Ch 3 To 7 HIST: CH 16, 17, & 18

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THE AGONY OF RECONSTRUCTION (CH 16)
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Summary:
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After the Civil War, the South and the nation as a whole faced a difficult period of rebuilding its government and economy and of dealing with the newly freed African Americans.
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What reflects Lincoln’s view of Reconstruction?
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-Pardon would be granted to nearly all Southerners taking an oath of allegiance to the Union and acknowledging the legality of emancipation. -Lincoln’s plan was simple and not burdensome: Southerners would have to take an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept the fact that slavery was ended.
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President Andrew Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction called for the southern states to
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-declare their ordinances of secession illegal. -Like Lincoln, Johnson insisted that the Confederate states had never legally been out of the Union because secession was illegal.
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The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution
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defined national citizenship and prohibited the states from abridging the constitutional rights of people without due process of law.
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President Johnson antagonized Republicans in Congress by
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campaigning against Radical Republicans in the elections of 1866.
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After rejecting Johnson’s Reconstruction plan, Congress enacted a program based on
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-guarantees for the rights of all citizens with the Fourteenth Amendment. -The 14th Amendment defined the congressional goals for Reconstruction.
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Radical Reconstruction referred to
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transforming Southern society, including land reform to the freedmen, before readmission could occur.
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The House of Representatives impeached President Johnson on the grounds that he
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-challenged the Tenure of Office Act by removing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. -The main impeachment charge was that he violated the Tenure of Office Act by dismissing Secretary of War Stanton without obtaining permission from the Senate
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Sound (hard) money proponents favored
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retirement of greenbacks as quickly as possible and payment in silver and gold only.
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Late-nineteenth-century farmers and debtors generally favored a monetary policy that
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expanded the currency and inflated prices.
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A main reason for the Ku Klux Klan’s success in the South after 1868 was
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popular support for white supremacy from whites of all social classes.
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Southern Blacks tried to make their freedom meaningful during Reconstruction by
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-establishing their own churches, political organizations, and community institutions. -establishing their own farms. -seeking education for themselves and their children. -legalizing their marriages.
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In defending Republican governments in the South, President Grant
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-was inconsistent and hesitant because of northern political realities.
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How should Grant’s personal role in the corruption that marked his administration be assessed?
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He protected some corrupt officials from justice.
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To ensure the election of Rutherford Hayes, Republican leaders agreed to
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end federal support for southern radical regimes.
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The “Redeemers” in the South favored
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political restoration of White supremacy and the gospel of industrial progress.
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True/False
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Lincoln favored a lenient plan for Reconstruction in order to shorten the war by attracting southern support for readmission to the Union.
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True
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The dominant view of the Republicans in Congress was that strong executive leadership would be required to direct the Reconstruction process.
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False: Congressional Republicans wanted a significant role to play in Reconstruction so they could ensure that freedmen would be given the right to vote.
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Andrew Johnson abandoned Lincoln’s plans for Reconstruction by eliminating the requirement of an oath of allegiance for southern whites.
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False: Johnson’s plan actually required the same oath that Lincoln had prescribed in his 10 percent plan for Reconstruction.
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As a result of his impeachment trial, Andrew Johnson became the first president to be removed from office before his term was completed.
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False: Johnson was impeached (indicted) by the House of Representatives, but the Senate did not convict him; thus, he remained in office.
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Physical reconstruction of the South was difficult because its per capita wealth in 1865 was only about half of what it had been in 1860.
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True
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The “greenbackers” in the credit-hungry West favored hard money policies.
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False: Greenbackers wanted the government to continue to issue paper “greenback” currency to keep agricultural prices up.
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The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution prohibited any state from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
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True
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During Grant’s first term, the greatest threat to southern Republican governments came from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
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True
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The factor which most contributed to Democrat Samuel Tilden’s defeat in the presidential election in 1876 was the continued strength of the Republican regimes in the South and his consequent lack of popular support there.
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False: Tilden, a Democrat, received heavy voter support in the South and won the electoral vote of most southern states in 1876.
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THE WEST: EXPLOITING AN EMPIRE (CH 17)
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Summary
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After the Civil War, Americans, who believed expansion was their “manifest destiny,”
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Early-nineteenth-century explorers thought the trans-Mississippi West was best suited for
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Indians and buffalo. -The Great Plains were often referred to as “The Great American Desert,” presumably inhabitable only by Indians and buffalo.
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The Plains Indians were
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a complex of tribes, cultures, and bands that assigned most work on the basis of sex. -The diverse Plains cultures were also nomadic and warlike.
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In 1867, government policy toward Native Americans
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-was formulated by eastern humanitarians who wanted to preserve tribal organization. -As it turned out, however, the “isolate and civilize” assumptions that underlie the policy were unrealistic.
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The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
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gave small plots of reservation lands to individual Native Americans.
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One purpose of the Dawes Severalty Act was to
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force Native Americans to abandon the communal ownership of land.
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Between 1870 and 1900, most settlers moved west to
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improve their economic situation.
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Between 1862 and 1890, the federal government gave more land to __________ than anyone else.
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railroad companies.
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The Great Plains presented “sodbusters” with a problem not faced by farmers of earlier American frontiers. It was
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scarce water and timber.
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In 1893, historian Frederick Jackson Turner claimed that ___________ explained American development, shaping customs, character, and institutions.
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the frontier experience
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What was not a problem for the pioneer farmers of the Great Plains except
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lack of available land
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By the 1700s, the culture of the Plains Indians had been revolutionized by
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the introduction of the European horse.
