
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as an outsider
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A sociologist observing behavior at a college football game would probably focus on
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the interaction among fans during the pre-game ritual of tailgate parties
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Which of the following would be an example of the use of the sociological imagination
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a study of the behavior of people listening to a religious service compared to that of people listening to a rock concert
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Unemployment can be viewed as
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both a private trouble and a public issue
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The sociological imagination is an empowering tool because it
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helps us to understand the perspectives of people from different social circumstances
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The fact that it is possible to make a hamburger without having to personally complete every one of the many steps that go into making a hamburger from scratch illustrates
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society’s shared knowledge and skills
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Which of the following are the key components of the definition of sociology
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systematic study, the individual and society, and the consequences of social differences
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The fact that men in Indonesia are more likely to survive certain kinds of natural disaster, because men in that society are generally taught to swim while women are not, is an example of
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the consequences of differences
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A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is referred to as
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social inequality
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A body of knowledge obtained by methods based on systematic observation is called a
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science
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Sociology is considered a science because sociologists
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engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding
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Fields of study that explore the ways the behavior features of humans interact and change are considered
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social sciences
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Fields of study that explore the physical features of nature and the ways in which they interact and change are considered
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natural sciences
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A natural scientist would be likely to study
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rock formations and composition in the Grand Canyon
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A social scientist would be likely to study the
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reasons for the decreasing divorce rate in the United States
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Which of the following would be the type of question a sociologist might ask in studying the global economic crisis that began in 2008
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how do the positions we occupy influence our experience of the crisis
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Sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, commonsense conclusions are
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unreliable
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A sociological study of the divorce rate among U.S. soldiers served to
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emphasize the distinction between sociology and common sense
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A set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior is called a
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theory
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Emile Durkheim’s study of suicide relate suicide ages to
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the extent to which people were integrated into the group life of a society
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Emile Durkheim’s explanation of suicide was scientific because he
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developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data
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Which of the following statements is an example of a sociological theory
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suicide rates are a reflection of whether people are, or are not, integrated into the group life of a society
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Which sociologist established Europe’s first university department of sociology
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Emile Durkheim
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Which of the following is true about August Comte
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he sought to establish a science that would reveal basic “laws of society”, he thought humans could learn to understand the forces that helped society to maintain order and stability, he though humans could learn to understand the forces that caused society to change
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Which of the following is true about Harriet Martineau
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she introduced the significance of inequality and power into the discipline of sociology, and she believed scholars should be activists and not just commentators
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Harriet Martineau argued that we could learn a lot about a culture by analyzing the ideas, themes, and images reflected in which type of cultural product
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popular songs
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Anomie refers to
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loss of direction that is felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
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In many emerging nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in emerging nations are likely to suffer
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anomie
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Durkheim was particularly concerned about
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the loss of social order
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Which of the following did Karl Marx view as the key factor distinguishing humans from animals
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human’s ability to transform raw material into finished products
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In Karl Marx’s analysis, social inequality is determined by
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ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources
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Max Weber’s theory of power included
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social status and organizational resources
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Sociological studies that focus on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations are defined as
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macrosociology
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A study of divorce rates among the populations of Canada, England, the United States, and France is an example of
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macrosociology
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Which of the following stresses the study of small groups
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microsociology
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A sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. This would be an example of
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microsociology
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Erving Goffman popularized the dramaturgical approach, which
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compares everyday life to a theatrical performance
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W. E. B. Du Bois investigated power and inequality based on
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race
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Ida Wells-Barnett investigated power and inequality based on
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gender and race
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Which of the following is true about Jane Addams
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she used sociology as a tool to improve the lives of the urban poor
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Which of the following is a functionalist perspective
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society is structured to maintain stability
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Which sociological perspective would suggest that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society’s stability, then it does not serve a useful function
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functionalist perspective
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A functionalist perspective would be most likely to argue that the existence of big-city political machines suggests
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that these political organizations satisfy certain basic social needs
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Which sociological perspective emphasizes the distribution of power and the allocation of resources
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conflict perspective
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Critics of television often suggest that executives of major television networks and movie corporations are wealthy, White males who divide which programs or movies will be produced and which directors and actors will obtain jobs in the industry. This analysis reflects the
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conflict perspective
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With which of the following conflicting groups are contemporary conflict theorists concerned
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women and men, the wealthy and poor, and blacks and whites
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Interactionist perspective
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uses everyday forms of social interaction to explain society as a whole
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Which sociological approach would argue that people respect laws or disobey them based on their own past experience as well as their subjective understanding of the law
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interactionist perspective
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Which sociological perspective would argue that laws reinforce the positions of those in power
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conflict perspective
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Which sociological perspective would argue that public punishments reinforce the social order
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functionalist perspective
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Which sociological perspective would argue that social change is predictable in the progression toward great order
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functionalist perspective
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The view that social order is maintained through cooperation and consensus would most likely be held by
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functionalists
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Which sociological perspective would suggest that social change is reflected in people’s communication patterns and social positions
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interactionist perspective
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In general, sociologists tend to
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draw insights from all three major sociological perspectives.
