Ch 9 Atomic Physics Essay

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a. Democritus
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The ancient Greek who is known for championing the concept of atom was named ______________. a. Democritus b. Socrates c. Plato d. Zeus
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d. Thomson
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Who discovered the electron in 1897? a. Dalton b. Bohr c. Rutherford d. Thomson
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d. Dalton
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The “billiard ball model” of the atom is associated with _______. a. Bohr. b. Thomson. c. Rutherford. d. Dalton.
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d. modern physics
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The development of physics since about 1900 is called _______. a. neoclassical physics. b. Newtonian physics. c. classical physics. d. modern physics.
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c. Electrons
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Atomic physics deals mainly with phenomena involving which particles in atoms? a. Quarks b. Protons c. Electrons d. Neutrons
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c. Dalton
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Aristotle’s “continuous” model of matter was proved wrong about 1807 by a. Bohr. b. Thomson. c. Dalton. d. Rutherford
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b. positive ion
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Removal of an electron from an atom leaves a _______. a. neutron. b. positive ion. c. free quark. d. negative ion.
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a. atomic number
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The number of electrons in an atom of an element is the same as the element’s _______. a. atomic number. b. period number. c. mass number. d. group number.
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d. frequency
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According to Planck’s hypothesis, the energy of an oscillator is directly proportional to its _______. a. amplitude. b. wavelength. c. momentum. d. frequency.
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d. energy
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The greater the frequency of light, the greater the _______ of its photons. a. velocity b. speed c. wavelength d. energy
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c. Blue
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Which of these colors of light has photons of greatest energy? a. Green b. Red c. Blue d. Yellow
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c. 1.49 × 1015 Hz
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Calculate the frequency in hertz of photons of light with energy of 9.90 × 10-19 J. a. 0.67 × 1014 Hz b. 0.67 × 1015 Hz c. 1.49 × 1015 Hz d. 1.49 × 1014 Hz
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d. Red
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Which of these colors of light has photons of lowest energy? a. Blue b. Green c. Yellow d. Red
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a. discrete amount
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A quantum is a _______. a. discrete amount. b. fundamental property. c. unit of momentum. d. proton.
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d. Einstein
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Who won the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect? a. Bohr b. Planck c. de Broglie d. Einstein
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c. Planck
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Who developed the quantum theory in 1900 and has a constant named for him? a. de Broglie b. Bohr c. Planck d. Einstein
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b. Continuous
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Dispersing light from a hot wire gives what type of spectrum? a. Line absorption b. Continuous c. Line emission d. Ultraviolet
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c. Bohr.
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The calculation of electron energy levels in the hydrogen atom was done first by _______. a. Schrödinger. b. de Broglie. c. Bohr. d. Heisenberg.
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d. 1
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For a specific element, photons of how many different energies could be emitted by electrons in the n = 2 level as they return to the n = 1 level? a. 3 b. 4 c. 2 d. 1
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c. – 0.85 eV
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Calculate the energy En (in eV) of a hydrogen atom’s electron with n = 4. a. – 54 eV b. – 3.4 eV c. – 0.85 eV d. – 1.7 eV
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b. absorb; 0.661 eV
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If the energy of n = 3 is -1.51 eV and that of n = 4 is -0.85 eV in a hydrogen atom, a transition from n = 3 to n = 4 will _______ a photon with an energy of approximately _______. a. emit; 2.36 eV b. absorb; 0.661 eV c. emit; 0.661 eV d. absorb; 2.36 eV
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c. electron energy levels are quantized.
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Discrete wavelengths of light are emitted by an excited gas because _______. a. the speed of light is constant in a given medium. b. light can behave either as a wave or as a particle. c. electron energy levels are quantized. d. the intensity of radiation is proportional to the second power of the frequency
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c. had the simplest atom.
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Niels Bohr focused his attention on the element hydrogen because it _______. a. could be obtained in extremely high purity. b. was so abundant. c. had the simplest atom. d. was inexpensive.
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b. Balmer series.
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The lines in the visible region of the hydrogen spectrum are known as the _______. a. Lyman series. b. Balmer series. c. Paschen series. d. Bohr series.
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a. Lyman series.
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The transitions of an electron in the hydrogen atom to the n = 1 level result in the _______. a. Lyman series. b. Balmer series. c. Paschen series. d. Bohr series.
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c. 2.
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The lines in the visible region of the hydrogen spectrum arise from transitions from higher levels back to the level where n equals _______. a. 3. b. 1. c. 2. d. 4.
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a. Ultraviolet
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Fluorescence occurs when samples of some materials are exposed to rays of which EMR (Electromagnetic Radiation) region? a. Ultraviolet b. Infrared c. Visible d. Microwave
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d. photon; emitted
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When an electron in an atom falls from a higher energy level to a lower one, a _______ is _______. a. proton; absorbed b. proton; emitted c. photon; absorbed d. photon; emitted
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a. a negative value.
