Ch 7: Language Vocab

question

Accent
answer

How an individual pronounces words
question

Additive bilingualism
answer

occurs when two languages are of equal value and neither dominates the other
question

American Sign Language (ASL)
answer

A natural language that has been developed and used by persons who are deaf using a system of manual gestures.
question

Argot
answer

Somewhat secret vocabulary of a co-culture group.
question

Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS
answer

Basic, everyday conversational skills, which English language learners can develop in approximately two years.
question

Bidialectical
answer

An individual who has the ability to speak or utilize two or more dialects.
question

Bilingual Education
answer

The use of two languages as a media of instruction. It accepts and develops native language and culture in the instructional process to learn English and to learn academic subject matter. Bilingual education may use the native language, as well as English, as the medium of instruction.
question

Bilingualism
answer

The ability to function in two languages. While some contend that bilingualism implies native-like fluency, others measure competency in two languages as adequate to be considered bilingual.
question

Black English/ Ebonics/African American English/Vernacular Black English
answer

Dialect used by many African Americans and used primarily by those in working-class families.
question

Co-cultures
answer

Groups of people who exist and function apart from the dominant culture (e.g., street gangs, drug dealers, prostitutes).
question

Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
answer

The higher levels of proficiency required in highly structured academic situations.
question

Colloquialisms
answer

The informal or conversational speech in a community (e.g., Texas colloquialism, \”I like to got hit by that car!\” meaning \”I was almost struck by that car\”).
question

Dialects
answer

Variations of a language usually determined by region or social class (e.g., southern drawl). regional: differences in pronunciation of vowels social: consonants
question

English as a Second Language (ESL)
answer

Educational strategy that relies exclusively on English for teaching or learning the English language—ESL programs are used extensively in this country as a primary medium to assimilate English language learners (ELLs) into the linguistic mainstream as quickly as possible.
question

English Language Learners (ELL)
answer

Students who have limited or no English skills and who are in the process of learning English.
question

English only
answer

Used interchangeably with \”official English.\”
question

Formal standard
answer

The acceptable written language that is typically found in grammar books.
question

Informal standard
answer

The language considered proper in a community.
question

Language
answer

Written or spoken human speech. It is a system that enables people to communicate with one another and to share their thoughts and ideas with one another.
question

Monolingualism
answer

The ability to speak only one language.
question

Nonstandard dialect
answer

A dialect of the same language (e.g., English), that is not considered standard (e.g., Black English).
question

Official English
answer

A position supported by U.S. English, a citizens’ action group, which is seeking to have English declared by Congress as the official language of the United States. Individuals who support this movement believe that all public documents, records, legislation and regulations, as well as hearings, official ceremonies and public meetings should be conducted solely in English.
question

Pedagogy
answer

Art or science of teaching, which includes instructional strategies and methods.
question

Proposition 227
answer

An initiative passed by California voters in 1998 that required all language minority students to be educated in sheltered English immersion programs, not normally intended to exceed one year. Although it has not completely succeeded, Designed to eliminate bilingual education from California’s schools.
question

Regression to the mean
answer

A statistical phenomenon that implies that scores at the extreme ends of the statistical distribution move toward the population average (mean), with low scores moving higher and high scores moving lower.
question

Sheltered English immersion
answer

A process of English language acquisition structured so that nearly all instruction is in English—This is the instructional method mandated by California Proposition 227 and is normally limited to one year.
question

Signed English
answer

A system that translates the English oral or written word into a sign.
question

Standard English
answer

The English spoken by a particular group of individuals in a community. Typically this group is the professional educated middle class and the group with a high degree of influence and prestige in the community.
question

Subtractive bilingualism
answer

Occurs when a second language replaces the first.
question

Transitional programs
answer

emphasize bilingual education as a means of moving from the culture and language most commonly used for communication in the home to the mainstream of U.S. language and culture. The native language of the home is used to help the student make the transition to the English language. The native language is gradually phased out as the student becomes more proficient in English.
question

Yiddish
answer

The language of Jews from Central and Eastern Europe and their descendants, resulting from a fusion of elements derived principally from a High German language written in Hebrew characters.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member