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Personal sociology
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requires recognition of how our individual position in society shapes our perspective.
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Using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as
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applied sociology.
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Which of the following statements is true
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clinical sociology is dedicated to facilitating change by altering organizations or restructuring social institutions
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The worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas is known as
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globalization
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A sociological relationship between the individual and society is one in which the choices of the individual are determined by the individual’s societal position. T/F
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False
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Given C. Wright Mills’ description of the sociological imagination as our ability to see the interaction between history and biography, it follows that neither society nor the individual can be understood in isolation from the other. T?F
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True
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The main purpose of the “hamburger as miracle” story is to show that, when the need arises, all individuals are capable of achieving their goals without the help of others. T/F
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False
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The observation by sociologists that the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed a higher proportion of men than women is an example of the importance of the consequences of difference. T/F
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True
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Sociology can most accurately be considered a natural science because it involves the systematic examination of the effects of human nature on society T/F
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False
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The fact that sociologists have found little difference between the sexes in terms of talkativeness is an example of why the systematic analysis of facts is generally more reliable than common sense knowledge T/F
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True
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According to Durkheim’s theory about the causes of suicide, the more interconnected and interdependent a society’s members, the lower its suicide rate should be. T/F
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True
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Of the three main sociological perspectives, the dramaturgical approach, as popularized by Erving Goffman, would best be considered an example of the interactionist perspective T/F
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True
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A sociologist who views religion as a societal institution that functions to preserve existing inequalities is most likely to be a conflict theorist in terms of perspective. T/F
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True
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Of the various ways to practice sociology, the way that offers the most direct link between theory and practice is clinical sociology. T/F
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True
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Which of the following is true of sociology
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it represents a conversation between theory and research
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The scientific method
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maximizes consistency in research
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If you were interested in studying the relationship between date and acquaintance rape victims and the characteristics of the rapist, your first step would be to
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define a problem to study
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Defining a sociological problem involves
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explicitly identifying the concepts you want to learn more about
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An operational definition is
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the transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable
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Which of the following best describes theories
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they are our most informed explanations of what happens and why
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Which of the following would be least likely to be used in formulating an operational definition for a study on racial bias in the workplace
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the narrative of a single person describing an incident of employment discrimination
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When researching a concept, why do sociologists conduct a review of the available literature
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to refine the problem under study, to clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data, to eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes
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A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a
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hypothesis
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The statement “Women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have babies” is an example of
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a hypothesis
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A variable is
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a measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions
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Which of the following can serve as a variable in a study
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marital status, ethnic background, age
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The relationship between variables in which a change in one leads to a change in the other is known as
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casual logic
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The statement “People who live in poverty have shorter life expectancies than wealthier citizens” is an example of
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a hypothesis
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The causal variable that brings about change is known as a(n)
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independent variable
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Which of the following would be considered the independent variable in the statement “People who live in poverty have shorter life expectancies than wealthier citizens”
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level of income
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Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is a(n)
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independent variable
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The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the
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dependent variable
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The relationship between two variables in which a change in one coincides with a change in the other is known as a(n)
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correlation
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Individuals who have divorced parents are more likely to experience long-term adverse effects than individuals who have parents who did not divorce. This statement is an example of a(n)
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correlation
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In which type of sample does each member of the entire population have the same chance of being selected
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a random sample
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If researchers wanted to examine the opinions of people listed in a city directory, they might call every tenth or fiftieth or hundredth name listed. This would constitute a
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random sample
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Valid research measures
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accurately reflect the phenomenon under study