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In terms of energy levels of electrons, a potential well has _______. a. a negative value. b. a positive or a negative value. c. a positive value. d. none of these.
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d. ionization.
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The removal of an electron from an atom is called _______. a. binding affinity. b. atomizing. c. electron affinity. d. ionization.
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a. the ground state.
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The lowest energy level of a hydrogen atom (n = 1) is called _______. a. the ground state. b. the potential state. c. the ionization state. d. none of these.
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b. 7
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Which is a possible value for the principal quantum number n? a. 3.14 b. 7 c. 2.5 d. None of these
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d. 13.6 eV
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How much energy must be absorbed to ionize a hydrogen atom whose electron is in the ground state (n = 1)? a. Zero b. 1 eV c. 0.053 eV d. 13.6 eV
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c. 1.
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When a hydrogen electron is in its ground state, its principal quantum number is _______. a. zero. b. – 13.6 eV. c. 1. d. +13.6 eV. e. none of these.
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c. a photon is emitted.
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When an electron goes from an excited state to the ground state, _______. a. energy is absorbed. b. a photon is absorbed. c. a photon is emitted. d. none of these occur.
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c. the electromagnetic force.
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The most important force in the hydrogen atom is _______. a. the nuclear force. b. the gravitational force. c. the electromagnetic force. d. none of these.
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c. it is in its ground state.
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An electron is in its lowest energy level when _______. a. it is free of nuclear forces. b. its momentum is zero. c. it is in its ground state. d. none of these.
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a. 2.5
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Which of the following principal quantum number values is impossible? a. 2.5 b. 16 c. 3 d. 1
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b. cooking with microwaves.
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The energy differences in some of the rotational energy levels of the water molecule allow _______. a. X-rays to be produced. b. cooking with microwaves. c. visible spectral lines to be formed. d. lasers to operate.
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b. conduction.
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The interior of a large mass of food in a microwave oven must be heated mainly by _______. a. radiation. b. conduction. c. convection. d. radioactivity.
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a. X-rays.
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Wilhelm Roentgen discovered _______. a. X-rays. b. gamma rays. c. radio waves. d. microwaves.
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c. X-rays
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When fast electrons strike a metal target, what are produced? a. Radio waves b. Gamma rays c. X-rays d. Microwaves
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b. population inversion
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When many of the atoms or molecules in a sample have been excited into a metastable state, a(n) _______ has occurred. a. ultraviolet catastrophe b. population inversion c. coherent emission d. incoherent absorption
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a. stimulated emission.
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The key process of a laser is _______. a. stimulated emission. b. Bremsstrahlung. c. electron diffraction. d. microwave absorption.
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d. a wavelength.
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According to the hypothesis of de Broglie, any moving particle has _______. a. energy. b. a magnetic force field. c. an electric force field. d. a wavelength.
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b. decreases.
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As the speed of an object increases, its wavelength _______. a. remains unchanged. b. decreases. c. increases. d. is zero.
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a. diffract.
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Matter waves were confirmed when it was found that electrons _______. a. diffract. b. have a plus or minus spin quantum number. c. possess a negative charge. d. have mass.
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c. de Broglie
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Who, in 1925, postulated that matter, as well as light, has properties of both waves and particles? a. Planck b. Heisenberg c. de Broglie d. Einstein
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d. 2.0 ×10-10 m
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Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for an electron (m = 1 × 10-30 kg) moving at 3.3 × 106 m/s. a. 1.7 × 10-10 m b. 2.2 × 10-10 m c. 1.8 × 10-10 m d. 2.0 ×10-10 m
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d. mass.
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The de Broglie wavelength of a particle is inversely proportional to both its speed and its _______. a. spin. b. electric charge. c. volume. d. mass.
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c. Electron microscope
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Which of these instruments is based on the theory of matter waves? a. Microwave oven b. X-ray tube c. Electron microscope d. Cathode ray tube
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c. A moving electron
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With which object would the wave nature of matter be significant? a. A hard-thrown baseball b. A speeding truck c. A moving electron d. An orbiting planet
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d. energy
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The smaller the frequency of light, the smaller the _______ of its photons. a. wavelength b. speed c. mass d. energy
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a. halve
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Doubling the wavelength of a photon would _______ its energy. a. halve b. double c. quadruple d. not change
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d. all of these
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The unit called the hertz (Hz) is equivalent to _______. a. 1/s only. b. a reciprocal second only. c. s-1 only. d. all of these
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a. Bohr.
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The planetary model of the atom is associated with _______. a. Bohr. b. Thomson. c. Dalton. d. Rutherford.
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d. Planck.
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The dilemma known as the ultraviolet catastrophe was resolved in 1900 by _______. a. Bohr. b. Rutherford. c. Einstein. d. Planck.
