CH 7 ETHICS Essay

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1. If a company is managing its earnings, which of the ethical theories are they most likely following? A. Rights B. Fairness C. Egoism D. Virtue
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C
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2. Which of the following is NOT considered “earnings management”? A. “Earnings management” is done to project smoother earnings from year to year. B. Management emphasizes achieving long-term results to meet financial goals. C. A Management uses “cookie-jar reserves each year.” D. The executives manipulate the earnings in order to match their predetermined target.
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B
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3. Which of the following is NOT a motivation to manage earnings? A. Companies try to meet or beat Wall Street earnings projections in order to grow market capitalization and increase the value of stock options B. Companies try to accelerate as much revenue as possible into early periods regardless of the effects on later periods C. To smooth net income over time D. To maximize compensation including bonuses
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B
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4. Which technique was used by both WorldCom and Waste Management to manage earnings? A. Manipulating asset net valuation amounts to minimize operating expenses for a period B. Accelerating the recording of revenue into an earlier period C. Delaying needed repairs to a later period D. All of these were used
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A. Manipulating asset net valuation amounts to minimize operating expenses for a period
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5. Which of the following author(s) emphasize(s) a “purposeful act by management in pursuit of its own self-interests as might be the case when earnings are manipulated to get the stock price up in advance of the exercise of stock options.”? A. Dechow and Skinner B. Healy and Wahlen C. Schipper D. Thomas E. McKee
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C. Schipper
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6. Which of the following author(s) focus(es) on “management’s intent to deceive the stakeholders by using accounting devices to positively influence reported earnings.”? A. Dechow and Skinner B. Healy and Wahlen C. Schipper D. Thomas E. McKee
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B. Healy and Wahlen
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7. Which of the following author(s) link earnings management to choices made in determining earnings that may comprise aggressive, but acceptable, accounting estimates and judgments, as compared to fraudulent practices that are clearly intended to deceive others? A. Dechow and Skinner B. Healy and Wahlen C. Schipper D. Thomas E. McKee
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A. Dechow and Skinner
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8. Which of the following author(s) define(s) earnings management as “reasonable and legal management decision making and reporting intended to achieve stable and predictable financial results.”? A. Dechow and Skinner B. Healy and Wahlen C. Schipper D. Thomas E. McKee
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D. Thomas E. McKee
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9. Who said “the ethics issue might possibly be mitigated by clearly disclosing aggressive accounting assumptions in the financial statement disclosures?” A. Hopwood et al B. Thomas E. McKee C. Arthur Levitt D. Belverd Needles
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A. Hopwood et al
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10. In surveys of managers, which technique to manage earnings was considered most acceptable? A. Changing inventory valuation in order to influence earnings B. Accounting manipulation C. Manipulating operating decisions D. Establishing cookie jar reserves
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C. Manipulating operating decisions
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11. Which of the following is NOT a qualitative factor when assessing materiality? A. A misstatement that changes a loss into income or vice versa B. The existence of statutory or regulator reporting requirements that affect materiality thresholds C. The potential effect of the misstatement on trends, especially trends in profitability D. The use of simplistic numerical thresholds and rules of thumb
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D. The use of simplistic numerical thresholds and rules of thumb
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12. Vorhies identities four perspectives to help CPAs identify key internal control exceptions under the Sarbanes Oxley Act including: A. An internal control deficiency caused by accounting manipulations B. A large variance in an accounting estimate compared with the actual determined amount C. A misstatement that changes a loss into income or vice versa D. All were identified
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B. A large variance in an accounting estimate compared with the actual determined amount
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13. SAS No. 107 identifies the following aspects of disclosure amounts deemed to be material except for: A. Disclosing an item in one year but not in the next year B. Qualitative aspects of the disclosure C. Quantitative significance of the disclosure D. Professional judgment
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A. Disclosing an item in one year but not in the next year
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14. Each of the following techniques was used by Gemstar TV Guide International in its accounting fraud except for: A. Created cookie jar reserves of advertising revenue to smooth net income B. Engaged in round trip transactions whereby Gemstar paid money to a third party to advertise its services and capitalized that cost while the third party used Gemstar’s funds to buy advertising from Gemstar, and the company recorded 100% of that amount as revenue while capitalizing the cost of its advertising payments C. Used channel stuffing to accelerate the recording of revenue into earlier periods D. Inflated advertising revenue from nonmonetary and barter transactions
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C. Used channel stuffing to accelerate the recording of revenue into earlier periods
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15. The best definition of a financial restatement is: A. A company, either voluntarily or under prompting by its auditors or regulators, revises its public financial information that was previously reported B. A company, either voluntarily or under prompting by its auditors or regulators, revises its public financial information for the current period C. An adjustment of financial information due to an error correction D. All are part of the definition
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A. A company, either voluntarily or under prompting by its auditors or regulators, revises its public financial information that was previously reported
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16. The SEC requires stealth restatements to be A. Disclosed only in periodic reports. B. Disclosed only in an 8-K report or amended 10-K/A or 10-Q/A. C. Increased to more 50 % of restatements. D. Disclosed in ten business days after determination of need for restatement.
