Ch 16 Reducing Your Cancer Risk

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how people reacted to cancer 50 years ago?
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-As recently as 50 years ago, a cancer diagnosis was typically a death sentence. Health professionals could only guess at the cause, and treatments were often as deadly as the disease itself. -Because we did not understand the disease process, fears about “catching cancer” from those who had it led to ostracism and bigotry-much like people with HIV were treated in the early days of the AIDS epidemic
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what have dramatically improved the prognosis for most cancer patients?
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-knowledge of risks and symptoms, early detection, and significant developments in technology and treatment have dramatically improved the prognosis for most cancer patients, especially those who are diagnosed in the earliest stages of disease -we have also learned that there are many actions we can take individually and as a society to prevent cancer
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what are important steps you can take yo reduce your risk of cancer?
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-understanding the facts about cancer -recognizing your own risk -taking action to reduce your risk
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cancer is the _most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by _
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-cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease
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how death rates of cancer have changed?
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-although there were over 1.6 million new cnacer diagnoses and over 577,000 deaths in 2012, the good news is that death rates have been declining by over 2% per year in the last decades
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what are key factors that have contributed to declining rates and increasing survival rates of cancer?
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-increased emphasis on education and awareness -greater emphasis on prevention and early intervention -advancements in diagnosis and treatment -policies and programs designed to decrease environmental risks
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The _have increased greatly from the 50% survival rates of past generations. today, about _% of people diagnosed with cancer each year will be alive 5 years after their diagnosis
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-5-year survival rates -67%
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5-year survival rates
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-the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive 5 years after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease such as cancer -the relative rates for survival in persons who are living 5 years after diagnosis
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survival rates for people with many cancers caught in their earliest stages approach _%
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100%
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what a “cured” patient of cancer is considered?
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of those treated with cancer, many will be considered “cured,” meaning that they have no new cancer in their bodies 5 years after their original diagnosis and can expect to live a long and productive life
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among the most amazing improvement in outlook are_(cancers)
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-acute lymphocytic leukemia -Hodgkin;s disease -Burkitt’s lymphoma -Ewing’s sarcoma (a form of bone cancer) -Wilms’ tumor (a kidney cancer in children) -testicular cancer -osteogenic (bone) sarcoma
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_% of all deaths occur on a given day are for some form of cancer
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25%
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although treatments and survival statistics have improved, nearly_of all American males and _of American females will still develop cancer at some point in their life
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-1/2 -1/3
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since the 1970s, survival rates have increased steadily for nearly all types of cancer. The exception to this trend has been _. why?
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-the exception to this trend has been lung cancer survivorship -Its survival rates remain both relatively steady and low, mostly likely due to the late stage at which most lung cancer cases are detected
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Cancer
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a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
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unchecked, cancer cells _(what do to body?)
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impair vital functions of the body and lead to death
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when something interrupts normal cell _, uncontrolled growth and abnormal cellular development results in a _
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-cell programming -neoplasm
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neoplasm
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a new growth of tissue that serves no physiological function and results from uncontrolled, abnormal cellular development
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this neoplasmic mass often forms a clump of cells known as _
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-tumor
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tumor
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a neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue
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two types of tumors
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-malignant -benign
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malignant
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-cancerous -very dangerous or harmful; refers to a cancerous tumor -malignant cancer: if the tumor spreads to other body areas
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benign
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-noncancerous -harmless; refers to a noncancerous tumor
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most tumors are _
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benign
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benign tumors are generally harmless unless they_
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-unless they grow to obstruct or crowd out normal tissues
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hen a benign tumor become life threatening?
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a benign tumor of the brain, for instance, becomes life threatening when it grows enough to restrict blood flow and cause a stroke
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The only way to determine whether a tumor is malignant is through _
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biopsy
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biopsy
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-removal and examination of a tissue sample to determine if a cancer is present -removal and microscopic examination of a sample of cells
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structure of benign tumors
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-benign tumors generally consist of ordinary-looking cells enclosed in a fibrous shell or capsule that prevents their spreading to other body areas
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structure of malignant tumors
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-malignant tumors are usually not enclosed in a protective capsule and can therefore spread to other organs. This process is called metastasis
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metastasis
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process by which cancer spread form one area to different areas of the body
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metastasis process by malignant tumor make some forms of cancer particularly_
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-aggressive in their ability to overwhelm bodily defenses
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by the time malignant tumors are diagnosed, malignant tumors have frequently_
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malignant tumors have frequently metastasized throughout the body, making treatment extremely difficult
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how benign and malignant tumors are different from each other in how they spread?
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-unlike benign tumors, which merely expand to take over a given space, malignant cells invade surrounding tissue, emitting clawlike protrusions that disturb the RNA and DNA within normal cells
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the disturption of DNA and RNA within normal cells by malignant cells, produces what kind of cells?
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-disrupting these substances, which control metabolism and reproduction, produces mutant cells that differ in form, quality, and function from normal cells
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mutant cells
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-cells that differ in form, quality, or function from normal cells
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what does it mean for a tumor to be malignant? (how determine if tumor is malignant?)
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-a malignant tumor is one whose cells are cancerous -malignant tumors are generally more dangerous than benign tumors because cancer cells divide quickly and can spread, or metastasize, from the original tumor to other parts of the body -Physicians usually order biopsies of tumors, in which sample cells are taken from the tumor and studied under a microscope to determine whether they are cancerous. Newer techniques, such as the minimally invasive “optical biopsy” allow microscopic examination of tissue without doing a physical biopsy
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steps of metastasis
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1. Genetically altered skin cells 2. Cell divides more rapidly than normal 3. cells change form 4. In situ cancer: Cells stay in one place 5. Malignant tumor (cancer): cancer cells invade normal tissue and enter blood and lymph; metastases form at the distant sites
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what causes a cancerous tumor?
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a mutation to the genetic material of a skin cell triggers abnormal cell division and changes cell formation, resulting in a cancerous tumor
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situ cancer
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-if the tumor remains localized -cells stay in one place
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cancer staging
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-a classification system that describes how far a person’s disease has advanced -A numerical system with five stages is used to classify how far cancer has advanced within the body.
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usually either through surgery or clinical or pathological analysis, it is possible to determine_(what about the cancer and how related to cancer staging)
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-to determine the size of the tumor, and how deeply it has penetrated, the number of lymph nodes that are affected, and the degree of metastasis or spread, known as the TNM (for tumor, node, and metastasis) system, of the disease -cancer are staged based on this variables
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the most common known staging system assigns the numbers _to the disease
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-zero to four
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cancer stage 0
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-early cancer, when abnormal cells remain only in the place they originated
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cancer stage I; cancer stage II; cancer stage III (cancer stage 1 through 3)
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-higher numbers indicate more extensive disease -larger tumor size and/or spread beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor
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cancer stage IV (4)
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-cancer has spread to other organs
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why cancer staging is important?
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-staging is important because it helps doctors and patients decide on appropriate treatments and estimate a person’s life expectancy
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what are 2 causes of cancer?
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-causes are generally divided into two categories of risk factors: hereditary and acquired (environmental)
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how hereditary factors differ from environmental factors?
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-hereditary factors cannot be changed, but environmental factors are potentially modifiable
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environmental factors include
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-include the physical environment and personal lifestyle habits and conditions such as tobacco use, quality of nutrition, physical inactivity, obesity, certain infectious agents, certain medical treatments, drug and alcohol consumption, excessive sun exposure, and exposure to carcinogens, such as pollutants in the food, water, and air
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carcinogens
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-part of environmental factors that cause cancer -cancer-causing agents
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how hereditary and environmental factors would work together?
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-hereditary and environmental factors may interact to make cancer more likely, accelerate cancer progression, or increase susceptibility during certain periods of life
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explain why the mechanism underlying cancer development are not fully understood
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-two people with seemingly identical risk factors may end up with very different experiences when it comes to developing cancer, and at present, why that is remains a mystery
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list all risks for cancer (general risk factors)
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-lifestyle risks for cancer -genetic and physiological risk, which include reproductive and hormonal factors -occupational and environmental risks -infectious diseases and cancer risks -medical factors
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how risk for cancer is with age?
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cancer occurs in all age groups, but the older you get, the greater your risk nearly 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in adults over age 55.
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Cancer researchers refer to_when they assess risk factors
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Cancer researchers refer to one’s cancer risk when they assess risk factors
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lifetime risk
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-refers to the probability that an individual, over the course of a lifetime, will develop cancer
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what is the lifetime risk in men vs women of getting cancer?
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-in US, men have a lifetime risk of about 1 in 2; women have a lower risk at 1 in 3
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risks also vary by _
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-race -socioeconomic status -occupation -geographic location -several other factors
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relative risk
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-is a measure of the strength of the relationship between risk factors and a particular cancer -basically, it compares your risk of cancer if you engage in certain known risk behaviors with that of someone who does not engage in such behaviors
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relative risk of smoker
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if you are a man and smoke, your relative risk of getting lung cancer is about twice that of a male nonsmoker
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list lifestyle factors that play a key role in the incidence (number of cases) of cancer
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-tobacco use -overconsumption of alcohol -poor nutrition (diet), physical inactivity or sedentary lifestyle, and obesity stress and psychosocial risk
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what you should keep in mind regarding relative risk?
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-keep in mind that a high relative risk does not guarantee cause and effect -It merely indicates the likelihood of a particular risk factor being related to a particular outcome
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of all the risk factors for cancer, what is the greatest?
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of all the risk factors for cancer, smoking is among the greatest
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in the US, tobacco is responsible for nearly _deaths, or about _premature deaths each year. in addition, nearly _more people suffer from smoking-related diseases, such as _
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-1 in 5 deaths -443,ooo -9 million more -chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)
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smoking remains the major cause of _and accounts for at least _% of all cancer deaths and _% of all _cancer deaths in the US alone
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-smoking remains the major cause of preventable death worldwide and accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and 80% of all lung cancer deaths in the US alone
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smoking is associated with increased risk of at least _different cancers, including_
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-15 different cancers -nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paransal sinuses, lip, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, pancrease, uterine cervix, ovary, kidney, bladder, stomach, colorectal, and acute myeloid leukemia
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chances of developing cancer are _times higher among male smokers and _times higher among female smokers, compared to nonsmokers
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-23 times -13 times
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of the several life-style factors for cancer, _is the most_(2)
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-tobacco use is the most significant and the most preventable
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new research has implicated smoking in the development of _(3)
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-breast cancer -and gastric ulcers -host of additional respiratory problems
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how lung cancer is among the world?
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-in the past 20 years, British and US lung cancer rates have declined -However, lung cancer rates among men are still increasing in most developing countries and in eastern Europe, where smoking rates remain high and are still increasing in some areas
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over the past decade countless studies have implicated _ as a risk factor for cancer
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-alcohol
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explain how alcohol contributes to cancer in women
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-the cumulative amount of alcohol a women consumes during adulthood is the best predictor of her breast cancer risk -even low levels of alcohol consumption (as few as 3 drinks a week) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer, and binge drinkers significantly increase their risk
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moderate alcohol intake (above one drink per day) in women also appears to increase the risk of _, and binge drinking may increase _
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-cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, and larynx -being drinking may increase gastric and pancreatic cancer risk as well -similar to breast cancer, the more women drink, the greater their risk of all these types of cancers, along with likely increased risk of gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer in binge drinkers
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explain how alcohol consumption increase risk for men
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-regular heavy consumption of alcohol increased the risk of esophageal and liver cancers more than sevenfold -the risk of colon, stomach, and prostate cancers was about 80% higher among heavy drinkers, while lung cancer rose by almost 60% compared to nondrinkers
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mounting evidence suggests that about 1/3 of cancer deaths in the US each year may be due to _
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-lifestyle factors such as overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition