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b. Wave mechanics
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Which is another name for quantum mechanics? a. Classical mechanics b. Wave mechanics c. Optical mechanics d. Spherical mechanics
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a. negative ion.
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Addition of an electron to an atom gives a _______. a. negative ion. b. neutron. c. new element. d. positive ion.
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a. classical physics.
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The development of physics prior to 1900 is called _______. a. classical physics. b. neoclassical physics. c. Galilean physics. d. ancient physics.
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c. The photoelectric effect
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Which phenomenon shows that quanta of light, or photons, exist? a. Diffraction b. Polarization c. The photoelectric effect d. Interference
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b. high, but not 100%.
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According to the Schrödinger equation, the probability of finding a hydrogen atom’s ground-state electron 0.053 nm from the proton is _______. a. zero. b. high, but not 100%. c. low, but not zero. d. 100%.
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b. 100%.
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According to the Bohr theory, the probability of finding a hydrogen atom’s ground-state electron 0.053 nm from the proton is _______. a. low, but not zero. b. 100%. c. zero. d. high, but not 100%.
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c. 1.3
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Calculate the radius in nanometers of the orbit of a hydrogen atom’s electron with n = 5. a. 0.27 b. 2.7 c. 1.3 d. 0.13
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b. the radius of the electron’s orbit is increased.
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When a hydrogen atom’s electron goes from an energy state of n = 1 to n = 3, _______. a. the radius of the electron’s orbit is unchanged. b. the radius of the electron’s orbit is increased. c. the radius of the electron’s orbit is decreased. d. the radius of the electron’s orbit is infinite.
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d. Line emission
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Dispersing light from a gas-discharge tube produces what type of spectrum? a. Ultraviolet b. Line absorption c. Continuous d. Line emission
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d. 6
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For a specific element, photons of how many different energies could be emitted by electrons in the n = 4 level as they return to the n = 1 level? a. 3 b. 5 c. 2 d. 6
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c. Helium
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Which element was detected in the Sun before it was found on Earth? a. Hydrogen b. Promethium c. Helium d. Argon
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c. auroras.
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Charged particles from the Sun enter Earth’s atmosphere close to the magnetic poles and cause _______. a. global cooling. b. global warming. c. auroras. d. ozone depletion.
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c. photon; absorbed
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. When an electron in an atom moves from a lower energy level to a higher one, a _______ is _______. a. photon; emitted b. proton; emitted c. photon; absorbed d. proton; absorbed
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b. 2.
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When a hydrogen electron is in its first excited state, its principal quantum number is _______. a. zero. b. 2. c. – 13.60 eV. d. 1.
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d. both monochromatic and coherent.
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A beam of laser light is _______. a. neither monochromatic nor coherent. b. monochromatic but not coherent. c. coherent but not monochromatic. d. both monochromatic and coherent.
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d. a laser
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The term stimulated emission would be used in explaining the operation of _______. a. an electron microscope. b. an X-ray tube. c. a microwave oven. d. a laser
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c. moving close to the speed of light.
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Einstein’s special theory of relativity deals with objects that are _______. a. being hit by X-rays. b. entering intense gravitational fields. c. moving close to the speed of light. d. being hit by energetic photons.
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b. get more massive.
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One prediction of Einstein’s special theory of relativity is that objects traveling close to the speed of light _______. a. get lighter. b. get more massive. c. get longer. d. disappear.
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d. = h/mv
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Which of the following is the de Broglie equation? a. E = mc2 b. E = hf c. mvx h d. = h/mv
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a. phosphorescence
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Glow-in-the-dark materials exhibit the phenomenon called _______. a. phosphorescence. b. simulated absorption. c. fluorescence. d. stimulated emission.
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c. very small particles, such as electrons.
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Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is most important for _______. a. very large objects, such as the Moon. b. very large distances. c. very small particles, such as electrons. d. very small angular momentum.
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b. Position and velocity
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Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know simultaneously which two properties of a particle? a. Momentum and energy b. Position and velocity c. Position and charge d. Time and place
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a. Schrödinger.
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The term probability is associated with the model of the atom proposed by a. Schrödinger. b. Heisenberg. c. de Broglie. d. Einstein.
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c. Heisenberg
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Theoretical limits on measurement accuracy are set by a principle associated with which scientist? a. de Broglie b. Schrödinger c. Heisenberg d. Pauli
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b. Line spectra
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The Bohr theory was developed to explain which of these phenomena? a. The photoelectric effect b. Line spectra c. Quantum numbers d. X-rays
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d. Rutherford.
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The nuclear model of the atom is associated with a. Thomson. b. Dalton. c. Bohr. d. Rutherford.
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a. photon.
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A quantum of electromagnetic radiation is called a(n) a. photon. b. electron. c. positron. d. proton.

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