Ch. 4 Drawing Instruments and Techniques

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Orthographic projection
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A means of representing the height, width, and depth of a 3D object on 2D paper The point from which the object is viewed is infinity Projection lines are parallel to each other Usually 3 ortho views are used in a multiview dwg
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3 Principal Ortho Views
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Top, Front, Right side views
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Plan view
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Top view Used as basis for most other views May be roof plan, floor plan, foundation plan Most important view in architectural drafting
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Floor plan
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Section view taken about halfway up the wall
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Front elevation
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Front view
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Elevations
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Architectural drafters typically draw an elevation of all sides if the structure rather than just the front elevation Front elevation, right side elevation, left side elevation, rear elevation
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CADD system
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Computer-aided drafting and design system Can be used to produce a dwg on a computer, then plotted on paper
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2 types of pencils
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Common wood pencil and mechanical pencil
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Which pencil type is most used by manual drafters?
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Mechanical pencil because it allows drafter to change hardness of lead at will, easier to sharpen, can be used close to the end
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How well should erasers work?
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Select an eraser that will remove all traces of lead without destroying the surface of the paper or leaving colored marks
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What erasers are better?
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Plastic erasers because they don’t leave marks Or electric erasers
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Erasing shields
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Made of metal or plastic, usually thin, provide for accurate erasing Allows lines to be erased without removing surrounding lines
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3 types of paper used in arch dwgs
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Tracing paper, Vellum, Drafting film
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A-Size Drawing Sheet measurements:
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8.5\” x 11\”
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B-Size Drawing Sheet measurements:
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11\” x 17\”
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Drawing boards
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Usually on drafting tables Larger an sometimes have a drafting machine or straightedge permanently attached
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T-square
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A traditional manual drafting instrument Manufactured from wood, plastic, metal, or combo Used to draw horizontal lines
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Triangles
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Used for drawing lines that are not horizontal
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Protractors
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Used for measuring angles
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Scales
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Primarily architect’s scale, engineer’s scale, or combo
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Dividers
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Used to divide a line into proportional parts, provide a quick way to measure a length that must be used a number of time Divider points are shaped like needles
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Compass
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Used to draw circles, arcs, or radii
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Lettering guides
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Used to help neatly letter a dwg
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Irregular curves
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Used to draw curved lines that cannot be drawn with a compass You can also use flexible curve
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Case instruments
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May include dividers, compass, lining pens, pencil pointers, spare parts, small screwdriver, etc. A small box of instruments
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Lettering devices
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Used when uniformity of letters is essential
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Technical pens
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Used to ink a drawing Are interchangeable and range in size from 000 to 8 (1/16\” wide)
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Templates
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Serve as guide in drawing special lines or symbols
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Grids
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Many uses. Can be used under a sheet of tracing paper while others are to be drawn on directly Square grids Perspective grids
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Freehand Sketching
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A method of making a drawing without the use of instruments Most designers use sketches to \”think through\” an idea before an instrument or CADD dwg is made
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CADD hardware
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CPU, input devices, storage devices, output devices
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CPU
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Central Processing Unit The \”brain\” of the computer system
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Input devices
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Provide for data and info input to the computer i.e. Keyboard, mouse, digitizing tablet
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Storage devices
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i.e. Hard drives Hold the main operating system, the software, and electronic files created by the operator
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Output devices
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i.e. Monitor, plotter for hard copy
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Alphabet of Lines
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The collection of line types used is drafting
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Border lines
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Very heavy lines used to form a boundary for the dwg
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Object lines
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Show the outline of the main features of the object
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Hidden lines
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Represent an edge that is behind a visible surface in a given view
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Centerlines
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Indicate the center of holes an symmetrical objects, like windows and doors
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Extension lines
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Used to denote the termination point of a dimension line
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Dimension lines
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Used to show size and location Usually placed outside of object
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Break lines
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Used to show that all of the part is not drawn
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Long break line
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Used when break is 2\” or 3\” Thin and straight
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Short break lines
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Used where part of the object is shown broken away to reveal an underlying feature or part of the object removed for some other reason Heavy and drawn freehand
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Cutting-Plane lines
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Heavy lines used to show where the object is to be sectioned
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Section lines
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Aka. Crosshatch lines Used to show that the feature has been sectioned
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Guidelines
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Used for hand lettering, specifically lettering guides
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Construction lines
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very light lines used in the process of constructing a dwg used to help the drafter and should not reproduce when the print is made
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Architectural lettering
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an architectural drawing leans toward the artistic by nature there is no one correct architectural lettering style
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symbols library
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a collection of drafting symbols saved to a file that can be quickly inserted into the CAD dwg like a collection of symbol templates used in manual drafting a drafter may have several symbol libraries for different uses, views, plans

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