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Aside from choosing not to use tobacco, _are the most important modifiable determinants of cancer risk
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-dietary choices and physical activity
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what is the relation between cancer and overweight?
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-cancer is more common among people who are overweight; and risk increases as obesity increases -there is a clear evidence of a link between overweight and obesity and increased risks of breast cancer; colon and rectal cancer; and esophageal, kidney, and pancreatic cancers
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Women who gain _pounds or more after age 18 have almost a 50% greater risk of _cancer compared to those who maintain their weight
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-55 pounds -breast cancer
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_plays a role in male cancer as well
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-Body mass index (BMI)
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Explain relation between obesity and cancer in men
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-the relative risk of colon cancer in men is 40% higher for obese than it is for nonobese men -the relative risk of gallbladder cancer is five times higher in obese individuals than in individuals of healthy weight
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stress has been implicated in increased susceptibility to _. explain
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-several types of cancer -negative emotional states contribute to illness. People who are under chronic, severe stress or who suffer from depression or other persistent emotional problems show higher rates of cancer than their healthy counterparts -stress can play a role in cancer development
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explain how stress can play a role in cancer development
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-sleep disturbances, unhealthy diet, and emotional or physical trauma may weaken the body’s immune system, increasing susceptibility to cancer
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as part of stress, other possible contributors are_associated with low socioeconomic status
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-poverty -health disparities
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strategies to reduce risk of cancer. actions you can take that lower your risk of developing cancer, including:
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-increase muscle mass and decrease body fat at all ages and stages of life -avoid excess weight and rapid weight loss diets. Work to keep your weight within a reasonable range. If your weight goes up, even a bit, focus on bringing it down -get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise each week. more is better -limit consumption of animal fat and high-calorie foods and beverages -avoid heavy, regular drinking of alcohol
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why should I care?
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lifestyle, tobacco use, nutrition, and activity are things you can start good habits now to reduce your chances of developing cancer
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If one of your close family members develops cancer, does it mean that you have genetic predisposiiton for it? Scientists believe that about_of all cancers are strongly hereditary. explain why
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-5% -it seems that some people may be more predisposed to the malfunctioning of genes that ultimately cause cancer -This is part of genetic and physiological risks
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suspected cancer-causing genes are called_
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oncogenes
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oncogenes
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suspected cancer causing genes present on chromosomes
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state of oncogenes. what oncogenes do to body?
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-although these oncogenes are typically dormant, certain conditions such as age, stress, and exposure to carcinogens, viruses, and radiation may activate them once activated, oncogenes cause cells to grow and reproduce uncontrollably
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scientists are uncertain whether _(about oncogenes)
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-whether only people who develop cancer have oncogenes, or whether we all have genes that can become oncogenes under certain conditions
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what cancers appear to run in families? (hereditary)
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-some forms of cancer have strong genetic bases -certain cancers, particularly those of the breast, stomach, colon, prostate, uterus, ovaries, and lungs ex: a women runs a much higher risk of breast cancer if her mother or sister have had the disease, particularly at a young age -Hodgkin’s disease and certain leukemias show similar familial patterns
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what question is done regarding cancers that run in families?
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can we attribute these familial patterns to genetic susceptibility or to the fact that people in the same families experience similar environmental risks?
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it is possible that we can inherit a_(regarding cancer)
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-we can inherit a tendency toward a cancer-prone, weak immune system, or conversely, that we can inherit a cancer-fighting potential
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but the _makes it a challenge to determine a single cause
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-but the complex interaction of heredity, lifestyle, and environment on the development of cancer makes it a challenge to determine a single cause
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list the effects of reproductive factors on breast and cervical cancers. how this apply to non-hispanic vs hispanic women? what other cancer? (reproductive and hormonal factors of cancer)
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-increased numbers of fertile or menstrual cycle years (early menarche, late menopause) -not having children or having them later in life -recent use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy -opting not to breast-feed All appear to increase risks of breast cancer -however, while the above factors appear to play a significant role in increased risk for non-Hispanic white women, they do not appear to have a strong an influence on Hispanic women -studies also suggest that women on hormone supplements or hormone replacement therapy have slightly increased risk of lung cancer
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overall, workplace hazards accounts for only a _. however, various _are known to cause cancer when_
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-small percentage of all cancers -various substances are known to cause cancer when exposure levels are high or prolonged
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in occupational or workplace risks, what are substances that are known to cause cancer when exposure levels are high or prolonged? (people that work with these substances have increased risk of cancer)
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Working with the following substances is hazardous and increases risk for cancer: -asbestos, a fibrous material once widely used in the construction, insulation, and automobile industries -nickel, chromate, and chemicals such as benzene, arsenic, and vinyl chloride have been shown definitely to be carcinogens -dyes and radioactive substances -coal tars (mining profession) -inhalants (auto-painting business) -herbicides and pesticides
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To avoid being in contact with environmental carcinogens, some ways to avoid carcinogens in the products you buy and use every day
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*see page 502*
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Environmental includes _
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-radiation -chemicals in foods
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types of radiation
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-ionizing radiation (IR) -nonionizing radiation
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Ionizing radiation (IR)
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-radiation from X rays, radon, cosmic rays, and ultraviolet radiation (primarily UVB radiation) -is the only form of radiation proved to cause human cancer
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evidence that high-dose of ionizing radiation (IR) causes cancer comes from studies of
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-atomic bomb survivors -patients receiving radiotherapy -certain occupational groups, such as uranium miners
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what parts of body are susceptible to be affected by ionizing radiation (IR)?
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-virtually any part of the body can be affected by IR, but bone marrow and the thyroid are particularly susceptible
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radon exposure in homes can increase _risk, especially in _
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-lung cancer risk -especially in cigarette smokers
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To reduce the risk of harmful effects, diagnostic medical and dental X rays are set at_
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the lowest dose levels possible
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nonionizing radiation produced by_has been a topic of great concern in recent years, but research has not proven _
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-radio waves, cell phones, microwaves, computer screens, televisions, electric blankets, and other products, has been a topic of great concern in recent years, but research has not proven excess risk to date
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although highly controversial, some suggest that cell phones _
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-beam radio frequency energy that can penetrate the brain, particularly small children, raising concerns about cancers of the head and neck, brain tumors, or leukemia -although a wide range of studies has been conducted, and although brain cancer deaths are on the rise among younger adults , these studies have not shown a consistent link between cell phone use and cancers of the brain, nerves, or other tissues of the head or neck -more research is needed
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much of the concern about chemicals in food centers on the possible harm caused by _
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-pesticides and herbicide residues
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what research about pesticides and herbicides say?
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-whereas some of these chemicals cause cancer at high doses in experimental animals, the government considers the very low concentrations found in some foods to be safe
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are there chemicals in our food that may be linked to cancer?
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-food additives, particularly sodium nitrate, are used to preserve and give color to red meat and protect against pathogens, particularly Clostridium botulinum, the bacterium that causes botulism. -Concern about the carcinogenic properties of nitrates, which are often used in hot dogs, hams, and luncheon meats, has led to the introduction of meats that are nitrate-free or contain reduced levels of the substance
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according to experts, over 10% of all cancers in the US are caused by _. Worldwide, approx 20% of human cancers have been traced to _
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-infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites -infectious agents, primarily viruses
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Infections are thought to influence cancer development in several ways, most commonly through_(infectious diseases and cancer risks)
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-chronic inflammation -suppression of the immune system -chronic stimulation
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List infectious diseases that are related to cancer
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-Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Liver cancer -Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer -helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer
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link between hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver cancer
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-viruses that cause chronic forms of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are believed to stimulate growth of cancer cells in the liver because they chronically inflame liver tissue -This may prime the liver for cancer or make ti more hospitable for cancer development
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what gives evidence of association between hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver cancer
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-global increases in hepatitis B and C rates and concurrent rises in liver cancer rates seem to provide evidence of such an association
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what may reduce risk of liver cancer?
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-vaccines that prevent hepatitis B may reduce the risk of liver damage as well as cancer
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nearly 100% of women with cervical cancer have evidence of _infection, which is believed to be _. Fortunately _
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-human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is believed to be a major cause of cervical cancer -fortunately, only a small percentage of HPV cases progresses to cervical cancer
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how avoid having or reduce risk of cervical cancer?
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-today, a vaccine is available to help protect people from becoming infected with HPV
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Helicobacter pylori is a potent _found in the_
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-potent bacterium -found in the stomach lining of approximately 30 to 40% of Americans
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what Helicobacter pylori causes?
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-causes inflammation, scarring, and ulcers, damaging the lining of the stomach and leading to cellular changes that may lead to cancer (stomach cancer)
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more than _of all cases of stomach cancer are thought to be linked to Helicobacter pylori infection, even though most infected people _
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-1/2 -most infected people do not develop cancer
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what treatment reduce risk of stomach cancer?
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-treatment with antibiotics often cures the ulcers, which appears to reduce risk of new stomach cancer
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Medical factors: some medical treatments can increase a person’s risk for cancer. list them (2)
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-use of estrogen and progesterone for relieving women’s menopausal symptoms. Estrogen use is recognized to contribute to multiple cancer risks and provides fewer benefits than originally believed. Prescription for estrogen therapy have declined dramatically, and many women are trying to reduce or eliminate their use of the hormone. -ironically, medicines used to treat cancers, such as selected chemotherapy drugs, have been shown to increase risks for other cancers. weighing the benefits vs harms of these treatments is always necessary
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cancer refers not to _, but to _
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-cancer refers not to a single disease, but to hundreds of different diseases
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all the different diseases of cancer are grouped into 4 broad categories based on _. list them
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based on the type of tissue from which the cancer arises 1. carcinomas 2. sarcomas 3. Lymphomas 4. Leukemias
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what are the most common sites for cancer?
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epithelial tissues (tissues covering body surfaces and lining most body cavities), which are part of carcinomas
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carcinomas (what they take into account, how common, how metastasize, type of tumors)
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-cancers occurring in epithelial tissue are called carcinomas -epithelial tissues (tissues covering body surfaces and lining most body cavities) are the most common sites for cancer -these cancers affect the outer layer of the skin and mouth as well as the mucous membranes. -They metastasize through the circulatory or lymphatic system initially and form solid tumors
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sarcomas (what they take into account, how metastasize, how common, type of tumors)
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-sarcomas occur in the mesodermal, or middle, layers of tissue -for example:in bones, muscles, and general connective tissue -In early stages, they metastasize primarily via the blood. -sarcomas are less common but generally but generally more virulent than carcinomas. -They also form solid tumors
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Lymphomas (what they take into account, example of disease, how metastasize, kind of tumors)
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-lymphomas develop in the lymphatic system (the infection-fighting regions of the body) and metastasize through the lymphatic system -Hodgkin’s disease is an example -lymphomas also form solid tumors
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Leukemias (what they take into account, type of tumor)
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-cancer of the blood-forming parts of the body, particularly the bone marrow and spleen, is called leukemia -a nonsolid tumor, leukemia is characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells that the body produces
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For information regarding the most common sites of cancer and the number of new cases and deaths from each type are found
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*figure 16.3 on page 504*
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list the types of cancer discussed in this chapter
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-lung cancer -breast cancer -colon and rectal cancers -skin cancer -prostate cancer -ovarian cancer -cervical and endometrial (uterine) cancer -Testicular cancer -Leukemia -Lymphoma
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what cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in the US?
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Lung cancer (28% of all cancer deaths) Lung cancer is the leading cancer killer for both men and women.
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how rates of death due to lung cancer have changed? why?
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-rates have decreased in recent decades due to declines in smoking and policies that prohibit smoking in public places
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The lifetime risks for male vs female getting lung cancer
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-male: 1 in 13 -female 1 in 16
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risk for lung cancer begins to rise around age_and _
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-rise around age 40 and continue to climb through all age groups thereafter
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average risk of developing lung cancer for men and women ages 40 to 59 is _
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-men: 1 in 109 -women: 1 in 132
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90% of all lung cancers could be avoided if people _
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simply did not smoke
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how women have died of lung cancer vs breast cancer?
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-since 1987, more women have died each year from lung cancer than from breast cancer, which over the previous 40 years had been the major cause of cancer deaths in women
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regarding lung cancer, growing concern about _(people)
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-number of young people, particularly young women and persons of low income and low educational levels, who continue to pick up the habit -about the increase in lung cancers among lifelong never smokers
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never smokers
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-a group of people who have never smoked, but nevertheless now have as much as 15% of all lung cancers
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never smokers’ lung cancer is believed to be related to _
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-exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, indoor wood-burning stoves, and aerosolized oils caused by cooking with oil and deep fat frying
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what is the problem of diagnosing lung cancer in never smokers?
answer