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Which of the following would be considered a valid measure of an individual’s intelligence
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None of the answers are correct – not the individual’e employment, or the researchers opinion, or the number of years of school that the individual has completed
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A research measure that provides consistent results is considered
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reliable
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A factor held constant to test the relative impact of the independent variable is known as a
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control variable
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Which of the following is true about a research design
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it is a detailed plan or method for scientifically obtaining data
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Developing an effective research design is important because it directly influences both the amount of time needed to collect the data and the
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cost of the project
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To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as
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a survey
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In order to provide information that is useful, open-ended survey questions
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must be worded accurately and without bias
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The results of an interview may be influenced by
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the gender of the interviewer or the race of the interviewer
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Surveys most often represent ______ research, which collects and reports data primarily in numerical form
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quantitative
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The number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values is referred to as the
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mean
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The midpoint, or number that divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values, is referred to as the
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median
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Which number would be considered the mode of the following: 10-10-9-9-8-8-7-7-7-6-5
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7
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Research that relies on what sociologists observe in the field and naturalistic settings, and that often focuses on small groups and communities, is referred to as
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qualitative research
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Researchers who use sociological observation to collect data do so by either watching a group or by
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directly participating in a group
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A sociologist attends meetings at all the schools and churches in his community over several years, and meets as many residents as he can for the purpose of exploring all facets of the community’s social life. He then compiles a detailed description of the community. He is conducting a(n)
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ethnography
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The initial obstacle participant observers encounter is
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gaining acceptance into an unfamiliar group
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Once a researcher has been accepted into a group, a major challenge of participant observation is
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maintaining a degree of detachment
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An artificially created situation that allows a researcher to manipulate variables is known as a(n)
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experiment
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In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the independent variable is called the
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control group
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Sociologists performing research
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tend to use both laboratory experiments and field work, but not in conjunction with each other
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A sociologist decides to study the interaction among students in the college’s computer center. When the students realize they are under observation, they become shy and reserved in their interactions. This is an example of
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the Hawthorne effect
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Which of the following is true about Devah Pager’s research
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it attempted to approximate experimental conditions in the field
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Secondary analysis includes a variety of research techniques that
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use previously collected and publicly accessible information and data
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If a sociologist uses information gathered by the United States Census Bureau in a study, that sociologist is performing
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a secondary analysis
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Sociologists consider secondary analysis to be
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a nonreactive form of research
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An inherent problem in using secondary sources of data is that
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researchers may not find the exact data needed for their research
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A researcher studies adolescent attitudes about senior citizens by analyzing depictions of the elderly in the lyrics of popular music and the content of teen magazines. This is an example of
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content analysis
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Erving Goffman’s pioneering exploration of how advertisements portray women as dependent upon men is an example of
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content analysis
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Which of the following is included in the code of ethics for sociology
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using appropriate research techniques, maintaining integrity in research, remaining unbiased and nondiscriminatory
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Which of the following is not incorporated into the basic principles of the code of ethics for sociology
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a required number of data sources
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Rik Scarce’s jail experience in 1993 revealed the potential consequences of
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maintaining the confidentiality of sources
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After the 1989 Valdez disaster, the Exxon Corporation sought out many experts, including sociologists, to study jury deliberations. Which of the following was a major ethical concern for these sociologists
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Funding from Exxon might influence the results of the studies
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According to value neutrality, investigators have an ethical obligation to accept research findings even when the data run counter to which of the following
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their own personal views, theoretically based explanations, widely accepted beliefs
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Joyce Ladner’s The Death of White Sociology called attention to
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the tendency of mainstream sociology to investigate the lives of African Americans only in the context of social problems
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Which of the following is true about Shulamit Reinharz
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she argued that sociological research should be open to drawing on relevant research by nonsociologists
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Feminist sociologists
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view work and family as interrelated topics
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Which of the following statements is true about the contributions of feminist sociologists?
