Ch 2 Writing Process and the Main Forms of Business Messages

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To write a good summary, it is important to _____
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-include citation info for the original passage -check the summary’s accuracy against the meaning of the original passage
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which of the following assertions apply to a well-defined argument?
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-it is a statement that is defendable -it is a factual statement -it is a debatable statement
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all paraphrases require_____
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acknowledgement of the original author, speaker, or source
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Which of the following characteristics are typical of informal language?
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-may use humor -uses a relaxed tone – may use cliches
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a logical appeal (logos) persuades an audience using_____ and ______
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-logic (through facts, statements, or conditions that are known to be true -reasoning (which uses logic to arrive at a particular conclusion or judgement)
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To make a text easier to read, a writer may decide to feature just two examples instead of five. This statement is ____
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True. Too many examples could be overwhelming to readers
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What are the four parts of the organizational strategy?
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division, analogy, narrative, and definition
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illustrates how parts work individually and as a whole by breaking an item down into its various parts
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division
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clarifies each thing while also making helpful connections by creating interesting comparisons between things
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analogy
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uses the power of drama to express and emphasize an author’s purpose ( entertain with a story)
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narrative
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establishes and item’s individual traits and importance (distinguishes one item from similar items)
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definition
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this fallacy is a technique used to distract the audience from the real issue being discussed
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red herring
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focuses on personally attacking the opposition
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ad hominem
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occurs when writers draw conclusions that are not justified by the available evidence
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poorly supported generalization
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occurs when writers falsely attribute an indefensible argument to their opponents in order to refute it and thereby cast their opponents in bad light
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straw man fallacy
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occurs when the writers shortcut the syllogism by allowing the major premise alone to determine the conclusion
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begging the question fallacy
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occurs when a statement does not proceed logically from the previous statement
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non sequitur fallacy
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occurs when writers incorrectly assume that because two situations may be alike in some respects, the same rules, principles, or approaches apply to both or the same conclusions can be drawn about both
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false analogy
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occurs when writers fail to see all the aspects or all the choices associated with a problem or situation
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either-or fallacy
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occurs when writers assume that because one thing follows another, it must necessarily have resulted from the other
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erroneous-cause fallacy
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occurs when writers assume that an idea, action, or proposal must be valid if a great many people support or believe in it
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bandwagon fallacy
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when you restate, combine, and reconcile ideas, opinions, and information from various sources in a logical and coherent way
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synthesize
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an emotional appeal triggers feelings or emotions in the audience by using _____ and ______
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-evocative language -anecdotal evidence
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ignoring opposing arguments can weaken a writer’s credibility with his or her readers. this statement is _______
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true because readers’ doubts can make them skeptical of the writer’s credibility -addressing opposing arguments shows that the writer can think critically and objectively about the subject
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what are reasons that information may be accidentally missing from a text
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-the author may have been ignorant of the audience’s needs -the author/publisher may have poorly edited the text

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