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CH 6 – Gestalt Theory and Therapy Essay

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1. Which of the following strategies did Fritz Perls believe was best for teaching about Gestalt therapy? a. Discussion. b. Talking. c. Lecturing. d. Explaining. e. Experiencing.
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e. Experiencing.
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2. The term character armor refers to: a. The sense of authenticity that accompanies a client’s growing self-awareness. b. Muscular resistance through which clients defend against their libido. c. The application of orgone to the human body. d. The way that resistance to contact covers a person’s true character. e. The fact that many people avoid authenticity by playing different “characters” or different roles in their lives.
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b. Muscular resistance through which clients defend against their libido.
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3. Why was Fritz Perls’s encounter with Freud inevitably such an invigorating and motivating experience? a. It freed him from the dogma of psychoanalytic thinking. b. It propelled him to embrace existentialism. c. Freud’s unconditional support inspired him to create his own approach to psychotherapy. d. None the above. e. Only a and b are true.
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e. Only a and b are true.
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4. Laura Perls: a. Is generally recognized as a contributor to Fritz Perls’s major written works—even though she never received much formal credit. b. Expressed gratitude for Fritz’s contributions at the New York Institute of Gestalt Therapy. c. Was a collaborator in creating the concept of mental metabolism process. d. All of the above. e. Only a and c.
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c. Was a collaborator in creating the concept of mental metabolism process.
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5. In keeping with Fritz Perls’s style, Gestalt therapists are primarily interested in: a. Direct experiencing in therapy. b. Providing clients with accurate interpretations. c. Developing a therapeutic relationship. d. Attachment disorders. e. Intellectual insights, because the intellect drives the body.
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a. Direct experiencing in therapy.
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The term mental metabolism refers to: a. A Gestalt intelligence assessment process. b. The process of taking in and mentally digesting ideas. c. Methods for incorporating the brain in exercise plans. d. The rate at which one produces and perceives maladaptive cognitions. e. Both b and c are true.
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b. The process of taking in and mentally digesting ideas.
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7. The purpose of “feeling the actual” is to help clients: a. Prepare for hypnosis. b. Wake up to the physical-sensory experience. c. Become self-actualized. d. Understand behavioral patterns that are in the preconscious. e. There is no such technique as feeling the actual.
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b. Wake up to the physical-sensory experience.
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8. Gestalt therapy is best described as: a. An evidence-based therapy. b. A cognitive-behavioral therapy. c. A multicultural therapy. d. A person-centered therapy. e. None of the above.
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e. None of the above.
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9. According to Gestalt theory, we cannot begin to self-regulate until we have: a. Self-involvement. b. Self-efficacy. c. Self-love. d. Self-awareness. e. Self-soothing skills.
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d. Self-awareness.
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10. Gestalt is a German word that means: a. The unified whole or complete form. b. Person-centered. c. The search for meaning. d. The house of the rising sun. e. Social interest or community feeling.
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a. The unified whole or complete form.
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11. Gestalt theory is phenomenological. Therefore, Gestalt therapists encourage clients to: a. Report their direct experience. b. Strive for superiority. c. Be authentic in therapy. d. Give up the tyranny of the “should.” e. Both a and c.
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e. Both a and c.
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12. Gestalt therapy views ________-________ as an inseparable whole. a. Body-mind. b. Intellectual-neurological. c. Cognition-emotion. d. Interpersonal skills-emotion. e. Knowledge-awareness.
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a. Body-mind.
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13. How does field theory view time? a. Time heals all wounds. b. Time is relative; past, present, and future all exist in the now. c. Therapists can use the client’s past experiences to diagnose pathology. d. Past experiences are not considered in formal Gestalt therapy procedures. e. Time is viewed as a relative function of string theory.
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b. Time is relative; past, present, and future all exist in the now.
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14. During Gestalt therapy, unfinished business from the past: a. Will be brought to client’s awareness when talking in the now. b. Interferes with the therapeutic process. c. Is important for establishing client solutions. d. Needs to be resolved before a client can move forward to work on past memories. e. Is related to fictional finalism.
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a. Will be brought to client’s awareness when talking in the now.
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15. In Gestalt therapy, what words best describe the respective roles of client and therapist? a. Expert; expert. b. Expert; mirror. c. Student; expert. d. Child; parent. e. Ego; superego.
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a. Expert; expert.
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16. Jay is working with a Gestalt therapist who keeps him focused on the here and now. As Jay maintains his here-and-now focus, his therapist is certain that his past issues (unfinished business) will inevitably be brought into focus due to which of the following processes? a. Repetition compulsion. b. Field theory. c. Figure formation. d. Feeling the actual. e. The I-thou relationship.
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c. Figure formation.
