Chap 16 – Flashcard

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biological therapies
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Also called biomedical therapies, treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning.
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antianxiety drugs
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Commonly known as tranquilizers, drugs that reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable.
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antidepressant drugs
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Drugs that regulate mood.
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Tricyclics
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so-called because of their three-ringed molecular structure, are believed to work by increasing the level of certain neurotransmitters, especially norepinephrine and serotonin. reduce the symptoms of depression in approximately 60 to 70 percent of cases; these drugs usually take two to four weeks to improve mood. Adverse side effects may include restlessness, faintness, trembling, sleepiness, and memory difficulties.
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low serotonin levels
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negative mood, aggression
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tetracyclic antidepressants
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(named for their four-ringed structure). Tetracyclics are also called noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, or NaSSAs. These drugs have effects on both norepinephrine and serotonin, enhancing brain levels of these neurotransmitters
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MAO inhibitors
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they block the enzyme monoamine oxidase. This enzyme breaks down the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. most widely used
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selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
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target serotonin, and work mainly by interfering only with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain. most widely used
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Three widely prescribed SSRIs
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Prozac (fluoxetine), Paxil (paroxetine), and Zoloft (sertraline).
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lithium
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The lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements, widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Kidney and thyroid gland complications as well as weight gain can arise as a consequence of lithium therapy. stabilize moods by influencing norepinephrine and serotonin
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antipsychotic drugs
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Powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia.
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Neuroleptics
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the most extensively used class of antipsychotic drugs. neuroleptics is their ability to block dopamine’s action in the brain.
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tardive dyskinesia
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a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and mouth, as well as twitching of the neck, arms, and legs
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atypical antipsychotic medications,
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appear to influence dopamine as well as serotonin. The two most widely used drugs in this group, Clozaril (clozapine) and Risperdal (risperidone), show promise for reducing schizophrenia’s symptoms without the side effects of neuroleptics
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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Also called shock therapy, a treatment, commonly used for depression, that sets off a seizure in the brain. use ECT primarily to treat severe depression
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deep brain stimulation
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A procedure for treatment-resistant depression that involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter the brain’s electrical circuitry. the transmission of high-frequency electrical impulses to targeted areas of the brain is now being used to treat individuals with treatment-resistant depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder
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psychosurgery
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A biological therapy, with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual’s adjustment.
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prefrontal lobotomies
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using a device similar to an ice pick, in surgeries that lasted mere minutes.
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psychotherapy
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A nonmedical process that helps individuals with psychological disorders recognize and overcome their problems. Humanistic, Behavior, Cognitive Psychodynamic
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humanistic therapies
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the analyst encourages clients to understand themselves and to grow personally. includes active listening, reflective speech, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness.
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Behavior therapies
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use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior. They are based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories of personality
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Cognitive therapies
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emphasize that the individual’s cognitions (thoughts) are the main source of abnormal behavior. Cognitive therapies attempt to change the person’s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions. Three main forms of cognitive therapy are Ellis’s rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Beck’s cognitive therapy, and cognitive-behavior therapy. reduces self-defeating thoughts and behavioral therapy
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psychodynamic therapies
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Treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems.
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cybertherapy, or e-therapy
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an online source provides help to people seeking therapy for psychological disorders
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psychoanalysis
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Freud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual’s unconscious thoughts.
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free association
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A psychoanalytic technique that involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
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interpretation
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A psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy.
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dream analysis
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A psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a person’s dreams.
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Manifest content
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the psychoanalytic term for the conscious, remembered aspects of a dream
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Latent content
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the unconscious, hidden aspects that are symbolized by the manifest content.
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transference
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A client’s relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual’s life.
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resistance
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A client’s unconscious defense strategies that interfere with the psychoanalyst’s understanding of the individual’s problems.
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humanistic therapies
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Treatments, unique in their emphasis on people’s self-healing capacities, that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally.
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client-centered therapy
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Also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy, a form of humanistic therapy, developed by Rogers, in which the therapist provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the client’s self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems.
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reflective speech
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A technique in which the therapist mirrors the client’s own feelings back to the client.
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unconditional positive regard
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involves creating a warm and caring environment and never disapproving of the client as a person.
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empathy and genuineness.
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Through empathy the therapist strives to put himself or herself in the client’s shoes—to feel the emotions the client is feeling. Genuineness involves letting the client know the therapist’s feelings and not hiding behind a façade
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insight therapies
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Psychodynamic and humanistic approaches. they encourage self-awareness as the key to psychological health.
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behavior therapies
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Treatments, based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories of learning, that use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior.
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systematic desensitization
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A method of behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety-producing situations.
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flooding
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exposing an individual to feared stimuli to an excessive degree while not allowing the person to avoid the stimuli.
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cognitive therapies
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Treatments that point to cognitions (thoughts) as the main source of psychological problems and that attempt to change the individual’s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions.
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Cognitive restructuring
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a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion, is central to cognitive therapies.
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rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
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A therapy based on Ellis’s assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self-defeating beliefs and whose goal is to get clients to eliminate these beliefs by rationally examining them.
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cognitive-behavior therapy
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A therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing self-efficacy.
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Self-instructional methods
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cognitive-behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior
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reinforcing self-statements,
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positive steps to cope with stress or meet a goa
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integrative therapy
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A combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapist’s judgment of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the client. uses a variety of methods
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dialectical behavior therapy, or DBT
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DBT assumes that early childhood experiences are important to the development of borderline personality disorder. DBT includes a variety of techniques, including homework assignments, cognitive interventions, intensive individual therapy, and group sessions with others with the disorder
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group therapy
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A sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional.
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family therapy
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Group therapy with family members. Four of the most widely used family therapy techniques are: Validation, Reframing, Structural change, Detriangulation
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couples therapy
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Group therapy with married or unmarried couples whose major problem lies within their relationship.
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Paraprofessionals
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individuals who have been taught by a professional to provide some mental health services but who do not have formal mental health training.
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deinstitutionalization
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large numbers of individuals with psychological disorders were transferred from mental institutions to community-based facilities
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empowerment
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assisting individuals to develop the skills they need to control their own lives.
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collectivistic cultures
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place more importance on the group
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therapeutic alliance
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The relationship between the therapist and client—an important element of successful psychotherapy.
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well-being therapy (WBT)
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A short-term, problem-focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive.
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aversive conditioning (classical conditioning)
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repeated pairings of an undesirable behavior with aversive stimuli to decrease the behavior’s positive associations.
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operant conditioning
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maladaptive behavior is a learned behavior and can be unlearned

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