-unfortunately, because doctors often don’t think of lung cancer when a never smoker presents with a cough, patients are often put on antibiotics or cough suppressants as therapy -by the time they recognize that it is really lung cancer, the prognosis is bleak
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symptoms of lung cancer
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-persistent cough -blood-streaked sputum -voice change -chest pain or back pain -recurrent attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis
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what techniques have improved screening accuracy for lung cancer (diagnosis techniques)
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-Newer computerized tomography (CT) scans -molecular markers in saliva -newer biopsy techniques
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treatment for lung cancer
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-treatment depends on the type (large or small scale) and stage of cancer -surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted biological therapies are all options -if the cancer is localized, surgery is usually the treatment of choice -if it has spread, surgery combined with radiation and chemotherapy
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lung cancer: despite advances in medical technology, survival rates 1 year after diagnosis are _, at _% for cases diagnosed early,but only _% overall when all stages are combined, and the 5-year survival rate for all combined is only _%
answer

-low -52% -16% -16%
question

if my mom quits smoking now, will it reduce her risk fo lung cancer or is too late?
answer

-it is never to late to quit. Stopping smoking at any time will reduce your risk of lung cancer, in addition to the numerous other health benefits that are gained. Studies of women show that within 5 years of quitting, their risk of death from lung cancer decreases by 21%, compared to people who continue smoking
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Risk factors for lung cancer
answer