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17. What nine words did Yontef use to describe Gestalt therapy? a. This is my existence and this is my now. b. I and thou, here and now, what and how. c. Awareness, body, emotion, now, muscular digression, retroflection, confluence, authenticity. d. Smoke and lights, circus and performance, gimmicks and phony. e. If by chance we find each other, so be it.
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b. I and thou, here and now, what and how.
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18. What was Perls referring to when he said that clients get stage fright? Hint: This concept is based on a Freudian quote: “Thinking is trial work.” a. Most clients experience a fear of bringing attention to their weaknesses. b. Most clients naturally experience anxiety connected to public speaking. c. Most clients experience a fear of raised platforms (e.g., stages). d. Most clients have an anxiety or fear of acting and taking responsibility for themselves in the now. e. Clients need to rehearse their behaviors in therapy to gain enough confidence for being out in the real world.
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d. Most clients have an anxiety or fear of acting and taking responsibility for themselves in the now.
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19. What is the function of boundaries from the Gestalt perspective? a. The function of boundaries is to connect and to separate. b. Boundaries are the limits parents set on their children; these limits lead to creative adjustment. c. Boundaries are primary designed to distance individuals from their feelings and therefore need to be broken down. d. Boundaries are not a concept used in Gestalt therapy. e. Both b and d are true.
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a. The function of boundaries is to connect and to separate.
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20. How is psychopathology defined within the model of contact disturbance? a. Creative maladjustment. b. Aboutism. c. Stage fright. d. Awareness resistance. e. Repeatedly interrupting or resisting contact.
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e. Repeatedly interrupting or resisting contact.
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21. Beth had a bad day and wanted to tell her friend Sarah all about it even though she knew Sarah had an important job interview the same day. When she saw Sarah, she became irritated because Sarah kept talking and talking. Beth left thinking that Sarah was a bad listener and very inconsiderate. Which boundary disturbance is Beth using to resist contact? a. Confluence. b. Projection. c. Ego-defense. d. Intellectualizing. e. Deflection.
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b. Projection.
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22. Out on a first date, Ann notices that the other person seems to avoid any discussion of himself, and every inquiry into his personal life is met with a joke or deprecating remark. He might be resisting contact by employing which boundary disturbance? a. Introjection. b. Projection. c. Retroflection. d. Deflection. e. Reflection.
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d. Deflection.
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23. Retroflection is considered a type of ___________ in Gestalt theory. a. Defense mechanism. b. Dream analysis. c. Rationalization. d. Boundary disturbance. e. Unfinished business.
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d. Boundary disturbance.
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24. What best describes a Gestalt therapist’s view of the therapeutic relationship? a. The therapist is an educator who educates the client. b. Therapists are friendly and focus on client strengths. c. Therapists should connect deeply with their clients on an experiential level. d. Therapists follow their clients’ lead. e. Gestalt therapists aren’t interested in close relationships, because they focus on using experiments to enhance client awareness.
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c. Therapists should connect deeply with their clients on an experiential level.
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25. Why did Perls emphasize body awareness? a. He believed resistance to contact manifests physiologically or muscularly. b. Emotional development occurs through muscle stimulation. c. Body awareness promotes sexual heath. d. Exercise promotes mental wellness. e. Both c and d.
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a. He believed resistance to contact manifests physiologically or muscularly.
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26. Which of the following physical observations might a Gestalt therapist make? a. Tightness in a client’s jaw. b. The redness or flushing of a client’s skin. c. Client leg bouncing. d. All of the above. e. Only a and b are relevant to Gestalt therapy.
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d. All of the above.
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27. When considering using an experiment with a client, a Gestalt therapist should: a. Determine whether a client has Borderline Personality Disorder, because research has shown Gestalt therapy to be highly effective with those clients. b. Examine the situation closely to determine how to best use interpretations within the technique. c. Avoid using interpretations. d. Avoid rapport-building activities, as they’ve been shown to adversely affect treatment outcomes. e. Only a and b.
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c. Avoid using interpretations.
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28. Which three types of clients does Beutler (2009) identify as poor candidates for Gestalt therapy? a. Clients with schizophrenia, clients with an eating disorder, clients with depression who are sensitive to feedback. b. New clients, clients with personality disorders, clients with bipolar disorder. c. Clients previously in psychoanalysis, clients with bipolar disorder, clients with schizophrenia. d. Clients with depression who are sensitive to feedback, clients with depression who tend to externalize, clients whose condition deteriorates with expressive-experiential treatment. e. None of the above.
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d. Clients with depression who are sensitive to feedback, clients with depression who tend to externalize, clients whose condition deteriorates with expressive-experiential treatment.
