ch. 24 apush

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vertical integration
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was pioneered by tycoon Andrew Carnegie. It is when you combine into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. This makes supplies more reliable and improved efficiency. It controlled the quality of the product at all stages of production.
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horizontal integration
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A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
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Rockefeller
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was a man who started from meager beginnings and eventually created an oil empire. In Ohio in 1870 he organized the Standard Oil Company. By 1877 he controlled 95% of all of the refineries in the United States. It achieved important economies both home and abroad by it’s large scale methods of production and distribution. He also organized the trust and started the Horizontal Merger.
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Morgan
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He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation.
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Gompers
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is responsible for the formation of one of the first labor unions. The American Federation of Labor worked on getting people better hours and better wages. The formation of this triggered the formation of various others that would come later.
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Vanderbilt
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He was a big man with little education but he established a shipping-land transit across Nicaragua after the gold rush. He built a railway that connected New York to Chicago in 1873. He offered superior service at low rates and was extremely successful.
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Edison
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invented the phonograph and by 1900 it was used in over 150,000 homes. His invention made going to the symphony obsolete. He also invented the light bulb. This invention changed the way of life for thousands of Americans.
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Carnegie
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steel king; integrated every phase of his steel-making operation. Ships, railroads, etc. pioneered \”Vertical Integration\” ; his goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production and eliminating the middle man
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Women’s christian temperance union
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organized in 1874 and the white ribbon was the symbol of purity; led by Frances E. Willlard; the league was for prohibition; 1919 the 18th Amendment was passed for national prohibition-was only a temporary solution
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social gospel
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was preached by many people in the 1880s and said that due to the social environment poor people sometimes could not help their situation. This caused some churches to get involved in helping the poor, but some disagreed and didn’t think that they should be helped because it was their fault.
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yellow journalism
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Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were kwon as the lurid yellow press . Strong trumpeted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and summoned Americas to spread their religion and their values to the backward people. They were opposite then the View of virile Americans like Theodore Roosevelt and congressman Henry Cabot Lodge were interpreting Darwinism.
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Kelley
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A lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. Served as a general secretary of the National Consumers League. Led the women of Hull House into a successful lobby in 1893 for an Illinois antisweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. A leader in women’s activism and social reform.
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trust-busting
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any government activity designed to break up trusts or monopolies. Theodore Roosevelt is the U.S. president most associated with dissolving trusts. However, William Howard Taft signed twice as much trust-busting legislation during his presidency.
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company town
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a town or city in which much or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries of life within its borders are owned by a single company.
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closed shop
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a form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to only hire union members, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed.[1]
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Union Pacific Railroad
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was joined together with the Central Pacific Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah, in 1869, hence creating the first transcontinental railroad in North America
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bessemer process
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the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron
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the gospel of wealth
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an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie’s essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them.
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Sherman Act
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requires the United States Federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government. However, for the most part, politicians were unwilling to enforce this law until Teddy Roosevelt’s Presidency (1901-1909).
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Interstate commerce act
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original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers.
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Haymarket riot
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began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians.[4][5] In the internationally publicized legal proceedings that followed, eight anarchists were tried for murder. Four were put to death, and one committed suicide in prison.
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American Federation of Labor
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represented a conservative \”pure and simple unionism\” that stressed foremost the concern with working conditions, pay and control over jobs, relegating political goals to a minor role
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Jane Addams
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was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement, and the second woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
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Washington
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was an American political leader, educator, orator and author. He was the dominant figure in the African American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915. Representing the last generation of black leaders born in slavery, and speaking for those blacks who had remained in the New South in an uneasy modus vivendi with the white southerners, Washington was able throughout the final 25 years of his life to maintain his standing as the black leader
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Cody
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was an American soldier, bison hunter and showman. Aka Buffalo Bill

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