CH16 Organizational Change and Stress Management

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3 31) John Kotter built on Lewin’s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Which of the following steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the \”unfreezing\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model? A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term \”wins\” that move the organization toward the new vision. B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs. C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success. Answer:
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C Explanation: C) The first four steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represent the \”unfreezing\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model. One of these four steps is, create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 239 Objective: Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 32) Which of the following steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the \”movement\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model? A) Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed. B) Plan for, create, and reward short-term \”wins\” that move the organization toward the new vision. C) Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change. D) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success. Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Planning for, creating, and rewarding short-term \”wins\” that move the organization toward the new vision is the sixth step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change and it represents the \”movement\” stage in the Lewin’s model. Steps 5 through 7 in the Kotter’s eight-step plan represent the \”movement\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 239 Objective: Environmental Sources of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 33) Which of the following steps in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change represents the \”refreezing\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model? A) Plan for, create, and reward short-term \”wins\” that move the organization toward the new vision. B) Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs. C) Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. D) Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving. E) Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success. Answer:
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E Explanation: E) Reinforcing the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success is the last step in the Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change and it represents the \”refreezing\” stage in the Lewin’s three-step model. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 239 Objective: Organizational Sources of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 39) Appreciative inquiry (AI) is an organizational development technique. Which of the following statements is true regarding appreciative inquiry? A) It tries to identify discrepancies among member perceptions and solve these differences. B) It uses high-interaction group activities to increase trust and openness among team members, improve coordinative efforts, and increase team performance. C) It involves an outside consultant who helps the manager to analyze processes within his or her unit and identify what to improve and how. D) It consists of four steps including discovery, dreaming, design, and destiny. E) It seeks to change groups’ attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions about each other. Answer:
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D Explanation: D) AI focuses on an organization’s successes rather than its problems. The AI process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and discovery—often played out in a large-group meeting over a 2- or 3-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 Objective: Personal Sources of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 40) Which of the following steps of the appreciative inquiry attempts to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths? A) dreaming B) destiny C) collaboration D) inferring E) discovery Answer:
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E Explanation: E) The appreciative inquiry process consists of four steps—discovery, dreaming, design, and discovery—often played out in a large-group meeting over a 2- or 3-day time period and overseen by a trained change agent. Discovery sets out to identify what people think are the organization’s strengths. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 Objective: Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 41) During the \”dreaming\” step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________. A) identify the organization’s strengths B) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures C) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future D) write action plans and develop implementation strategies E) recount times they felt the organization worked best Answer:
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B Explanation: B) During the ‘dreaming’ step of appreciative inquiry, employees use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures, such as what the organization will be like in 5 years. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 Objective: Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 42) During the \”design\” step of appreciative inquiry, participants ________. A) find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future B) use information from the discovery phase to speculate on possible futures C) identify the organization’s strengths D) recount times they felt the organization worked best E) write action plans and develop implementation strategies Answer:
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A Explanation: A) During the \”design\” step of appreciative inquiry, participants find a common vision of how the organization will look in the future and agree on its unique qualities. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 241 Objective: Physiological Symptoms of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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3 43) Idea champions display characteristics associated with ________ leadership. A) narcissistic B) transformational C) autocratic D) transactional E) laissez-faire Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Idea champions display characteristics associated with transformational leadership—they inspire and energize others with their vision of an innovation’s potential and their strong personal conviction about their mission. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242 Objective: Psychological Symptoms of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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4 44) Which of the following actions can extinguish risk taking and innovation? A) long tenure in management B) encouraging experimentation C) rewarding for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes D) using organic organizational structures E) using an organizational structure that scores low on vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization Answer:
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C Explanation: C) Innovative organizations encourage experimentation. Organic structures positively influence innovation because they’re lower in vertical differentiation, formalization, and centralization. The long tenure in management is associated with innovation. Innovative organization rewards both successes and failures. They celebrate mistakes. Unfortunately, in too many organizations, people are rewarded for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes. Such cultures extinguish risk taking and innovation. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 242 Objective: Behavioral Symptoms of Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 52) Which of the following is not an example of a hindrance stressor? A) red tape B) office politics C) role ambiguity D) time urgency E) job confusion Answer:
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D Explanation: D) Time urgency is a challenge stressor. Hindrance stressors are stressors that keep you from reaching your goals, for example, red tape, office politics, confusion over job responsibilities. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 243 Objective: Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 53) Which of the following stressors is likely to produce less strain than the other stressors? A) red tape B) office politics C) confusion over job responsibilities D) role ambiguity E) pressure to complete tasks Answer:
