Chap 5 & 6: Audience Member’s Characteristics

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situational characteristic
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a factor in a specific speech setting that a speak can observe or discover before giving the speech
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audience size
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the number of people who will be present for a speech
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presentation time
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the length of time the speaker has to deliver the speech
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body clock
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the time of day or day of the week when an audience will be listening to a presentation. an audience is more prone to distraction at certain times of the day, such as lunchtime, and certain days of the week, such as friday.
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location
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the setting where a speaker delivers and an audience listens to a speech
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stationary audience
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an audience that will relatively motionless while listening to a speech. Classrooms, lecture halls, and conference rooms often contain stationary audiences.
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mobile audience
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an audience that in not bound to sit or stand for the duration of the speech. mobile audiences might be found at exhibitor’s booth or on a city sidewalk.
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demographics
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audience member’s characteristics, including but not limited to age, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, religious orientation, socioeconomic background, and political affiliation.
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age
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a demographic consideration that affects an audience’s response to and understanding of a speaker’s message.
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gender composition
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a demographic characteristic that considers how many men versus how many women will be in the audience
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gender stereotype
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an oversimplified ofter distorted view of what it means to be male or female
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sexist language
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language with a bias for or against a given gender
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sexual orientation
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a demographic characteristic that considers whether audiences members may be straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender.
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race
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common heritage based on genetically shared physical characteristics of people in a group.
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ethnicity
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cultural background that is usually associated with shared religion, national origin, and language.
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religious orientation
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a person’s set of religious beliefs, which can shape his or her response to a speech
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socioeconomic status
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a measure of where individuals stand in terms of financial resources, education, and occupation in relation to other individuals
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political affiliation
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a person’s political beliefs and positions
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common ground
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beliefs, values, and experiences a speaker shares with an audience. a speaker seeks to establish common ground with an audience, whether verbally or non verbally so that listeners will be more receptive to his or her message
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prior exposure
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the extent to which an audience has already heard the speakers message which will affect an audiences interest or belief in what the speak is saying
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disposition
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an audiences likely attitude toward a subject.
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sympathetic audience
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a type of audience that is already inclined to believe a speaker’s message or holds the speaker in high esteem
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hostile audience
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a type of audience that opposes a speakers message
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neutral audience
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a type of audience that has neither negative nor positive opinons about a speaker or the message
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survey
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a series of written questions a speaker asks others to answer in advance of the speakers presentation
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fixed-response question
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a question that gives a respondent a set of specific answers to choose form
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scaled question
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a survey question that measures a respondent’s feelings on an issue by offering a range of fixed responses such as numbers one to ten or a list of options
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open-ended question
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a question that invites a respondent to gives answers of their own choosing
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interview
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a means of gathering information used for research or audience analysis in which a speaker has a conversation with experts or select members of a future audience and records their responses
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situational audience analysis
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quick audience analysis just before or during a speech, to be conducted if the makeup or responses of an audience were unknown before the speech or are different from what the speaker expected
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research
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the process of gathering and recording information from libraries, the internet, and interviews to increase a speakers credibility and understanding of a topic
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brainstorming
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a strategy for generating topic ideas in which a potential speaker lists every idea that comes to mind without evaluating its merits in order to develop a sizable list of ideas quickly
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word association
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a strategy for generating topic ideas in which one idea leads to another then another and so on until the speaker happens upon an appropriate topic
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mind mapping
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a strategy for generating topic ideas in which a person writes down an initial word or phrase and then surrounds it with additional words, pictures, and symbols to create an interconnected map of ideas.
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context
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the occasion, surround environment, and situation in which a speaker gives a presentation
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rhetorical purpose
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one of three goals of a presentation: to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion. the reason why a speaker is giving a particular speech
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information purpose
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the rhetorical purpose that aims to educate and increase an audiences understanding and awareness of a top
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persuasive purpose
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a rhetorical purpose that seeks to strengthen listeners commitment, weaken listeners commitment, or promote a particular action
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marking a special occasion
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a rhetorical purpose that seeks to honor a person or even by entertaining, inspiring, or emotionally moving an audience
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specific purpose
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a concise phrase consisting of the rhetorical purpose followed by the objective of a speech
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thesis statement
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a single sentence that conveys the topic and purpose of the speech
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describe the following situational characteristics as they relate to audiences: size, time, location, and mobility
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size: the number of people who will be present for your speech time: the length of time you have to deliver your presentation location: setting where your audience will listen to your speech mobility: stationary/mobile
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explain what demographics are, and note seven demographic characteristics that a speak can consider when analyzing an audience
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demographics: characteristics of your listeners age gender composition sexual orientation religious orientation socioeconomic status political affiliation common ground
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what areas of common ground can a speaker focus on when addressing a diverse audience?
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Verbally/Non Verbally Verbally connecting with an audience allowing them to relate to what you are saying Non Verbally relating to the audience with something you may be wearing
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define prior exposure and explain why it is important
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prior exposure: the extent to which an audience has already heard your message important because if the have heard it before then they won’t pay attention and won’t be interested it in
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identify and describe three types of audiences in terms of audience disposition
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sympathetic: holds you in high personal esteem or agrees with your message and will therefore respond favorably to the speech neutral: has neither negative nor positive opinions about your message hostile: opposes your message or you personally and will therefore resist listening to your speech
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name and describe three tools a speaker can use to gather information about his or her audience
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Survey: written questions that you ask your audience to answer in advance to speech fixed-response: question with specific answers to choose form open-ended: questions that gives the audience a chance to write their own answerInterview: have a conversation with the audience individually observe your audience: think about why they are there listening, etc.
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explain the nature of situational audience analysis
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a quick analysis before you give the speech to see if your prior knowledge about the audience you surveyed, etc. matches up
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name and describe four techniques for generating speech topics
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research: use libraries, internet, etc. to look up a topic brainstorming: listing every idea that comes to mind without evaluation them word association: writing down one idea which then leads to another and another mind mapping: writing down a word/phrase in the middle of a paper and writing ideas off of them
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name four basic considerations speakers should keep in mind when choosing a topic
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consider: the assignment the audience your own knowledge and interests the speech context
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explain how you can narrow the speech topic by considering your rhetorical purpose
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Remember your audience and make sure your topic will interest them. Your special expertise or unique perspective on an aspect of your subject area Choose an aspect appropriate for your rhetorical purpose use situational characteristics
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what is the specific purpose of a speech?
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The objective of the speech. starts with rhetorical purpose and ends with the objective
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describe three characteristics of a thesis statement
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keep it to one sentence express your intentions of the speech be consistent with your specific purpose
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compare and contrast the specific purpose and thesis of the speech
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specific purpose guides how you research and prepare your speech while the thesis is the ultimate message that all the facts and ideas in your speech support.

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