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they have difficulty maintaining value neutrality due to the subject of their research
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One important goal of applying the scientific method to the study of society is to ensure that the researchers’ own values and opinions are allowed to influence the results. T/F
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False
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The purpose of transforming a concept into its operational definition is to make the concept easier to observe and measure T/F
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True
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In the hypothesis “the more socially integrated a person, the less likely that person is to commit suicide,” level of social integration is the independent variable. T/F
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True
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If x is correlated with y, then by definition, x must be the cause of y. T/F
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False
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If x causes y, then by definition, x must be correlated with y. T/F
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True
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For the purposes of data analysis, the most important quality of a sample is that it is representative of the population from which it is drawn T/F
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True
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One way to ensure that a sample is representative of the broader population from which it is taken is to ensure that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample. T/F
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True
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If the same questionnaire about income and education is given to the same person at two different times, and nothing significant has changed between the two times, the responses should be the same, and if they are not, the questionnaire can best be described as invalid. T/F
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False
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Of the two main types of survey instrument—the face-to-face interview and the questionnaire—the use of a questionnaire is likely to generate the higher response rate because it allows more time for the respondent to respond. T/F
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False
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While sociologists use a variety of different approaches to the study of social phenomena, they all accept that value-neutrality is essential in the interpretation of data. T/F
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False
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The totality of our shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior is known as
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culture
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Culture helps us to
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interpret information received by our senses
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Which of the following best defines a society
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the structure of relationships within which culture is created and shared
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Which of the following best explains the role of a society
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it provides the context within which cultural relationships develop
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Cultural preferences vary across societies. Which of the following is an example of a cultural preference
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marriage ceremonies, methods of education, religious doctrines
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Common practices and beliefs shared by all societies are called
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cultural universals
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In his research, George Murdock determined that
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although all cultures share common denominators, how cultures address these practices and beliefs varies greatly
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What is the most common stance among researchers on the “nature vs. nurture” debate
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they view the debate as inadequate
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Sociobiology is the systematic study of
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how biology affects human social behavior
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Which of the following would be of interest to a sociobiologist
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the explanation of how our thoughts and actions are linked to our genes
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Innovation interests sociologists because it
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often has continuing effects beyond the initial change
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Which of the following is a method through which culture is diffused
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military conquest, tourism, the Internet
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Which of the following would be an example of discovery
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the identification of bacteria
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Which of the following would be an example of invention
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superconductors
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Which of the following examples illustrates the rapid globalization of culture
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starbucks stores in China
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English-speaking people in the United States commonly use words whose origins are from various African, Asian, and non-English-speaking European cultures. This is an example of
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cultural diffusion
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In practice, globalization has led to which of the following phenomena
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the cultural domination of developing nations by developed nations, people in developing nations often discarding their traditional values, and native cultures being threatened by Western popular culture
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The physical or technological aspects of our daily lives represent
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material culture
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Which of the following is an example of material culture
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a slice of pizza
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Which of the following is true about cognitive culture
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it consists of our mental and symbolic representations of reality
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Which of the following is a component of cognitive culture
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language
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Which of the following is true about the pace at which nonmaterial culture changes?
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it is more resistant to change than material culture
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What is cultural lag?
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an adjustment period when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions
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Culture lag occurs because people in most societies are
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more likely to change their material culture than their nonmaterial culture
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Which of the following is true about language?
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it includes speech, writing, and nonverbal gestures
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Which of the following is true about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
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It argues that the language we use shapes our perception of reality
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In some parts of the United States, horse breeding is commonplace. People involved in breeding have developed different words to distinguish between breeds, sizes, and sexes of horses, and these words are not very familiar to people who are uninvolved in the “horse world.” This is an example of
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the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
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What is one of the contributions the feminist perspective has made to the study of language?
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It suggests that gender-related language reflects traditional acceptance of men and women in certain occupations.
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The words blacklist and white lie are examples of
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language that can promote racial stereotypes.
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Which of the following is an example of nonverbal communication?
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a high five, a hug, a frown
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Collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable, and proper (or bad, undesirable, and improper) are known as
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values
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Which of the following is true about the list of U.S. basic values offered by sociologist Robin Williams?
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It includes the values of freedom, equality, morality, democracy, and conformity
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In surveys of first-year college students over the last 40 years, which value has shown the strongest gain in popularity?