-risks for cancer increase dramatically based on the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the number of years smoked, often referred to as “pack years” -people who have been exposed to industrial substances such as arsenic and asbestos or radiation are at higher risk for lung cancer -exposure to both secondhand cigarette smoke and radon gas (a gas that leaks into houses from naturally occurring uranium in the soil) is believed to play an important role in lung cancer development for smokers, past smokers, and people who have never been smokers
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the greater the number of _, the greater the risk of developing cancer
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pack years smoked
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what to do to reduce risk of developing lung cancer?
answer

-quitting smoking does reduce the risk of developing lung cancer
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breast cancer (what it is, locations of cancer)
answer

-number of diseases that cause uncontrolled cell growth in breast tissue, particularly in the glands that produce milk and the ducts that connect those glands to the nipple -cancers can also form in the connective and lymphatic tissues of the breast
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who can have breast cancer?
answer

-more common in women, but both women and men can have it
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breast cancer is the _leading cause of cancer death for women?
answer

second leading cause
question

how rates of breast cancer have changed?
answer

-although incidence rates of breast cancer declined by about 7% between 2002 and 2003, newer research indicates that these declines did not continue between 2003 and 2007, even though hormone use declined significantly -in fact, although there was little change in rates for most groups, incidence rates increased for certain types of breast cancer in those age 40 to 49, although further study is necessary
question

lifetime risk of women to be diagnosed with breast cancer?how this risk changes with age?
answer

-women have a 1 in 8 lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer -From birth to age 39, the risk is 1 in 203, but between the ages of 40 to 59, the chance for breast cancer falls becomes 1 in 27
question

most health groups have advocated screening for breast cancer more thoroughly after age _
answer

40
question

what are 3 methods of detection of breast cancer?
answer

-mammograms -regular breast self-examination (BSE) -magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -recently approved by FDA, 3D mammogram machines
question

mammograms
answer

-the earliest signs of breast cancer are usually observable on mammograms, often before lumps can be felt -mammograms detect 80 to 90% of breast cancers in women without symptoms
question

what is the problem with mammograms? solution?
answer

-However, mammograms are not foolproof, and there is debate regarding the optimal age at which women should start regularly receiving them -hence, regular breast self-examination (BSE) is also important
question

what is the newer detection method of breast cancer? what kind of women want to use it?
answer

-a newer form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to be even more accurate, particularly in women with genetic risks for tumors
question

what is the age recommended to take mammograms as stated by US preventive services task force? why?what critics believe?
answer

-U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), made up of experts across the country, suggested that women should not have a mammogram until they are 50 and then have one only every other year -while evidence shows that women aged 50 to 74 seem to benefit from mammograms, similar benefits for women under age 40 appeared to be much less apparent -critics argued that USPSTF recommendations were politically and economically motivated and did not consider all of the facts. some believe to have mammography screening for women between the ages of 40 and 50 *pros and cons found in page 506*
question

the _has one of the highest breast cancer rates in the world
answer

-The United States (US)
question

what genes contribute to breast cancer?
answer

-BRCA1 -BRCA2
question

breast-self-exam has been recommended _
answer

-by major health organizations of early breast cancer screening for the last two decades
question

what 2009 “study of studies” done by US preventive service task force determined about breast self-exams? (problems with breast self-exams)
answer

-breast self exams did not decrease suffering and death and, in fact, often lead to unnecessary worry, unnecessary tests, and increased health care costs -as a result of this research, several groups have downgraded the recommendation about breast self-exams form “do them and do them regularly” to “learn how to do them, and if your desire, do them to know your body and be able to recognize changes”
question

2 steps of breast awareness and self-exam (regular breast self-examination (BSE))
answer

1. face a mirror and check for changes in symmetry 2. either standing or lying down, use the pads of the three middle fingers to check for lumps. Follow an up and down pattern on the breast to ensure all tissue gets inspected
question

To do breast self-exam, how to do it?(long explanation) how breast cancer feels? when see doctor?
answer

-begin by standing in front of a mirror to inspect the breasts, looking for their usual symmetry. Some breasts are not symmetrical, and if this is not a change, it is okay -Raise and lower both arms while checking that the breast move evenly and freely -Next, inspect the skin, looking for areas of redness, thickening, or dimpling which might have the appearance of an orange peel. Look for any scaling on the nipple -To feel for lumps, raise one arm above your head while either standing or lying. This will flatten out the beast, making it easier to feel the tissue. Using the index, middle, and fourth fingers of your opposite hand, gently push down on the beast tissue and move the fingers in small circular motions, varying pressure from light to more firm. start at one edge of the breast and move upward and then downward, working your way across the breast until all of the breast tissue has been covered -Often breast tissue will feel dense and irregular, and this is usually normal -*Cancers usually feel like a dense or firm little rock and are very different from the normal breast tissue* -next, lower the arm and reach into the top of the underarm and pull downward with gentle pressure feeling for any enlarged lymph nodes. -To complete the exam, squeeze the tissue around the nipple. If you notice discharge from the nipple and you have not recently been breastfeeding, consult your doctor. Likewise, if you notice any asymmetry, skin changes, scaling on the nipple, or new lumps in the breast, you should see your doctor for evaluation
question

how helpful is to do regular breast self-exams?
answer

-It helps to do regular self-exams to become familiar with what your breast tissue feels like; then, if there is a change, you will notice
question

symptoms of breast cancer
answer

if breast cancer grows large enough, it can produce the following symptoms: -a lump in the breast or surrounding lymph nodes -thickening -dimpling -skin irritation -distortion -retraction or scaliness of the nipple -nipple discharge -tenderness
question

why should I care about breast cancer?
answer

-breast cancer accounts for 1 in every 3 cancer diagnosis in women in the US
question

treatments for breast cancer
answer

-treatments range from a lumpectomy to radial mastectomy to various combinations of variation or chemotherapy
question

treatments for breast cancer (medicines)
answer

–among nonsurgical options, promising results have been noted among women using selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, particularly among women whose cancers appear to grow in response to estrogen. -these drugs, as well as new aromatase inhibitors, work by blocking estrogen
question

The 5-year survival rate for people with localized breast cancer
answer

The 5-year survival rate for people with localized breast cancer (which includes all people living 5 years after diagnosis, whether they are in remission, disease free, or under treatment) has rise from 80% in the 1950s to 98% today -however, these statistics vary dramatically, based on the stage of the cancer when it is first detected and whether it has spread
question

5-year survival rate for people with breast cancer that spread to lymph nodes or other organs
answer

-if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or other organs, the 5-year survival rate drops as low as 27%
question

how breast cancer incidence is with age?
answer

the incidence of breast cancer increases with age
question

risk factors for breast cancer
answer

-family history of breast cancer -menstrual periods that started early and ended late in life -obesity after menopause -recent use of oral contraceptives or postmenopausal hormone therapy -never bearing children or bearing a first child after age 30 -consuming two or more drinks of alcohol per day -physical inactivity -havign BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes
question

BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations appears to account for approx _% of all cases of breast cancer , and women who possess these genes have a_% risk of developing breast cancer by age _as compared to a_risk in women without the mutations. these genes are_(how common, when use routine screening for them)
answer

-5 to 10% -60 to 80% -by age 70 -7% -are rare, routine screening for them is not recommended unless there is a strong family history of breast cancer
question

international differences in breast cancer incidence correlate with _
answer

-variations in diet, especially fat intake, although a causal role for these dietary factors has been not firmly established
question

relation between breast cancer risk and weight gain?
answer

-sudden weight gains has also been implicated with breast cancer
question

ways to reduce risk of breast cancer
answer

-regular exercise can reduce risk -study of dietary fiber indicate strong inverse relationship between dietary fiber and breast cancer. If you eat more fiber, breast cancer rates seem to go down, and if you eat less, rates seem to increase –You can take action to reduce risk by keeping your weight within a healthy range, drinking less than one alcoholic drink a day, and exercising regularly -starting now is your best means of prevention
question

colorectal cancers (cancers of_) continue to be _most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women and the _leading cause of cancer deaths, even though death rates are_
answer

-cancers of the colon and rectum -3rd (third) -2nd (second) leading cause of cancer deaths -death rates are declining
question

relation between colorectal cancer incidence and age
answer

-most cases occur in people age 50 and over, but new cases can occur at any age
question

colorectal cancers risks and liketime risk of men vs women
answer

-men age 40 to 59 have a 1 in 109 risk of developing it, and a lifetime risk of 1 in 19 -women age 40 to 59 have a 1 in 137 chance of developing colorectal cancer, and a 1 in 20 lifetime risk
question

how fast colorectal cancer spreads? why this is good? 5-year survival rate? problem with this?
answer