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E Explanation: E) Pressure to complete tasks is a challenge stressor whereas red tape, office politics, role conflict, and confusion over job responsibilities are hindrance stressors. Although research is just starting to accumulate, early evidence suggests challenge stressors produce less strain than hindrance stressors. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 243 Objective: Inverted-U Relationship Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 54) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of stress? A) Challenge stressors tend to produce more strain than hindrance stressors. B) When challenge stress increases, those with high levels of organizational support have higher role-based performance. C) Hindrance stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment. D) Employees who have a stronger affective commitment to their organization perform worse under stress as compared to those who have low levels of commitment. E) Challenge stress reduces job performance in all work environments. Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Challenge stress improves job performance in a supportive work environment, whereas hindrance stress reduces job performance in all work environments. Employees with low levels of commitment to their organization perform worse under stress as compared to those who have strong affective commitment. When challenge stress increases, those with high levels of organizational support have higher role-based performance, but those with low levels of organizational support do not. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 243 Objective: Managing Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 55) Which of the following types of jobs is least likely to create stress and reduce satisfaction? A) jobs that make multiple and conflicting demands B) jobs that provide a high level of feedback C) jobs that lack clarity about the incumbent’s duties D) jobs that provide the incumbents less control over the pace of their work E) jobs that provide a low level of variety Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Jobs that provide a low level of variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, and identity appear to create stress and reduce satisfaction and involvement in the job. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 244 Objective: Wellness Programs Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 56) Jill is overwhelmed with the new tasks that she has been assigned after the department merger. Everyday, she arrives at work and makes a list of the new tasks, writes a number next to each one according to the urgency of completion, and schedules a time to complete each one. Although she’s still stressed, Jill is able to get most of the work done and feels better at the end of the day. Jill is using ________ techniques to reduce her stress. A) job enrichment B) goal setting C) relaxation D) time-management E) job enlargement Answer:
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D Explanation: D) Jill is using basic time-management principles to better cope with tensions created by job demands. A few of the best-known time-management principles are (1) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished, (2) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency, (3) scheduling activities according to the priorities set, and (4) knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job when you are most alert and productive. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 245 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Individual Approaches to Managing Stress Quest. Category: Application
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5 57) Paul is stressed with the new corporate reorganization. He now reports to a foreign office that has usurped many of his responsibilities, including the contract labor for his projects, therefore he’s working with less qualified and new contractors with whom he doesn’t have a relationship. However, the managers of the other departments find themselves in the same boat and everyday they are able to laugh over lunch about their new managerial impotence. ________ is helping Paul handle his stress. A) Emotional contagion B) Cognitive dissonance C) Social support D) Time-management E) Self-efficacy Answer:
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C Explanation: C) Social support, collegial relationships with co-workers or supervisors, can buffer the impact of stress. It acts as a palliative, mitigating the negative effects of even high-strain jobs. Paul is using this social support to be able to laugh at his new situation. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 245 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Stress Quest. Category: Application
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5 58) Which of the following statements is true regarding stress? A) Employees with external locus of control tend to be less prone to stress. B) Training tends to decrease job stress. C) Highly experienced employees tend to be more prone to stress. D) Employees who are highly committed to their goals experience more stress. E) Goal feedback tends to increase stress. Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Individuals with little experience or an external locus of control tend to be more prone to stress. Training can increase an individual’s self-efficacy and thus lessen job strain. Individuals perform better when they have specific and challenging goals and receive feedback on their progress toward these goals. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 246 Objective: Managing Stress Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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5 59) Which of the following statements is true regarding effects of culture on change effects? A) In high power-distance cultures, change efforts will tend to be autocratically implemented by top management. B) In cultures in which people believe that they can dominate their environment, individuals will tend to take passive approach toward change. C) As compared to people from United States, people from China are more likely to seek change programs that promise fast results. D) People in the U.S. are more resistant to change efforts than their Italian counterparts. E) People in the U.S. tend to see themselves as subjugated to their environment and thus will tend to take a passive approach toward change. Answer:
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A Explanation: A) In high power-distance cultures, such as Spain or Thailand, change efforts will tend to be autocratically implemented by top management. In contrast, low power-distance cultures value democratic methods. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 247 AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity Understanding Objective: Globalization Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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6 60) Which of the following statements is true regarding the effects of culture on stress? A) The job conditions that lead to stress remain the same across countries. B) Stress is equally bad for employees of all cultures. C) Individuals from individualistic countries experienced lower levels of stress due to work interfering with family than did individuals from collectivist countries. D) Personality effects on stress are different across cultures. E) Individuals from individualistic countries experience lower levels of stress due to work interfering with family than do individuals from collectivist countries. Answer:
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B Explanation: B) Although the job conditions that lead to stress may differ across countries, it doesn’t appear that personality effects on stress are different across cultures. Individuals from individualistic countries experienced higher levels of stress due to work interfering with family than did individuals from collectivist countries. Stress is equally bad for employees of all cultures. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 247 Quest. Category: Concept/Definitional
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6 Your company, Johnson Farm Products, has decided to expand its traditional business serving farm owners in order to include home gardeners in its customer base. This change is not met with enthusiasm by the sales personnel who have had good long-term relationships with area farmers. You know that the change will be difficult if you cannot overcome the resistance of the sales personnel and obtain their cooperation. 61) You have brought in the local extension agent to explain demographics and the changing nature of the area in which you live. The method for overcoming resistance that you have chosen is ________. A) education and communication B) participation C) negotiation D) manipulation and cooptation E) coercion Answer:
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A Explanation: A) In this example, the method chosen for overcoming resistance is education and communication. Communicating the logic of a change can reduce employee resistance on two levels. First, it fights the effects of misinformation and poor communication: If employees receive the full facts and clear up misunderstandings, resistance should subside. Second, communication can help \”sell\” the need for change by packaging it properly. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 237 AACSB: Analytic Skills Objective: Education and Communication Quest. Category: Application
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