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being very well-off financially
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Which of the following is true about norms?
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they are established standards of behavior maintained by a society, they must be widely shared and understood, they are classified as formal or informal
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Formal norms enforced by the state are
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laws
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Informal norms are
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generally understood but not precisely recorded
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While attending a prestigious lecture at a New York City museum, Bob noisily belches several times and picks his nose. He is violating
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informal norms
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Mores are
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norms that are deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society
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Which of the following is true about folkways?
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They are norms that govern everyday behavior
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Which of the following is not a culturally learned behavior?
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instincts
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Within the traditional Buddhist areas of Southeast Asia, in the sleeping cars of trains, women do not sleep in upper berths above men. This norm
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reinforces patterns of male dominance
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Which of the following is an example of a norm that is often ignored because of weak enforcement?
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teenage drinking of alcohol and use of shady accounting techniques in business
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Which of the following is an example of a practice that appears to violate the norms of society in general, but actually represents adherence to the norms of a particular group?
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teenage drinking of alcohol and use of shady accounting techniques in business
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Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm are known as
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sanctions
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A Girl Scout works hard on a difficult project, and when she has completed her work, she is given a badge that she can wear on her uniform. This is an example of
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a sanction
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A dominant ideology is a
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set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitimate existing powerful social, economic, and political interests
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Which of the following is a limitation of the dominant ideology thesis?
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Significant shifts in cultural values occur from generation to generation
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In the United States, professional gamblers, Armenian Americans, teenagers, and nudists are all examples of
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subcultures
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The use of terms like g-man, honey boat, and airmail by sanitation workers in New York City is an example of
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argot
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Which of the following is the best example of a counterculture within the United States?
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hippies
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Armed militia groups, such as the one that was involved in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, are an example of
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both a subculture and a counterculture
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Which of the following constitutes culture shock?
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The feeling of disorientation that is experienced when people encounter cultural practices different from their own
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A man from a very conservative culture travels to a country where the culture is more liberal. As he walks down the sidewalk, he is startled to see women wearing pants and even shorts instead of the long skirts and dresses worn by women in his culture. He is experiencing
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culture shock
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The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent what is normal or are superior to all others is called
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ethnocentrism
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Students who return home after studying abroad and soldiers returning home from war often experience a kind of reverse culture shock, which reflects
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how much we take culture for granted.
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A member of a new fundamentalist church believes that she has found the one true way to achieve salvation, and that members of other religions are pagans who will go directly to hell when they die. This is an example of
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ethnocentricism
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Which of the following is an example of ethnocentrism?
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People from India being repelled by the common American practice of living in the same household with dogs and cats.
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In which country did ethnocentric value judgments hamper United States efforts to build a democracy?
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Iraq
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A United States sociologist receives a grant to study racial and religious prejudice among the peoples of Southeast Asia. The sociologist makes a serious and unbiased effort to evaluate the norms, values, and customs of these groups in light of the distinctive cultures of which they are a part. This is an example of
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cultural relativism.
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Which of the following concepts employs the kind of value neutrality that Max Weber saw as so important?
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cultural relativism
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One of the reasons why we need culture is that it helps us to make sense of, and relate to, the physical world around us. T/F
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True
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George Murdock found that there are 70 categories of true cultural universals T/F
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False
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Humans have more control over their own destinies if they are the product of nature rather than nurture. T/F
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False
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In general, sociobiologists emphasize how social behavior can influence our biological evolution as a species T/F
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False
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The main difference between discovery and invention is that only invention involves the creation of something that did not previously exist T/F
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True
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The diffusion of cultures across national borders can have positive and negative effects. The negative effects are most likely to be experienced by developing rather than developed countries. T/F
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True
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Language can be described as being “socially constructed” because it has no inherent meaning other than that assigned to it by humans. T/F
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True
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One important implication of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is that the capacity to conceptualize the world must evolve before language can emerge. T/F
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False
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Wearing formal clothes in an informal setting would be an example of violating a formal norm. T/F
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False
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The use of argot helps clarify the boundary between “insider” members of a subculture and other “outsider” members of society. T/F
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True
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The relative importance of biological inheritance and environmental factors in human development is referred to as the debate over
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nature vs nurture
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Which of the following best describes the process of socialization?