-because colorectal cancer tends to spread slowly, the prognosis is quite good if caught in early stages; in fact, when caught at an early, localized stage, 5-year survival rates are over 90% -However, the bad news is that in its early stages, colorectal cancer typically has no symptoms and only 39% of cases are caught in the earliest stage -those without insurance, or who avoid testing even with insurance, often are diagnosed at later stages when 5-year survival rates are much less
question

symptoms of colorectal cancer
answer

-as the disease progresses, bleeding from the rectum, blood in the stool, and changes in bowel habits are the major warning signals
question

only 10% of all Americans over age 50 have had the most basic screening test,_, in the past year, and slightly over 50% have had an _. (diagnosis methods of colorectal cancer). Although these rates are low, it should be noted that rates are even lower among_
answer

-the at-home fecal occult blood test (FBOT) -endoscopy test -people age 50 to 64 and especially lower among those who are non-white, have fewer years of education, lack health insurance, and are recent immigrants
question

Interesting regional differences in screening occur, with_having the highest overall screening rates at_% and _having the lowest rates at _%. No state meets the American Cancer Society (ACS) 2015 goals of _% screeened
answer

-Delaware having the highest overall screening rates of 72% -Oklahoma having the lowest rates at 52% -75% screeened
question

diagnostic methods of colorectal cancers and when to start?
answer

-the at-home fecal occult blood test (FBOT) -endoscopy test -Colonoscopies and other screening test should begin at age 50 for most people -virtual colonoscopies and fecal DNA testing are newer diagnostic techniques that have shown promise -sigmoidoscopy
question

Treatments for colorectal cancers
answer

-often consist of radiation or surgery -chemotherapy, although not used extensively in the past, is today a possibility
question

relation between age and risk of colorectal cancer. other risk factors of colorectal cancer
answer

-the older you are, teh greater your chances of colorectal cancer -although anyone can develop it, people who are over age 50, who are obese, who have a family history of colon and rectal cancer, who have a personal or family history of polyps (benign growths) in the colon or rectum, or who have inflammatory bowel problems such as colitis run an increased risk -history of diabetes also seems to increase risk -diets high in fat or low in fiber, high consumption of red and processed meats, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high alcohol consumption, and low intake of fruits and vegetables
question

what are prevention strategies to avoid colorectal cancer? (reduce risk)
answer

-regular exercise -diet with lots of fruits and other plant foods -healthy weight -moderation in alcohol consumption -consumption of milk and calcium -higher blood levels of vitamin D
question

drugs that may help to reduce risk of getting colorectal cancer.
answer

-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, postmenopausal hormones, folic acid, calcium supplements, selenium, and vitamin E -However, drugs are not recommended as a preventive measure as these each have other risks that might outweigh any benefit
question

what is the most common form of cancer in the US?
answer

-skin cancer
question

what are the 3 most common types of skin cancer?
answer

-basal cells carcinoma -squamous cell carcinoma -malignant melanoma
question

how many cases of basal and squamous cell skin cancers are?
answer

the exact number of basal and squamous cell skin cancers is unknown as these cases are not required to be reported to cancer registries
question

millions of skin cancers remain_. how many people will be diagnosed of skin cancer
answer

-undiagnosed and untreated -1 in 5 people in the US will be diagnosed with skin cancer in their lifetime
question

what kinds of skin cancers are curable vs deadly?
answer

-basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are highly curable -malignant melanoma is the most deadly
question

the majority of deaths of malignant melanoma are in what age and gender?
answer

-the majority of these deaths are in men over the age of 50; however, rates have increased among all age groups
question

between 65% to 90% of melanomas are caused by _
answer

exposure to ultraviolet light (UV light) or sunlight
question

how rates of skin cancer have been changing?
answer

-even thought the incidence of many of the common cancers has been steadily declining, it is important to note that hte incidence of melanoma continues to rise at a rate faster than that of any of the seven most common cancers
question

what is the risk and lifetime risk of getting skin cancer of men vs women?
answer

-men age 40 to 59 have a 1 in 158 chance of developing it, with a 1 in 36 lifetime risk -women age 40 to 59 have a 1 in 180 chance of developing it, with a 1 in 55 lifetime risk
question

is there any safe way to get a tan? probable problems of tanning. best sunscreen strength
answer

-unfortunately, no -there is no such thing as a “safe” tan, because a tan is visible evidence of UV-induced skin damage -the injury accumulated through years of tanning contributes to premature aging and increases your risk for disfiguring skin cancer, eye problems, and possible death from melanoma -According to the American cancer society, tanned skin provides only the equivalent of sun protection factor (SPF) 4 sunscreen–much too weak to be protective -It is not possible or practical to avoid sunlight completely, but wearing sunscreen of SPF 5 or higher every day can prevent further damage and diminish the cumulative effects of sun exposure
question

locations in body where basal and squamous cell carcinomas appear. how look? symptoms of basal and squamous carcinomas
answer

-basal and squamous cell carcinomas show up most commonly on the face, ears, neck, arms, hands, and legs as warty bumps, colored spots, or scaly patches -bleeding, itching, pain, or oozing are other symptoms that warrant attention
question

treatment for basal and squamous carcinoma
answer

-surgery may be necessary to remove them, but they are seldom life threatening
question

symptoms of melanoma
answer

-an invasive killer that may appear as a skin lesion -the lesion’s size, shape, or color changes,and it spreads to regional organs and throughout the body
question

malignant melanomas account for _% of all skin cancer deaths
answer

75%
question

survival of melanoma
answer

-like other cancers, survival is largely dependent on how advanced the cancer is when diagnosed -if melanoma has not yet penetrated the underlying layers of skin, chances of survival are over 90% -however, if it is diagnosed after deeper layers of skin are penetrated and it has spread to other organs, the survival rate falls to 15%
question

ABCD rule for warning sings (symptoms) of melanoma
answer

-Assymetry: 1/2 of the mole or lesion does not match the other half -border irregularity: the edges are uneven, notched, or scalloped -color (color variation): pigmentation is not uniform. melanomas may vary in color from tan to deeper brown, reddish black, black, or deep bluish black -diameter: diameter is greater than 6 millimeters (about the size of a pea)
question

strategies to prevent skin cancer
answer

-keeping a careful watch for any new pigmented growths and for changes to any moles
question

treatment of skin cancer depends on _
answer

-type of cancer -stage -location
question

treatments for skin cancer
answer

-surgery -laser treatments -tropical chemical agents -electrodesiccation (tissue destruction by heat) -cyrosurgery (tissue destruction by freezing) -for melanoma, treatment may involve surgical removal of the regional lymph nodes, radiation, or chemotherapy
question

risk of skin cancer
answer

-anyone who overexposes himself or herself to ultraviolet (UV) radiation without adequate protection is at risk for skin cancer
question

the risk of skin cancer is greatest for people who:
answer

-have fair skin; blonde, red, or light brown hair; blue, green, or gray eyes -always burn before tanning or burn easily and peel readily -don’t tan easily bit spend lots of time outdoors -use no or low-sun protection (SPF) sunscreens or expired sustain lotions -have had skin cancer or family history of skin cancer -experienced severe sunburns during childhood. contrary to popular thinking, there is no such thing as getting a base tan that protects against damage. The greater the exposure dose and the longer the time periods of exposure, the greater the risk
question

prevent skin cancer
answer

-preventing skin cancer is a matter of limiting exposure to harmful UV rays, whether in natural sunlight or tanning beds
question

what happens when you expose yourself to sunlight?
answer

-the skin responds to photodamage by increasing its thickness and the number of pigment cells (melanocytes), which produce the “tan” look -a tan is actually the body’s way of trying to protect itself or defend against damage begins to accrue
question

why UV light causes cancer?
answer

-ultraviolet light (UV light) damages the skin’s immune cells, lowering the normal immune protection of the skin and priming it for cancer
question

besides cancer, what photodamage causes? why?
answer

-photodamage also causes wrinkling by impairing the elastic substances (collagens) that keep skin soft and pliable
question

tips on staying safer in the sun; protecting your skin in the sun
answer

-seek shade from 10 am to 4 pm, when the sun’s rays are strongest. Even on a cloudy day, up to 80% of the sun’s rays can get through -Apply a sunscreen with SPF 15 or higher evenly to all uncovered skin before going outside. Look for a “broad-spectrum” sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB radiation. If the sunscreen label does not specify otherwise, assume you need to apply it 15 minutes before going outside -check the expiration date on your sunscreen. Sunscreens lose effectiveness over time. Often those sunscreen sales are on dated products. Beware! It is not a bargain if it does not work -Put sunscreen on your lips, nose, ears, neck, hands, and feet. If you do not have much hair, apply sunscreen to the top of your head too -Reapply sunscreen at least every 2 hours. The label will tell you how often you need to do this. If it is not waterproof, reapply after swimming or if you are sweating -water loose-fitting, light-colored clothing. You can now purchase clothing that has SPF protection in most sporting goods stores. A wide-brimmed hat will protect your head and face -use sunglasses with 99 to 100% UV protection to protect your eyes. Look for polarized lenses -Check your skin for cancer, keeping an eye out for changes in birthmarks, moles, or sunspots
question

