Ch.8-11 Enviro

Flashcard maker : Robert Lollar
Countries that have completed the demographic transition typically have
good use of technology and high per capita income.
One of China’s current strategies to deal with its water shortage is to
import more water intensive crops from the U.S., which has more water.
Which of the following are current limiting factors for future human population growth?
pollution and land for agriculture
Within soil, a natural cycle of
decomposers break down detritus to release nutrients used by producers.
The five main revolutions of human history have all resulted in
an increase in human carrying capacity.
The 1994 Cairo population conference broadly agreed that slower population growth resulted from
better health care, education, and employment for women.
Which one of the following is fed by groundwater and often drained by seeps or springs?
aquifers
Population growth and fertility rates are lowest in
upper-income countries.
Attention to which of the following would provide the greatest impact to all of the Millennium Development Goals?
maternal pre-natal and post-natal care for mothers and infants
Which of the following involves blue water?
percolation of water through soil
At the mouth of the Mississippi River, large concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus flow into the Gulf of Mexico, causing nutrient overloading, algal blooms, and extremely low levels of oxygen. Which revolutions are most responsible for this problem?
Green Revolution and Industrial Revolution
Severe wildfires followed by heavy rains have significantly eroded the soil of a formerly forested region. Which one of the following horizons is most likely intact with little disturbance?
C horizon
Hadley cells at the equator consist of
rising, moist air that produces precipitation and rain forests, and falling dry air associated with deserts.
Which of the following analogies best illustrates the credit-debt trap?
A person is only able to pay some of the interest, and none of the principal, of a large credit card bill.
Soils with the greatest water-holding capacity tend to have
poor aeration and lowest workability.
In general, high poverty produces
high fertility and greater environmental damage.
Better sanitation and nutrition generally resulted from the
Medical Revolution.
Detritus feeders and decomposers are most likely found in the
A and O horizon.
Which of the following would we expect on the leeward sides of high mountain ranges?
deserts
Which problem today is primarily the result of the Industrial Revolution?
extensive air and water pollution
We would expect that soil leaching would be most severe in regions where
irrigation is applied to fields on hillsides.
How would we expect a Latin American country to change if it became industrialized and significantly increased per capita income?
The green line would stay about the same, but the red line would drop to near the green level.
Which of the following is a uniquely human trait?
ability to regulate our reproduction
Based upon soil particle size, the largest to smallest are
sand, silt, and clay.
Countries caught in the poverty-population trap have experienced
the benefits of modern medicine but not the benefits of economic development.
Examine the dependency ratio trends for the regions in this figure. The dependency ratio for high-income countries has risen because
life-spans are longer following a demographic window.
If a plowed farm field was restored to natural prairie, we would expect that
erosion of the soil would decrease.
What does the replacement-level fertility rate include that is not part of the total fertility rate?
infant and childhood mortality
According to GLASOD, the he main risk of continuing degradation of agricultural land is
declining agricultural productivity.
Which of the following are the greatest health threats in a developing country?
conditions arising from poor nutrition and lack of hygiene
As a cold front moves into an area of warm, moist air, we would expect to see cloud formation as
the warm air rises and condenses.
We expect the highest relative humidity on a soccer field during the summer on a
cool evening after a heavy rain.
Citizens of the poorest countries may resent restrictions on carbon emissions imposed by wealthy countries because developed countries
have a greater impact on the environment.
Which one of the following soil horizons is least likely to be interacting directly with living organisms?
C horizon
The detritus food web illustrated in the lower right of this diagram primarily occurs in the
O horizon.
Which of the following will slow the rate of global population increases?
delaying the age of first reproduction
The greatest human population increases over the next few decades is expected to occur in
Africa.
The Dust Bowl experience of the United States in the 1930s was caused primarily by
lack of any soil conservation practices, continuous cropping, coupled with natural drought.
The most recent Cairo population conference in 1994 found widespread agreement that the greatest way to help developing countries was to
limit their population growth.
The dust storm in Arizona in 2011
was triggered by drought conditions similar to those of the 1930s Dust Bowl.