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Learning the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
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A teacher plans a trip to the theater for a junior high school class. As part of the preparation, the teacher tells students how they should dress and how they will be expected to act inside the theater. This is an example of
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socialization
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The analysis of Genie and Danielle is important because it emphasizes the importance of
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the earliest socialization experiences in human development.
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Harry Harlow’s research with rhesus monkeys and “artificial mothers” revealed that
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monkeys developed greater social attachments based on their need for intimacy than on their need for food.
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Studies of identical twins who were raised apart have
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failed to conclusively decided the debate over the influences of nature and nurture
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Which of the following is true about the self?
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It is a distinct identity that sets us apart from others
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Which of the following statements is true about the looking-glass self?
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It is a theory that you become who you are based on how you think others see you.
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Which of the following is the first phase of the looking-glass self?
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imagining how others see us
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According to the theory of the looking-glass self, our self-identities are based on
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our perceptions of how others see us.
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George Herbert Mead argued that the self has two core components
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the “I” and the “Me”
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For George Herbert Mead, the self represents an ongoing interaction between
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our socialized self and our acting self
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For a student sitting in a classroom, the “I” is the part of the self that engenders which of these reactions?
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speaking up during a class discussion
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Which of the following is true about the sociological concept of significant others?
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It is a term that refers to individuals who are most important in the development of the self throughout our lives
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Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an example of a significant other?
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a television character
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According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of the self, the preparatory stage occurs
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when children imitate the people around them, particularly family members
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Gestures, objects, and words that form the basis of human communication are known as
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symbols
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Which of the following is an example of a symbol?
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a hug, a coke bottle, a bowl of caviar
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In Mead’s theory, the process of mentally assuming the perspective of another and responding from that imagined viewpoint is known as
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role taking
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During which of Mead’s stages of the self does a child begin to “become” a doctor, a parent, a superhero, or a ship captain?
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the play stage
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Your boss has just screamed at her staff for poor sales growth and high absenteeism. Consequently, you decide that this would not be a good time to speak to her about a promotion. In this instance, you are effectively
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demonstrating role taking.
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A child of about eight or nine years of age begins to consider several tasks and relationships simultaneously. At this point in development, children grasp not only their own social positions but also those of others around them. Mead calls this stage the
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game stage
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Allison is playing in a high school field hockey game and passes the ball to Erika, who appears to have a scoring opportunity. Allison’s pass suggests that she is aware of her role as a member of a team and that she is now in which stage of development, according to George Herbert Mead?
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the game stage
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Which term was used by George Herbert Mead to refer to a child’s awareness of the attitudes, viewpoints, and expectations of society as a whole?
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generalized other
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Tanya is sitting in a large college lecture hall with 300 other students. Although she has the urge to pick her nose, she refrains because she is afraid of how the other members of the audience will react. Tanya’s behavior is being controlled by
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generalized others
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Which of the following is true about the dramaturgical approach?
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It is a view of social interaction in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
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The sociologist Erving Goffman is associated with which of the following concepts?
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impression management, face-work, the dramaturgical approach
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Bob is on his first date with Mary. He really likes her, so he tries to act in a manner that will cause her to like him, too. This is an example of
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impression management
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Which of the following defines Erving Goffman’s concept of face-work?
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the effort to maintain a proper image and avoid embarrassment in public
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A person leaves a singles’ bar alone and later tells a friend, “There wasn’t anyone interesting in the entire crowd.” This is an example of
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face-work
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Which social scientist believed that the self has components that work in opposition to each other?
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Sigmund Freud
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How many stages did Jean Piaget argue exist in the development of children’s thought processes?
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4
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A child spends a lot of time putting objects into his mouth and touching everything in sight. This child is probably in which stage of development, according to Piaget?
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sensorimotor
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According to Piaget’s cognitive theory of development, the stage in which children begin to use words and symbols to distinguish objects and ideas is called the
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preoperational stage.
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According to Piaget, what is the key to children’s development?
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social interaction
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Which of the following is the most important agent of socialization?