In spite of the risks, many Americans are still “working on a tan,” either outdoors or in tanning salons. There is increasing interest in determining why so many people continue tanning despite overwhelming evidence of potential harm. list reasons
answer

-some have suggested that tanning may have addictive qualities that actually keep people coming back even when they know better -Perhaps there is a link between high levels of UV light and increases in “feel good” endorphins -this little tanning high may make it harder for tanners to stop.
question

For risk of tanning salons
answer

sacrificing health for beauty *see page 511*
question

In our culture, being tan is equated with _
answer

being healthy, chic, and attractive
question

after _cancer, _cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in American males today. It is the _leading cause of cancer deaths in men after _cancer
answer

-after skin cancer, prostate cancer -prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men after lung cancer
question

about _men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime
answer

1 in 6 men
question

relation between age and prostate cancer
answer

-the older a man is, the greater chance of developing it
question

However, with _, 5-year survival rates are_for all but the most advanced cases
answer

-improved screening and early diagnosis -100%
question

what is the prostate? location? part of what system? function?
answer

-the prostate is a muscular, walnut-sized gland that surrounds part of a man’s urethra, the tube that transports urine and sperm out of the body -part of the reproductive system, its primary function is to produce seminal fluid
question

symptoms of prostate cancer
answer

-weak or interrupted urine flow -difficulty starting or stopping urination feeling the urge to urinate frequently -pain on urination -blood in the urine -pain in the low back, pelvis, or thighs -many men have no symptoms in the early stages
question

diagnosis methods of prostate cancer
answer

-digital rectal prostate examination -prostate-specific antigen (PSA) TEST
question

Men over age _should have an annual _examination. (diagnosis of prostate cancer)
answer

-over age 40 -annual digital rectal prostate examination
question

prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
answer

-an antigen found in prostate cancer patients
question

what prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is about?
answer

-a blood test that screens for an indicator of prostate cancer
question

what US Preventive Services Task Force recommends regarding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test ?
answer

Much as they did for breast self-exam recommendations in 2011, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended that otherwise asymptomatic men no longer receive the routine PSA test because, overall, it does not save lives and may in fact lead to painful, unnecessary cancer treatments -if you have family history or other symptoms, consult with your physician
question

what is the good thing regarding prostate cancers?
answer

-fortunately, prostate cancers tend to progress slowly, and most prostate cancers are detected while they are still in the local or regional stages
question

5-year survival rate of prostate cancer. 15-year survival rate?
answer

-the 5-year survival rate for all stages combined has increased from 67% to almost 99%, and the 15-year survival rate is over 16%
question

risk factors of prostate cancer
answer

-chances of developing prostate cancer increases dramatically with age -race -family history: have father or brother with prostate cancer; men who have had several relatives with prostate cancer, especially those with relatives who developed prostate cancer at younger ages, are also at higher risk -diets high in processed meats or dairy and obesity also appear to increase risk -elevated in firefighters -men who have had a history of sexually transmitted diseases and other inflammation of the prostate may have increased risk
question

almost _prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over age 65
answer

2 out of every 3
question

what race has high risk factor in prostate cancer?
answer

-African American men and Jamaican men of African descent have the highest documented prostate cancer incidence rates in the world -are more likely to be diagnosed at more advanced stages than other racial groups
question

having a brother or a father with prostate cancer more than _a man’s risk of getting prostate cancer himself. The risk is higher for men with an_
answer

-more than doubles -for men with an effected brother than it is for those with an affected father
question

preventive strategies to decrease risk of prostate cancer
answer

-eating more fruits and vegetables, particularly those containing lycopene, a pigment found in tomatoes and other red fruits, may lower risk of prostate cancer -the best advice is to follow the dietary recommendations (Dietary Guidelines for Americans) of the US department of agriculture and maintain a healthy weight
question

Some studies have suggested that_may be beneficial, but in a major clinical trial neither supplement was found to lower prostate cancer risk
answer

-vitamin E and selenium
question

Ovarian cancer is the _leading cause of cancer deaths for women
answer

-fifth (5th)
question

what reproductive system cancer causes more deaths than any other and why?
answer

-ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the reproductive system because women tend not to discover it until the cancer is at an advanced stage
question

survival rates of ovarian cancer
answer

-1-year survival rates are 75%, and 5-year survival rates are 44%
question

symptoms of ovarian cancer
answer

-early ovarian cancer usually has no obvious symptoms -the most common symptoms is enlargement of the abdomen -in some women, there may be a vague feeling of bloating, pelvic or abdominal pain, gas, fatigue, weight loss, difficulty eating or feeling full, and/or bowel or bladder irregularity -women over age 40 may experience persistent digestive disturbances as well -abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge is rarely a symptom until the disease is advanced
question

treatment for ovarian cancer
answer

-treatment for early-stage ovarian cancer typically includes surgery, chemotherapy, and occasionally radiation therapy -depending on the patient’s age and her desire to bear children in the future, one or both ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the uterus may be removed -chemotherapy and radiation are also sometimes used in addition to surgery
question

risk factors of ovarian cancer
answer

-primary relatives (mother, daughter, sister) of a women who has had ovarian cancer are at increased risk. -A family or personal history of breast and colon cancer is also associated with increased risk -women who have never been pregnant are more likely to develop ovarian cancer than those who have given birth, and the more children a women has had, the less risk she faces -The use of estrogen alone as postmenopausal therapy may increase a women’s risk, as well as smoking and obesity
question

prevention of ovarian cancer (reduce risks of ovarian cancer)
answer

-long-term use of oral contraceptives -adhering to a low-fat diet -having multiple children -breast-feeind -tubal ligation So, should you get pregnant or start taking birth control pills to reduce risk? No. general prevention strategies such as focusing on diet, exercise, sleep, stress management, and weight control are good ideas for combating risk of ovarian and any of the other cancers discussed in this text
question

risk reducing strategies that apply to all cancers
answer

general prevention strategies such as focusing on diet, exercise, sleep, stress management, and weight control are good ideas for combating risk of ovarian and any of the other cancers discussed in this text
question

diagnosis of ovarian cancer (age)
answer

-to protect yourself, get a complete annual pelvic examination -women over 40 should have a cancer-related checkup every year -uterine ultrasound or a blood test is recommended for those with risk factors or unexplained symptoms
question

most uterine cancers develop in the body of _, usually in the _. the rest develop in _. (locations of uterine cancers)
answer

-body of the uterus -endometrium -cervix, located at the base of the uterus
question

the overall incidence of cervical and uterine cancer has _(how changed) why?
answer

-has been declining steadily over the past decade -this decline may be due to more regular screenings of younger women using the pap test
question

diagnosis of cervical and endometrial (uterine) cancer
answer

-pap test
question

pap test
answer

-also known as pap smear a procedure in which cells taken from cervical regions are examined for abnormal cellular activity
question

pap test effectiveness
answer

-although pap test are very effective for detecting early-stage cervical cancer, they are less effective for detecting cancers of uterine lining
question

lifetime risk of women to get cervical cancer and uterine cancer
answer

-women have a lifetime risk of 1 in 147 for being diagnosed with cervical cancer and a 1 in 38 risk of being diagnosed with uterine corpus cancer
question

symptoms of uterine cancer
answer

-early warning signs of uterine cancer include bleeding outside the normal menstrual period or after menopause or persistent unusual vaginal discharge
question

risk factors of cervical cancer
answer

-early age at first intercourse -multiple sex partners -cigarette smoking -certain sexually transmitter infections, including HPV (the cause of genital warts) and herpes
question

risk factors of endometrial cancer (uterine cancer)
answer

-age is a risk factor -estrogen and obesity are also strong risk factors -risks are increased by treatment with tamoxifen for breast cancer, metabolic syndrome, late menopause, never bearing children, a history of polyps in the uterus or ovaries, a history of other cancers, and race (white women are at higher risk)
question

_is one of the most common types of solid tumors found in _
answer

-testicular cancer is one of the most common types of solid tumors found in young adult men
question

what age range is at greater risk of testicular cancer?
answer

-those between the ages of 15 and 35 are at greater risk
question

how testicular cancer frequency has changed?
answer

-there has been a steady increase in testicular cancer frequency over the past several years in this age group (15 and 35)
question

what is the most curable cancer? what 5-yer survival rate has?
answer

-with a 96% 5-year survival rate, it is one of the most curable forms of cancer
question

risk factors of testicular cancer (cause)
answer

-although the cause of testicular cancer is unknown, several risk factors have been identified -men with undescended testicles appear to be at greater risk, and some studies indicate a genetic influence
question

how testicualr cancer starts? how diagnose it? (diagnosis of testicular cancer)
answer