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B. Disclosed only in an 8-K report or amended 10-K/A or 10-Q/A.
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17. The SEC Advisory Committee on Improvements in Financial Reporting identified each of the following as a view of equity and credit analysts about investor’s views on materiality and financial statement restatements except for: A. Bright line rules are useful in making materiality judgments B. Bright line rules are not really useful in making materiality judgments C. The disclosure provided on restatements is not adequate D. One of the major costs of restatements is the amount of time between the restatement announcement and the final resolution of the restatement
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A. Bright line rules are useful in making materiality judgments
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18. Which of the following is NOT an earnings management technique? A. Failing to write down or write off impaired assets B. Releasing questionable reserves into income C. Failing to record expenses and related liabilities when future obligations remain D. Creating an allowance for uncollectible accounts and adjusting it at year end
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D. Creating an allowance for uncollectible accounts and adjusting it at year end
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19. Which of the following was not pointed to by the SEC as a motivation for fraud in the Xerox’s case? A. Xerox misled investors by polishing its reputation on Wall Street and to boost the company’s stock price. B. Xerox top management overrode the internal control to manipulate earnings. C. Xerox failed to disclose GAAP violations that led to acceleration in the recognition of approximately $3 billion in equipment revenues. D. Xerox recognized a greater amount of revenue on leases in early years than warranted and didn’t break out revenues that should have been deferred and recognized in future years.
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B. Xerox top management overrode the internal control to manipulate earnings.
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20. Which of the following earnings management techniques were not used in the Lucent Technologies, Inc.’s case? A. Shifting Current Revenue to a later period B. Boosting income with one-time gains C. Recording revenue too soon or of questionable quality D. Shifting current expenses to a later or earlier period
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A. Shifting Current Revenue to a later period
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21. Which of the following was not true according to the Enron case? A. Fastow developed the concept of buying up oil and gas companies to establish SPEs B. Fastow worked to structure ventures that met the conditions under GAAP to keep the partnership activities off Enron’s books and on the separate books of the partnership C. Fastow created SPEs that borrowed money from banks and transferred it to Enron in a sale of an operating asset no longer need by Enron D. The SPE created by Fastow enabled Enron to keep debt off its books while benefiting from transfer and use of the cash borrowed by the SPE
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A. Fastow developed the concept of buying up oil and gas companies to establish SPEs
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22. Which of the following was not a technique used by Enron to manage earnings? A. Used reserves to increase earnings when reported amounts were too low. B. Deliberately over stated the allowance for uncollectibles and adjusted it downward in future years C. Used mark-to-market estimates to inflate earnings in violation of GAAP D. Selected which operating assets to “sell” to the SPEs, affecting the gain on transfer and earnings effect.
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B. Deliberately over stated the allowance for uncollectibles and adjusted it downward in future years
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23. What is the culture at Enron that discussed in the case? A. Employees worked later and later. B. Employees were evaluated in groups; the goal was to remove the bottom 20% of each group every year. C. Enron had a cutthroat system and encouraged a “yes” culture. D. All of these
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D. All of these
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24. Which of the following partnership that Enron created eventually lead to its demise? A. JEDI B. Cactus C. Chewco D. Ironman
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C. Chewco
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25. What was the original motivation by FASB on SPEs? A. To establish a mechanism to encourage companies to invest in needed assets while keeping related debt of its books B. To keep the large amount of debt off the books C. To sell non-producing assets to the SPE D. To select which assets to sell to the SPEs affecting the gain
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A. To establish a mechanism to encourage companies to invest in needed assets while keeping related debt of its books
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26. There are several aspects of Enron fraud that are dealt with directly in SOX further connecting Enron to reform in the accounting profession. Which of the following is true? A. SOX permitted the provision of internal audit service for audit clients B. Off-balance-sheet financing activities were prohibited for all companies C. Related-party transactions require disclosure in the notes D. All of these
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C. Related-party transactions require disclosure in the notes
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27. The best way to characterize the role of Sherron Watkins in the downfall of Enron is: A. She directed the internal auditors to examine numerous transactions that led to the discovery of the fraud B. She gave in to the pressure of Andy Fastow to go along with materially misstated financial statements C. She was sent to jail even though she cooperated with the government in its case against Enron D. She tried to alert Ken Lay about the accounting scandal at Enron
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D. She tried to alert Ken Lay about the accounting scandal at Enron
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28. The basic ethical principle violated by Andy Fastow in his role as Enron’s CFO and involvement with SPEs was: A. He lied to top management about what he was doing for the SPEs B. He failed to exercise due care in setting up SPEs C. He had a conflict of interests in his dual roles D. All of these
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C. He had a conflict of interests in his dual roles
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29. “Cookie jar reserves” can best be described as: A. Buying a lot of chocolate chip cookies, storing them for when you have a hunger attack, and then releasing them into your stomach. B. Overstating or understating allowances and reversing amounts in the future to smooth out net income over time. C. Accelerating the recording of revenues into an earlier year than is warranted. D. Delaying the recording of expenses to a later year to boost income in the current year.