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the family
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Socialization concerning not only masculinity and femininity, but also marriage and parenthood begins in childhood as a part of family life. Children observe their parents as they express affection, deal with finances, quarrel, complain about in-laws, and so forth. Their learning represents an informal process of
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anticipatory socialization.
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Which of the following is true about gender roles?
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They are expectations regarding the proper behavior, attitudes, and activities of males and females
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Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis observed that schools in the United States focus on
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socializing students for the workplace.
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Which of the following was a finding of sociologists Patricia and Peter Adler regarding peer groups?
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popularity reinforces gender stereotypes, a social pecking order is established early, popularity is affected by attractiveness
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Which of the following has become an increasingly influential agent of socialization over the past century?
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the media
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Which is the most common form of media consumption for young people between the ages of 8 and 18?
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watching tv
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Among tablet and smartphone owners,
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multitasking is becoming more of a social norm
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Which of the following is true about the ways new technologies are changing the way we interact with each other?
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They tend to lead to both narrowcasting and multitasking.
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Which of the following is true about adolescents in the workplace?
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Adolescents work primarily to earn spending money for themselves.
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Institutions such as day care centers, hospitals, and mental health care centers reflect what change in society?
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the declining role of family as caretaker
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T/F The quincea-era ceremony is considered a rite of passage for Hispanic girls.
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True
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A bat mitzvah, a quincea-era ceremony, and a Catholic confirmation are all examples of
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rites of passage
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Which of the following do life course theorists argue?
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Socialization continues through all stages of the life cycle.
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According to a national survey, the key event that marks the rite of passage into adulthood in the United States is
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completing formal schooling.
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A young girl decides that she wants to become an Olympic swimmer. She takes swimming lessons, joins her school’s swimming team, reads magazine articles about champion swimmers, and goes to swim meets at a nearby college. This is an example of
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anticipatory socialization.
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A woman who was socialized from infancy to become a wife and mother settles comfortably into being a homemaker in her twenties and early thirties. However, her husband dies suddenly, and she finds that she must enter the paid labor force in order to support herself and her two children. This woman will most likely have to undergo a process of
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resocialization
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Which of the following is considered a total institution?
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a mental hospital
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Which of the following is not a characteristic of total institutions?
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The authorities devise rules and schedule activities after consultation with the participants.
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Cindy enters prison and is stripped of her clothing and advised that from this point on she will be referred to only by a number. This is an example of
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a degradation ceremony.
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Which of the following is true about the midlife crisis?
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It is a period in which people realize that they have not achieved basic life goals and ambitions and have little time left to do so.
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The sandwich generation can best be described as
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adults who try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children.
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Which of the following factors has contributed to the rise in life expectancy around the world?
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developments in health care, advances in nutrition, improvements in working conditions
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Which of the following is not one of the seven stages in Robert Atchley’s theory of the retirement process?
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orientation
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In Robert Atchley’s conceptualization of the retirement process, the “near phase” refers to the
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point in time when a person establishes a specific retirement date from a job.
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T/F The process of socialization can only take place during the first few years of life, meaning that children who miss this process can never become fully socialized.
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False
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Based on studies of identical twins, the evidence overwhelmingly supports the idea that nature has a greater impact than nurture on the social development of people. T/F
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False
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One implication of Charles Cooley’s idea of the “looking-glass self” is that we can form self-identities that are based on incorrect assumptions about how others see us. T/F
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True
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According to sociologist George Herbert Mead, people are happiest when the “I” component of the self has total control over the “Me” portion of the self. T/F
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False
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Of the three stages of self-development identified by Mead, the capacity to assume the perspective of another and to respond from this perspective does not occur until the “game stage.” T/F
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False
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Goffman’s concept of “impression management” implies that people alter their presentation of self to meet the expectations of different audiences. T/F
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True
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Of all the various “agents of socialization,” peer groups have consistently been shown to have the greatest impact. T/F
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False
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The “life course approach” to the study of political socialization tends to focus on those social factors, such as race or gender, that affect people throughout their lives. T/F
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True
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The process of discarding old patterns of behavior and accepting new ones as part of a life transition is referred to as “anticipatory socialization.” T/F
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False
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People who are no longer young, but are not yet old are referred to by social scientists as the “sandwich generation.” T/F
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False

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