-testicular tumors first appear as an enlargement of the testis or thickening in testicular tissue -because this enlargement is often painless, the first indication young men have of a problem often comes from a testicular self-examination
question

how often testicular self-exams must be done and by who?
answer

-testicular self-exams have long been recommended for teen boys and young men to perform monthly as a means of detecting testicular cancer
question

what the US preventive services task force thinks about testicular self-examinations? however, what to do?
answer

however, recent studies have found that they are not cost-effective because the incidence of testicular cancer is low and most findings from self-exams result in testing what ultimately ends up being a noncancerous condition -For this reason, the US preventive services task force has dropped their recommendations for monthly testicular exams -regardless, most cases of testicular cancer are discovered through self-exam, and there is no other screening test for the disease
question

how to do the best testicular self-exam? how to do a testicular-self exam? when to consult a doctor?
answer

-the testicular self-exam is best done after a hot shower, which will relax the scrotum and make the exam easier -inspect the scrotum for any changes in color or in the size of each testicle. It is common for one testicle to be larger than the other, and if this is not a change, it is okay -hold a testicle using the three middle fingers of one hand. using small circular motions and light pressure, move the index and middle fingers of the second hand over the testicle until the whole surface has been covered -feel for changes in texture or small nodules that may feel like a pea or a grain of rice. Also note if there are areas where touch produces pain -along the back of each testicle is the epididymis, which contains the spermatic cord and the blood vessels serving the testicle. Feel this area with the index finger and the thumb, again looking for painful areas, changes in texture, or small lumps -repeat the process for the second testicle -if you notice any of the above, consult your doctor for further evaluation
question

leukemia
answer

-cancer of the blood-forming tissues that leads to proliferation of millions of immature white blood cells
question

what the formed white blood cells of leukemia do?
answer

-these abnormal cells crowd out normal white blood cells (which fight infection);platelets (which control hemorrhaging); and red blood cells (which carry oxygen to body cells)
question

symptoms of leukemia
answer

-resulting symptoms include fatigue, paleness, weight loss, easy brusing, repeated infections, nosebleeds, and other forms of hemorrhaging
question

two types of leukemia
answer

-acute leukemia -chronic leukemia
question

who can have leukemia?
answer

strikes both sexes and all ages groups
question

chronic leukemia can develop_
answer

-can develop over several months and have a few symptoms
question

how chronic leukemia is treated? (treatment for leukemia)
answer

-it is usually treated with radiation and chemotherapy -other treatments include bone marrow and stem cell transplants
question

Lymphoma
answer

-a group of cancers of the lymphatic system
question

2 types of lymphoma
answer

-Hodgkin’s disease -non-Hodgkin lymphoma
question

lymphomas are among the _ (include geneder)
answer

-lymphomas are among the fastest growing cancers -much of this increase has occurred in women
question

cause of lymphoma (risk factors of lymphoma)
answer

-the cause is unknown; however, a weakened immune system is suspected: particularly one that has been exposed to viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and others
question

Treatment for lymphoma
answer

-treatment for lymphoma varies by type and stage; however, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are commonly used
question

what you should do in general to reduce your own risk of cancer?
answer

-there is much you can do yo reduce your own risk if cancer -make a realistic assessment of your own risk factors, avoid behaviors that put you at risk, and increase healthy behaviors -even if you have significant risks, those are factors you can controlm
question

the _, the better the prognosis will be
answer

the earlier cancer is diagnosed
question

recommendations for self-exams and medical checkups are in_
answer

*table 16.2 page 514* -it includes cancer site; screening procedure; age and frequency of test includes: breast (mammograms); cervix (pap test or pap smear); colon and rectum (fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy; colonscopy); prostate (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test)
question

fecal occult blood test
answer

-diagnostic method used for colon and rectum cancer (colorectal cancer) -sometimes cancer or polyps bleed. This test can detect tiny amounts of blood in the stool
question

sigmoidoscopy
answer

-diagnostic method used for colon and rectum cancer (colorectal cancer) -checks the rectum and lower part of the colon for polyps
question

colonoscopy
answer

-diagnostic method used for colon and rectum cancer (colorectal cancer) -checks the rectum and entire colon for polyps and cancer
question

when to start pap test? how often do them?
answer

-women should begin having pap tests 3 years after they begin having sexual intercouse or when they reach age 21 (whichever comes first) -most women should have a Pap test at least once every 3 years
question

when people should receive diagnostic methods of colorectal cancer? (including fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy)?
answer

people aged 50 and older should be screened
question

when to perform prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test?
answer

-some groups encourage screening for men over age 50, and some advice men who are at higher risk for prostate cancer to begin screening at age 40 or 45. -currently, Medicare provides coverage for annual PSA test for all men age 50 and older
question

if you are _(2), your health care provider might use one or more tests to diagnose or rule out cancer
answer

-if you are at high risk for developing cancer, or if you notice potential cancer symptoms, your health provider might use one or more tests to diagnose or rule out cancer
question

tests for diagnosing cancer (general diagnostic tests)
answer

-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan
question

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
answer

-a device that uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computers to generate an image of internal tissues of the body for diagnostic purposes without the use of radiation -uses a huge electromagnet to detect tumors by mapping the vibrations of the atoms in the body on a computer screen
question

computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan
answer

-a scan by a machine that uses radiation to view internal organs not normally visible in X rays -uses X rays to exmaine parts of the body
question

in both of these (Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan) painless, noninvasive procedures, cross-sectioned pictures can reveal a _
answer

-tumor’s shape and location more accurately than can conventional X rays
question

diagnosis for prostate cancer
answer

-prostatic ultrasound
question

prostatic ultrasound
answer

-a rectal prove using ultrasound waves to produce an image of the prostate -is being investigated as means to increase the early detection of prostate cancer
question

3D mammogram machines
answer

-offer significant improvements in imaging and breast cancer detection but deliver nearly double the radiation risk of convetional mammograms
question

cancer treatments vary according to _
answer

-type and stage of cancer
question

general cancer treatments
answer

-surgery -radiotherapy -chemotherapy
question

explain surgery related to cancere
answer

-in which the tumor and surrounding tissue are removed, is one common strategy
question

surgery may be performed_
answer

-alone or in combination with other treatments
question

2 methods to perform surgery
answer

-the surgeon may operate using traditional surgical instruments such as laser, laparoscope, or other tools for less invasive results
question

what are the problems with surgery of cancer?
answer

pain and infection are the most common problems after surgery
question

radiotherapy
answer

-the use of radiation to kill cancerous cells
question

chemotherapy
answer

the use of drugs to kill cancerous cells
question

what radiation of radiotherapy does?
answer

-radiation destroys malignant cells or stops cell growth
question

radiotherapy is most effective in treating _
answer

localized cancer masses because it can be targeted to a particular area of the body
question

how radiotherapy works?
answer

-over the course of several weeks, patients are treated by a machine that exposes the designated part of the body to high-energy rays -radiotherapy usually takes place on an outpatient basis
question

side effects of radiotherapy
answer

-fatigue -changes to skin in the affected area -small increase in the chance of developing another type of cancer
question

chemotherapy may be used to _
answer

-shrink tumor before surgery or radiation therapy -after surgery or radiation therapy to kill remaining cancer cells -on its own
question

what chemotherapy consists of?
answer

-powerful drugs are administered, usually in on-and-off cycles so the body can recover from their effects
question

side effects of chemotherapy
answer

-nausea -hair loss -fatigue -increased chance of bleeding -bruising -infection -anemia and go away as the drugs leave the body after treatment -loss of fertility may be permanent
question

In the process of killing malignant cells, _(problem with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy)
answer

-some healthy cells are also destroyed, and long-term damage to the cardiovascular system and other body systems from radiotherapy and chemotheray can be significant
question

clinical trails
answer

-people-based studies of new drugs or procedures -has provided a new source of hope for many patients undergoing cancer treatment
question

why deciding to participate in clinical trails can be a difficult decision?
answer

-Because of the many unknown variables, deciding whether to participate in a clinical trial can be a difficult decision. -despite the risks, which should be carefully considered, thousands of clinical trial participants have benefited from treatments that would otherwise be unavailable to them
question

list several newer treatments for cancer that are either being used in clinical trials or have become available in selected cancer centers
answer

-immunotherapy -biological therapies (cancer-fighting vaccines) -gene therapies -angiogenesis inhibitors -disrupting cancer pathways -smart drugs -enzyme inhibitors -neoadjuvant chemotherapy -stem cell research *for more information of each see page 515*
question

why psychosocial and behavioral research has become increasingly important for cancer understanding?
answer