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B. Overstating or understating allowances and reversing amounts in the future to smooth out net income over time.
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30. All of the following are examples of “Recording revenue too soon or of questionable quality” except for: A. Recording sales that lack economic substance. B. Recording revenue when future services remain to be provided. C. Recording revenue before shipment or before the customer’s unconditional acceptance. D. Recording revenue even though the customer is not obligated to pay.
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A. Recording sales that lack economic substance.
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31. All of the following are examples of “Boosting Income with One-Time Gains” except for: A. Recording sales that lack economic substance B. Boosting profits by selling undervalued assets C. Including investment income or gains as part of revenue D. Including investment income or gains as a reduction in operating expenses
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A. Recording sales that lack economic substance
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32. The expression, “Too many corporate managers, auditors, and analysts are participants in a game of nods and winks” is attributable to: A. Barry Minkow B. Jerry Seinfeld C. Thomas E. McKee D. Arthur Levitt
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D. Arthur Levitt
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33. Which of the following is NOT addressed in the Waste Management’s case? A. The misstatements represented 10% of pre-tax income, which was not considered material. B. The company employed aggressive accounting practices to enhance its earnings. C. The company used the gain to offset unrelated operating expenses which was not in conformity with GAAP. D. The company’s auditor, Arthur Andersen, had engaged in improper professional conduct.
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A. The misstatements represented 10% of pre-tax income, which was not considered material.
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34. Congress passed the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act” on July 30, 2002. Which of the following is NOT true? A. All companies are required to include in their annual reports a report of management on the company’s internal control over financial reporting. B. New audit standards include a prohibition against independent auditors providing many non-audit services and mandatory audit engagement partner rotation. C. Only U.S. companies are subject to the disclosure requirements of the Act. D. All public companies must change auditors every ten years.
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B. New audit standards include a prohibition against independent auditors providing many non-audit services and mandatory audit engagement partner rotation.
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35. “Earnings management either ignores or does not consider the rights of the investors and creditors to receive accurate, reliable and transparent financial statements.” This statement is from: A. A virtue perspective B. A utilitarian perspective C. A rights perspective D. A materiality perspective
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C. A rights perspective
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36. Inherent risk refers to: A. The possibility that a material misstatement will occur within the reporting company’s accounting information system B. The possibility that a material misstatement that has occurred will not be detected on a timely basis by the company’s control system C. The possibility that a material misstatement that has occurred will not be caught be the independent auditor’s testing D. The possibility that a material misstatement will occur in the financial statements
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A. The possibility that a material misstatement will occur within the reporting company’s accounting information system
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37. According to AU 320, the evaluation of whether a misstatement could influence economic decisions of users A. Is essential to determining whether to render an unmodified opinion B. Is essential to determining whether the financial statements contain fraud C. Is essential to determining whether such a misstatement is material D. Is essential to determining whether there is a failed audit
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C. Is essential to determining whether such a misstatement is material
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38. Accruals are potentially troublesome because: A. They can lead to giving an unmodified audit opinion when it should have been modified B. They provide an opportunity to manage earnings through aggressive or more conservative estimations C. They always lead to fraud in financial statements D. They provide an opportunity to shift debt off the books by setting up an SPE
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B. They provide an opportunity to manage earnings through aggressive or more conservative estimations
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39. The main difference between a discretionary and nondiscretionary accrual is: A. Discretionary accruals are items that management has full control over B. Discretionary accruals are based on changes in the fundamental performance of the firm C. Discretionary accruals arise from transactions considered normal for the firm D. Discretionary accruals always lead to an increase in earnings
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A. Discretionary accruals are items that management has full control over
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40. In the Matrixx Initiatives v. Siracusano case, the Supreme Court adopted the position about materiality that A. It should always be determined only through qualitative evaluations B. It should always be determined through quantitative evaluations C. It should always be determined by considering whether the amount affects past financial statements D. It should be determined by considering whether the total mix of information would be viewed by a reasonable investor as possibly accepting judgment
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D. It should be determined by considering whether the total mix of information would be viewed by a reasonable investor as possibly accepting judgment
