Ch1_Cognitive Psychology

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Cognitive Revolution
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Questions regarding the interest in cognition in the late 1950’s.
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Cognitive Science
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Scientific study of thought, language, and the brain- in short, the scientific study of the mind
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Intuitive Cognitive Analysis Processes
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Sensory and perceptual Memory and Retrieval Comprehension Judgment and Decision Computational
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Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of _________, which includes _______.
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Human mental processes Perceiving, remembering, using language, reasoning, and solving problems
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Examples of phrases such as \”How many hands did Aristotle have?\” and \”Does a robin have wings?\” indicates __________.
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Many mental processes occur automatically (very rapidly and below the level of conscious awareness).
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Memory
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The mental processes of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval and the mental storage system that enables these processes
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Cognition
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The collection of mental processes and activities used in perceiving, remembering, thinking, and understanding, as well as the act of using those processes
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Ecological Validity
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Generalizability to the real-world situations in which people think and act
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Reductionism
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Attempting to understand complex events by breaking them down into their components
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Processes of acquiring and retaining information of later use is known as ______.
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Encoding
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Mental retention system is known as ______.
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Storage
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Using stored information is known as ______.
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Retrieval
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Empiricism
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Observation as the basis for all science Position taken by Aristotle
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Tabula Rasa
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Aristotle’s insistence that the mind is a \”blank slate\” at birth, or clean sheet of paper (Watson). The idea is that *experience*, rather than inborn factors, \”writes\” a record onto the blank paper.
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Introspection
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a method in which one looks carefully inward, reporting on inner sensations and experiences Wundt intended this to be a careful, reliable, and scientific method in which the observers needed a great deal of training to report only the elements of experience that were immediate and conscious. Memory intrusions were to be excluded
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Selbst-Beobachtung
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Wundt studied these, in addition to extensive use of response time measures, the method of *\”self-observation\”*.
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Structuralism
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Studied by Titchener: The structure of the conscious mind, the sensations, images, and feelings that were the very elements of the mind’s structure
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Ebbinghaus’s aim was to study _________.
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Memory in a \”pure\” form He constructed lists of *nonsense syllables* ex. consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) By definition, had *no* meaning This was regarded as a model of scientific inquiry into memory
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Functionalism
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William James influenced by Darwin The functions of consciousness, rather than its structure, were of interest
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Behaviorism
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Scientific study of observable behavior
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Verbal learning
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the branch of experimental psychology that dealt with humans as they learned verbal material, composed of letters, non-sense syllables, or words
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The modern history of cognitive psychology began in ____ with _____ and the beginnings of ___________ as a science.
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1876 Wundt Experimental Psychology
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The behaviorist movement rejected the use of _________ and substituted the study of _________ _________.
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introspections observable behavior
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Modern *cognitive* psychology, which dates from approximately _______, rejected much of the ______ position but accepted its ________ rigor. Many diverse ____, _____, and ______ converged to help form cognitive psychology. This was at least a rapid __________ change in ________, if not a true scientific revolution.
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*1960* Behaviorist methodological viewpoints, assumptions, methods evolutionary interests
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Chomsky’s 1959 review
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Forceful argument against a purely behaviorist position Argued the truly interesting part of language was mental processes and cognition Looking *IN* the organism was key to understanding where language would be found
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Channel Capacity
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\”Bandwidth\” any channel- any physical device that transmits messages or information- has a limited capacity One wire can carry just so many messages at a time, and it loses information if capacity is exceeded
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Computer Analogy
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Human information processing may be similar to the steps and operations in a computer program, similar to the flow of information from input to output If this is so, then thinking about how a computer does various tasks gives some insights into how people process information
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Two of the most prominent behavioral measures of cognition are
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time and accuracy
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Response Time
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a measure of the time elapsed between some stimulus and the person’s response to the stimulus Typically measured in milliseconds, appreciated MS; a millisecond is one thousandth of a second Mental events take time; implication that some process or subprocesses take longer in one case than in the other Differences in RT can yield interpretations about the speed or difficulty of mental processes, leading to inferences about cognitive processes and events
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Accuracy
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broadly defined; supplement to RT measures Measure of cognition (earliest by Ebbinghaus) Measuring how much material is saved to memory Accuracy of performance, whether it measures correct recall of a list or accurate paraphrasing of text, also offers evidence about underlying mental processes
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The early analogy for information processing was ____ which later was thought of as _____
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Channel capacity; then thought of humans more like computers
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Standard Theory
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\”Modal Model\”: suggested that mental processing can be understood as a sequence of independent processing stages, such as the sensory, short-term, and long-term memory stages Includes three components: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory each component and step when applying a stimulus consumes some amount of time
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Short-term memory
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temporary working memory system with several *control processes* at its disposal Can transmit information to and retrieve from long-term memory Also the component responsible for response output, for communicating with the outside world
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Encoding
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The act of taking in information and converting it to a usable mental form Because you are paying attention, passed to short term memory (STM)
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Process Model
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hypothesis about the specific mental process that take place when a particular task is performed appropriate for fairly simple, rapid tasks that are measured by response times, such as the lexical decision task
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Lexical decision task
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a timed task in which people decide whether letter strings are or are not English words
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Word Frequency effect
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It takes longer to judge words of lower frequency than higher-frequency words
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Sequential stages of processing
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assumption that there is a sequence of stings or processes that occur on every trial, a set of stages that completely account for mental processing
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Independent and non-overlapping
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the assumption that any single stage that was assumed to finish its operation before the next stage could begin, and the duration of any single stage had no bearing or influence on the others At the beginning of a trial, encoding starts, completes its operations, and passes its result to the search stage
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Parallel Processing
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multiple mental processes can operate *simultaneously* substantial evidene to suggest that cognition involves parallel processing and is influenced by context; ex. research on skilled typing shows a high degree of parallel processing. Also, slower, more complex mental processes, such as those in he study of decision making and problem solving, may be studied using verbal protocols
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Context Effects
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speedup in deciding that you are faster to decide MOTOR is a word if you have seen MOTOR recently a difficulty with the early assumptions of sequential stages and non overlapping processes
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Top-down or Conceptually driven processing
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when existing context or knowledge influences earlier or simpler forms of mental processes
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Verbal Protocol
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people verbalize their thoughts as they solve the problems many cognitive processes are slower and more complex
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Seven Themes of Cognition
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1. *attention* (if attention controls mental processing, what controls attention? how does attention make things more available in the mind) 2. *data-driven processing versus conceptually driven processing* (rely on information) 3. *representation* (how is it mentally represented?) 4. *implicit versus explicit memory* (direct and explicit awareness of certain types of memories) 5. *metacognition* (awareness of our own thoughts, cog, knowledge, and insight into how the system works) 6. *brain* (understanding how our neural hardware works to produce kinds of thinking we are capable and what we are limited to) 7. *embodiment* (the way we think and rep info reflect the fact that we need to interact physically with the world)

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