-psychosocial and behavioral research has become increasingly important as health professionals learn more about lifestyle factors that influence risk and survability -health practitioners have become aware of the psychological needs of patients and families and have begun to tailor treatment programs to meet their diverse needs
question

before beginning any form of cancer therapy, what you must do?
answer

-it is imperative to be a vigilant and vocal consumer -read and seek information from cancer support groups -check the skills of your surgeon, your radiation therapist, and your doctor in terms of clinical experience and interpersonal interactions -Look at Oncolink and other websites supported by the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society (ACS), and check out clinical trails, reports on effectiveness of various treatments, new experimental therapies, and other options -although you may like and trust your family doctor, it is always a good idea to seek advice or consultation form large cancer facilities that see many patients and are well equipped to deal with all situations *more information for being your own advocate or an advocate for someone you love in page 516*
question

oncologist
answer

cancer specialist
question

The number of people surviving cancer is at an all time high in the United States, at nearly _. They are surviving_than previous generations because_
answer

-12 million survivors -they are surviving better than any previous generation, largely due to heightened public awareness, less stigma, and a much greater level of support for cancer patients -cancer patients are much less likely to face cancer alone or make decisions about treatment in isolation
question

organizations that will help cancer patients
answer

-cancer support groups, cancer information workshops, and low-cost medical consultation are more widely available than ever
question

the_has helped educate individuals about treatment options and where to go for assistance
answer

-Internet
question

Groups such as Susan G. Koman for the Cure Foundation have _
answer

provided support for survivors and their families and have helped people realize that cancer is not a death sentence, not something to be hidden from others
question

although survival used to be measured almost exclusively by whether a person had_, _is now viewed much more broadly in terms of both _
answer

-by whether a person had gone 5 years without cancer symptoms -survivorship -in terms of both years and the quality of life that a person experiences after diagnosis
question

survivorship
answer

-physical, psychological, and economic issues of cancer from diagnosis until the end of life -comprises the unique ways in which people survive and thrive after cancer has been diagnosed
question

14% of the estimated 10.8 million cancer survivors in the US today were diagnosed more than _
answer

20 years ago
question

accumulating evidence make clear that breast cancer survivorship, for example, is influenced by a constellation of important factors, including:
answer

-age -socioeconomic status -availability of support services -education level -relationship status -social support -sexual identity -race -stress level -coping style -spirituality -depression -some suggest that psychosocial factors such as quality of life, including spiritual, social, and emotional well-being, are among the most significant and the most in need of study for understanding their influence in breast cancer survivorship
question

rather than looking only at the number of _people survive, _is becoming increasingly important. in fact, _measures may influence whether a person actually reaches the _
answer

rather than looking only at the number of years people survive, quality of survival experience is becoming increasingly important. in fact, quality-of-life measures may influence whether a person actually reaches the 5-year survivor milestone
question

cancer survivors have to live with _, but they can and do live_
answer

-possibility of recurrence -can and do live active, productive lives despite these challenges
question

how cancer spreads?
answer

Cancer spreads — or metastasizes — when cancer cells break away from the original tumor and travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of your body.
question

how melanoma begins?
answer

Melanoma begins in the melanocytes — cells that produce skin color, or pigment. Melanoma typically begins as a mole.
question

if catch melanoma early and has not spread, how remove it by surgery?
answer

If you catch the melanoma early and it hasn’t spread, it can be surgically treated. Here you see a superficial melanoma being removed, along with the surrounding skin. The extra skin is taken to ensure that no cancer cells are left behind.
question

explain how melanoma metastasizes
answer

Melanoma is dangerous because it can spread beyond what you can see, moving deep into your skin where it can gain access to your lymphatic vessels. This allows cancer cells to travel to distant locations in your body. Cancer cells can also travel to different parts of your body by way of your blood vessels. In this example, melanoma cells migrate to a lymph node. From the lymph node, the melanoma cells can then travel to other parts of your body. Here, you see cancer spreading to the lung.
question

Cancer is now the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of _, overtaking _ for the first time ever.
answer

-85 -heart disease
question

Americans will die from cancer. Simply put, cancer accounts for nearly_of every _deaths, and _ of these cancers are believed to be related to _
answer

Americans will die from cancer. Simply put, cancer accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths, and one-third (1/3) of these cancers are believed to be related to poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and obesity.
question

One of the biggest risks for cancer is_
answer

lifestyle
question

What is the best measure you can take to prevent lung cancer?
answer

Quitting smoking, and not starting if you don’t smoke.
question

What is the most common cancer in American males?
answer

Prostate cancer
question

What is the most common cancer in American women? (first and second)
answer

Malignant melanoma has become the most frequent cancer in women aged 25 to 29 and runs second to breast cancer in women aged 30 to 34.
question

A study of the role of exercise in reducing the risk for breast cancer found that the risk of those who averaged four hours of exercise a week since menstruation was __________ than that of women who did not exercise at all. Is it: (a) 58 percent higher; or (b) 58 percent lower?
answer

The answer is B – 58 percent lower.
question

In general, ordinary-looking cells enclosed in a fibrous shell or capsule that prevents their spreading to other body areas are called: Is it: (a) malignant tumors; or (b) benign tumors
answer

The answer is B – benign tumors. Malignant tumors are not usually enclosed in a protective capsule and can spread to other organs.
question

Hodgkin’s disease is a type of: Is it: (a) lymphoma; or (b) leukemia
answer

The answer is A. Lymphomas develop in the lymphatic system – the infection-fighting regions of the body.
question

Are suspected cancer-causing genes that are present on chromosomes called: (a) oncogenes; or (b) primogenes?
answer

The answer is A. While oncogenes are typically dormant, certain conditions such as age or stress can activate them.
question

Is the lifetime risk for developing cancer in the United States: (a) 1 in 2 for men, and 1 in 3 for women; or (b) 1 in 2 for women, and 1 in 3 for men?
answer

The answer is a – 1 in 2 for men, and 1 in 3 for women.
question

Where are the most common sites for cancers? Is it: (a) bone marrow; or (b) epithelial tissues?
answer

The answer is B – epithelial tissues. Epithelial tissues cover body surfaces and line most body cavities.
question

Environmental factors such as smoking, diet, and infectious diseases, as well as chemicals, cause ________ of all cancer deaths in the United States. Is it: (a) one-half; or (b) three-fourths?
answer

The answer is B – three fourths.
question

Barbara is a physician who specializes in the treatment o malignancies. Is Barbara is an: (a) epidemiologist; or (b) oncologist?
answer

The answer is B – oncologist.
question

Late menarche, early menopause, early first childbirth, and high parity have been shown to reduce a woman’s risk of: Is it: (a) ovarian cancer; or (b) breast cancer?
answer

The correct answer is B – breast cancer Question.
question

The fecal occult blood test is the most basic screening test for: (a) prostate cancer; or (b) colorectal cancer?
answer

The correct answer is B – colorectal cancer.
question

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by: (a) solid tumor development; or (b) uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells?
answer

The answer is B – uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
question

Benign tumors are harmless unless they: (a) turn malignant; or (b) obstruct organs?
answer

The answer is B – obstruct organs.
question

Genes known as cancer causing are termed: (a) primogenes; or (b) oncogenes?
answer

The answer is B – oncogenes.
question

Internal causes of cancer include which of the following: (a) hormones, immune conditions, inherited mutations; or (b) radiation, viruses, lifestyle?
answer

The answer is A – hormones, immune conditions, and inherited mutations.
question

The American Cancer Society states that cigarette smoking is responsible for ________ of all cancer deaths. Is it: (a) 30 percent; or (b) 40 percent?
answer

The answer is A – 30 percent.
question

Who is at the greatest risk for cancer? Is it: (a) a smoker who also drinks alcohol regularly; or (b) an auto-body painter?
answer

The answer is A – a smoker who also drinks alcohol regularly.
question

A woman should begin getting regular mammograms when she turns: (a) 45; or (b) 40?
answer

The answer is B – 40.
question

Muscular strength can be defined as: (a) the amount of weight that can be lifted or moved just once; or (b) the amount of force that a muscle is capable of exerting?
answer

The answer is B – the amount of force that a muscle is capable of exerting.
question

The prognosis for colon cancer is good, if caught early, because: (a) treatments are so advanced; or (b) the disease progresses slowly?
answer

The answer is B – the disease progresses slowly.
question

Cervical cancer has been linked to _____________, the virus that causes genital warts. Is it: (a) chlamydia; or; or (b) human papilloma virus?
answer

The answer is B – human papilloma virus.
question

The two most commonly diagnosed cancers among males in the United States today are
answer

skin cancer and prostate cancer

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