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41. Your professor asks you to consider whether earnings management can be justified by arguing that the net benefits of managing earnings exceeds any harms that may occur. The professor is asking you to apply what reasoning methods to make the analysis? A. Egoism B. Act utilitarianism C. Rule utilitarianism D. Virtue
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B. Act utilitarianism
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42. You work for a company that always pushes the envelope with respect to reporting revenues and expenses. You often disagree with the company because its approach to reporting these amounts cannot be justified from a GAAP perspective. You are upset and are considering whether this is a company that has a culture you want to be part of. Which of the following best characterizes the ethical issues of concern? A. Rights Theory B. Moral blindness C. Ethical Dissonance D. Materiality
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C. Ethical Dissonance
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43. Debbie and Steve are discussing a lecture given by their ethics professor after class one day. The professor said that misstatements of earnings are always unethical. Debbie agrees with this situation but Steve does not. What statement might Steve make to best support his point of view? A. It depends on whether the misstatements were made deliberately B. It depends on whether a user relied on the financial statements C. It depends on whether the statements lead to a modified or unmodified opinion D. All are valid statements for Steve to support his point of view
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A. It depends on whether the misstatements were made deliberately
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44. The main accounting issues in the Nortel Networks case were: A. Premature revenue recognition and hidden cash reserves B. Capitalization of operating expenses and hidden cash reserves C. Premature revenue recognition and off-balance-sheet entities D. Capitalization of operating expenses and off-balance-sheet entities
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A. Premature revenue recognition and hidden cash reserves
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The swap transactions used in the Solutions Network case to manage earnings can best be described as: A. Going to a swap meet and capitalizing purchases instead of expensing them immediately against swap revenue B. Recording revenue on software systems transactions in an earlier period than when obligated to buy the same in a later period C. Using a cookie jar reserve to delay the recording of revenue into a later period D. Recording as operating revenue on onetime gains from the sale of underperforming assets
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B. Recording revenue on software systems transactions in an earlier period than when obligated to buy the same in a later period
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46. The accounting issue in the Cubbies Cable case with respect to cable installations costs is closest to the accounting issue in which case? A. Enron B. Gemstar TV Guide C. Xerox D. WorldCom
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D. WorldCom
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47. The Solway case looks at the accounting issue of: A. Recording of accruals to manage earnings B. Recording of asset impairments to manage earnings C. Premature revenue recognition D. Setting up SPEs
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A. Recording of accruals to manage earnings
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48. The accounting shenanigan used in the Dell Computer case can best be described as: A. Recording revenue from exclusivity payments too soon or of questionable quality B. Shifting current revenue from exclusivity payments to a later period C. Shifting future expenses to the current period as a special charge D. Shifting current expenses to a later period
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B. Shifting current revenue from exclusivity payments to a later period
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49. In the Sweat Construction case, the company tried to manipulate earnings through the use of which accounting technique A. Cookie jar reserves B. Lease capitalization C. Percentage of completion method D. The Big Bath accounting
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C. Percentage of completion method
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50. Which of the following was not an accounting issue in the Sunbeam case? A. Cookie jar reserves B. Channel stuffing C. Bill and hold sales D. Swap transactions
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D. Swap transactions
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51. The Diamond Foods case addresses each of the following issues except for: A. Crop payable recorded in the wrong year B. Increasing revenues but stagnating cash flows C. Depreciation of almond trees D. Clawbacks of stock and cash
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C. Depreciation of almond trees
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52. The North Face case deals with materiality and how auditors employ that metric in an audit. The following are all true except: A. North Face accounted for barter transactions with full normal margin recognized. B. Crawford devised the 1997 barter transaction so that it was just beneath material threshold. C. Crawford followed the GAAP methods that Deloitte suggested. D. Deloitte proposed an adjusting entry for the 1997 barter transaction, but “passed” it as immaterial.
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C. Crawford followed the GAAP methods that Deloitte suggested.
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53. The former CEO of Vivendi Universal, Jean-Marie Messier, used as his defense in the case that: A. His actions were protected by attorney-client privilege B. While some of his actions may have turned out to be wrong, there never was an intent to defraud C. While some of his actions may have turned out to be wrong, he did the best that he could to save the company for certain bankruptcy D. He adhere to the business judgment rule and met his fiduciary obligations
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B. While some of his actions may have turned out to be wrong, there never was an intent to defraud

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