Which of the following farming practices would be expected to produce the least nutrient leaching, and thus contribute most to soil sustainability?
no plowing, no irrigation, and the use of organic fertilizers
China’s current need to increase its water supply is rooted in
the need to grow more crops to support its growing population.
The Three Gorges Dam
is the largest hydroelectric project in the world.
In which of the following agricultural situations are fertilizers least needed?
A natural prairie pasture where cattle feed and defecate.
A soil is found to have 50% sand, 30% silt, and 20% clay. This soil would be referred to as
loamy.
To enforce China’s one-child policy, the government
instituted an elaborate system of economic and social incentives and penalties.
Examine the relationships between poverty, environmental degradation, and fertility. We would expect that increased industrialization and development would affect the poverty cycle by
increasing the use of contraceptives.
This photograph best represents the results of which three revolutions?
Neolithic Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and Green Revolution
Which of the following contributes the most as a greenhouse gas?
water vapor levels in the air
Water in the oceans may become fresh water available to humans through the processes of
evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
A surprising new finding in the battle against AIDS reveals that HIV transmission in heterosexual relationships is reduced if
the male is circumcised.
How do the populations of the United States and India compare today?
India has almost four times the population of the United States.
Which one of the following statements about the figure above is true?
The declining size of bars from age 40-44 to age 30-34 most likely represents declining fertility rates.
Which of the following situations is most likely to have the lowest infiltration-runoff ratio?
a paved parking lot
Which one of the following soil types will hold the most water? The most water would be held by a soil consisting of equal masses of
silt and clay.
Thailand has experienced a dramatic drop in fertility rate, increased per capita income and an increase in life expectancy between 1960 and 2005. These are all signs that Thailand
has undergone demographic transition.
The age structure of the country in this figure reflects
a fertility rate that has declined.
Compared to the windward side, the leeward side of this mountain range will most likely have
lower levels of transpiration and precipitation.
With its devastating impact on global health, AIDS
deaths have declined due to increased funding from developed countries.
The very deep roots of many prairie plants that have decomposed over thousands of years have contributed to the high fertility of the
A horizon of molisols.
In this figure, the width of each bar includes a measure of the
mortality within the age group.
Which of the following human traits are typical of K-strategists?
parental care of long duration
Which one of the following soil orders is the most typical of drylands and deserts?
aridisols
Gutters and storm sewers in a city are most concerned with the
surface runoff loop.
The increased reliance upon raw materials from many parts of the world resulted from which revolution?
Industrial Revolution
A country with a declining fertility rate below 2.0
All of the above.
(will have a population declining in size; will be graying; is increasingly common in highly developed nations)
The rerouting of the Mississippi to increase the efficiency of movements of steamboats and barges was the result of the
Industrial Revolution.
Which of the following is true?
More than 20% of cultivated land was degraded between 1989 and 2003.
The decline of the polar ice caps because of increasing temperatures at the poles will
decrease the largest reserve of fresh water on Earth.
China’s one-child policy was adopted because
it was clear the nation could not live within the limit of its resources if the population continued to grow.
With billions of dollars already spent to fight AIDS and the need for much more money, which of the following represents the best strategy to fight AIDS in the world?
increase preventive measures to slow new infections, especially changes in sexual behavior
China’s current rush to construct dams and transport water over long distances is a response to
producing more water for crop irrigation, urban use and for hydroelectric projects.
Why is the green line lower in Latin America than it is in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Latin American communities have better use of modern medicine.
Although people living in the highest-density populations in urban areas generally live long, healthy lives, global overpopulation remains a problem because
environmental impacts are not always experienced where resources are consumed.
Which of the following is more related to water quality than water quantity?
sewage treatment facilities
Desalination plants, such as the one just completed in Tampa Bay,
None of the above.
India’s improvements in food production and health care have
been offset by tremendous growth in population size.
After joining the Peace Corps, your assignment is to help spread good agricultural practices to people living in the humid tropics. After receiving training, you tell the local farmers to
start a water catchment, apply manure and mulch to their fields and avoid tilling the soil if possible.
In the figure, blue water is represented by
rain.
This figure reveals
a soil profile.

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