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The most difficult leg of the Overland Trail was the
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final trek through the desert and the Sierra Nevada.
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Cities like Abilene, Fort Worth, and Dodge City owed their population growth and prosperity in the latter nineteenth century to
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shipping or receiving cattle.
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One of the results of the rapid increase in cultivated acres in the latter half of the nineteenth century was
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lower prices for farm products.
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By the Dawes Act of 1887, the Indian Bureau tried to
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end the traditional Native American religions and encourage Christianity among the tribes.
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True/False
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Westerners created subsistence economies that were largely independent of both eastern capital and the federal government.
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False
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The material culture of the Plains Indians was based on a diversity of animal and plant life.
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False
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Red Cloud’s victories caused the government to change policy and attempt to “civilize” Native American tribes.
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True: Chief Red Cloud’s Sioux massacre of the Captain Fetterman’s troops caused a shift to a “small reservations” Indian policy.
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U.S. policy toward Native Americans from the 1890s to the 1930s aimed at maintaining tribal life.
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False
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Government officials made sure that only legitimate farming families received any of the federal lands under the Homestead Act.
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False -Land speculators and railroad corporations received huge portions of lands intended for family homesteads.
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The Spanish-Mexican heritage of the Southwest had an important impact on the development of that region.
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True -Language, law, customs, religion, etc., were all influenced by the Spanish-Mexican heritage of the Southwest.
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The mining and cattle frontiers experienced a slow but steady growth pattern in the decades after the Civil War.
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False -Both frontiers experienced a boom time followed by rapid decline and reorganization and a transition from small individual ownerships to corporate mining and ranching. Page Ref:
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The Great Plains area was a problem for Anglo settlers because of Native American tribes, the relative scarcity of trees, and the inadequacy of rainfall.
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True -In addition, and perhaps as important as any problem, Plains farmers faced isolation and loneliness.
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The droughts of the 1880s slowed the march of the pioneer Anglo farmers onto the Great Plains.
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True
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THE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY (CH 18)
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Summary
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By their centennial of 1876, Americans were rapidly developing their society. Most important in this development was an increase in industrialism and the effects of that industrialism on American culture and society.
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The 1876 Centennial Exposition focused mainly on
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machinery
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What did NOT contribute significantly to American industrialization in the late nineteenth century?
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international free trade
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The Bessemer process transformed the steel industry because it
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produced more durable steel.
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Why did business trusts form in the late nineteenth century?
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to decrease competition
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John D. Rockefeller’s methods for defeating competitors did NOT include
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high quality and low prices -The efficiencies of Rockefeller’s business organization resulted in these benefits to the consumer.
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When a substantial number of women entered a profession,
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-men took their management positions. -the profession’s status lowered. -they became a majority of its workers. -many men left for jobs in other fields.
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Which of the following best describes the early American Federation of Labor?
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It was an alliance of craft unions that tried to improve wages and working conditions.
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The Haymarket Riot weakened the labor movement because it
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linked labor to anarchism in the minds of many people. -The middle class was frightened by the violence of the Haymarket riot and some labor strikes.
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Which of the following lists industrial developments in proper chronological order?
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the completion of the first transcontinental railroad, formation of the first trust, formation of U.S. Steel Corporation
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Which of the following industries was not transformed by a nineteenth-century invention by either Alexander Graham Bell or Thomas Alva Edison?
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textiles
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According to Herbert Gutman, industrialization transformed the “culture of work.” Which of the following best states his meaning?
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The new technology often required difficult and demeaning adaptations to pre-modern work patterns.
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Which of these produced no innovations for marketing or merchandising?
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Finley Peter Dunne
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It took about $600 per year to have a decent standard of living in the 1890s, while workers earned a yearly average of
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$400-$500
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According to social historian Stephan Thernstrom, what was the extent of social mobility in America in the early industrial era?
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substantial, but limited
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Which of the following best describes the Knights of Labor?
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a federation of craft unions aimed only at improving wages and working conditions`
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True/False
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By 1900, America’s manufacturing output exceeded that of Great Britain, France, and Germany combined.
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True: By 1900, the United States was the world’s leading manufacturing nation.
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Although the railroads tied together the major cities, they left America’s villages and rural areas in greater isolation than ever.
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False: Railroads even created some of the towns and villages they served, and they ended the self-sufficiency of isolated communities.
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Because of waste and corruption, government land grants for railroad construction probably did more harm than good.
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False
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Andrew Carnegie sympathized with workers and unions far more than most industrialists of his era.
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False: Carnegie disliked unions and paid his workers low wages.
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J. P. Morgan and John D. Rockefeller advocated vigorous competition among corporations because it would improve the quality of goods and services and reduce prices.
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False: -Morgan and Rockefeller were proponents of business concentration–the weeding out of small operators in favor of a few huge corporations who could limit competition, cut costs, and operate efficiently.
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Soon after Rockefeller established his oil trust, other highly competitive industries, including whiskey, lead, and sugar, adopted the monopolistic method.
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True: -Trusts soon became the preferred way of managing monopolies or near-monopolies, and the term came to be applied to almost any large-scale business enterprise.
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The establishment of the Menlo Park research laboratory may have been as important as any other invention by Thomas Edison.
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True
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White, native-born Protestants benefited most from early industrial society.
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True
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To increase their numbers, the Knights of Labor opened membership to both women and African Americans.
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True
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In the late nineteenth century, workers often used court injunctions to protect themselves and their unions from corporate strikebreaking activities.
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False

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