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29. Without __________, Gestalt techniques should NOT be employed in therapy. a. An established and authentic I-thou relationship between client and therapist. b. A thorough and accurate informed consent. c. A living will. d. A behavioral assessment plan. e. Both a and b.
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e. Both a and b.
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30. Gestalt therapists can minimize client risk by: a. Adhering to formal assessment procedures. b. Emphasizing collaboration. c. Jumping immediately into here-and-now Gestalt experiments. d. Regularly switching roles with the client. e. Using a connecting deep interpretation during the first session.
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b. Emphasizing collaboration.
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31. What view do relational psychoanalysis and relational Gestalt therapy have in common? a. Clients should be coached to attend to the moment-to-moment experiences in the session. b. They believe therapists are the experts whose perceptions and ideas should dominate the session. c. Both the client and the therapist bring subjective views to therapy. d. They believe Freud was the ultimate expert on mental health treatment. e. They focus on muscular resistance.
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c. Both the client and the therapist bring subjective views to therapy.
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32. Which of the following is NOT a method a Gestalt therapist might use to enhance awareness of language and voice quality? a. Moving clients from using “it” or “you” to “I.” b. Have clients transform their questions into statements. c. Notice when clients use passive language. d. Focus on the client’s accent. e. None of the above.
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d. Focus on the client’s accent.
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33. Which statement is NOT an accurate representation of Perls’s stance on using technique in Gestalt therapy? a. Gestalt therapy is not technique driven. b. The goal of therapy is to facilitate self-awareness and personal growth in the long run. c. Techniques, unless used properly, can be phony and antitherapeutic. d. Techniques should include strong confrontation or they won’t be effective. e. The above statements are all inaccurate.
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d. Techniques should include strong confrontation or they won’t be effective.
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34. If a therapist were to say to his client, “Let your fear have a voice and let it speak for a while,” what type of Gestalt experiment is he using? a. Staying with the feeling. b. I take responsibility. c. Playing the projection. d. The reversal technique. e. The exaggeration experiment.
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a. Staying with the feeling.
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35. According to Perls, the ________/________ phenomenon is one of the most frequent splits in the human personality. a. Procrastination/discipline. b. Genuine/deception. c. Adrenaline/safety. d. Top dog/underdog. e. Mad dog/underdog.
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d. Top dog/underdog.
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36. Which of the following is/are example(s) of how Gestalt therapists might use the empty-chair technique? a. To work out a client’s internal conflict. b. To work out a client’s contemporary interpersonal conflict. c. To help bicultural clients live authentically within challenging cultural situations d. All of the above. e. Only a and b.
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e. Only a and b.
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37. What is the goal of dream work in Gestalt therapy? a. To reveal unconscious conflicts. b. To emphasize client individuality. c. To facilitate physical exercise within the session. d. As a method of entertaining clients and keeping them engaged. e. To connect the scattered bits and pieces of a client’s personality.
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e. To connect the scattered bits and pieces of a client’s personality.
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38. “And this is my existence” is a Gestalt therapy technique used to: a. Produce client insight by focusing on a dream experience. b. Give the client a feeling of connection to the universe. c. Increase client social interest by focusing on client self-worth. d. Give the therapist the necessary information to interpret client dreams. e. None of the above.
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a. Produce client insight by focusing on a dream experience.
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39. Which of the following is/are example(s) of how a Gestalt therapist might use the exaggeration experiment? a. To encourage a client who is angry at her father to yell at him as if he were in the room. b. By having a client explain in detail an exaggerated version of his distorted thinking and patterns. c. If a client begins rocking slightly, have him exaggerate the movement and then notice any feelings. d. By telling the client that she’s using exaggeration and that her life isn’t that bad. e. All of the above.
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c. If a client begins rocking slightly, have him exaggerate the movement and then notice any feelings.
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40. Which is NOT one of Polster’s phases of the Gestalt therapy process? a. Therapeutic encounter. b. Awareness. c. Body feedback. d. Implementation of Gestalt therapy experiments. e. These are all phases of the Gestalt therapy process identified by Polster.
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c. Body feedback.
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41. Which is NOT a Gestalt therapy technique for exploring client self-awareness? a. Guided meditation. b. Language and voice-quality feedback. c. Resolving unfinished business. d. Using the empty-chair technique. e. Providing clients with body feedback.
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a. Guided meditation.
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42. Which of the following is true regarding Fritz Perls’s attitude and behavior toward empirical research? a. He made massive efforts to obtain evidence-based status for Gestalt theory. b. He generally disregarded the practical importance of collecting scientific evidence to support specific therapy approaches. c. He rigidly adhered to the therapeutic rules he outlined in workshops. d. He expressed disdain for solution-focused theory.
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b. He generally disregarded the practical importance of collecting scientific evidence to support specific therapy approaches.