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Ch 13, Exam 4

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clinical psychology
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An area of psychology that integrates science and theory to prevent and treat psychological disorders
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Psychotherapy
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A nonmedical process that helps individuals with psychological disorders recognize and overcome their problems
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biological therapies
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Also called biomedical therapies, treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning.
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sociocultural therapies
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Treatments that acknowledge the relationships, roles, and cultural contexts that characterize an individual’s life, often bringing them into the therapeutic context.
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therapeutic alliance
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The relationship between the therapist and client—an important element of successful psychotherapy.
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The Therapist
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Whether psychotherapy works or not depends more on the particular therapist than on the type of therapy used
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The Client
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Another major factor in therapeutic outcomes is the person seeking treatment. Indeed, meta-analyses suggest that the quality of the client’s participation is the most important determinant of whether therapy is successful
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psychodynamic therapies
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Treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems.
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Psychoanalysis
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Freud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual’s unconscious thoughts.
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Free association
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A psychoanalytic technique that involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
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interpretation
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A psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy
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Dream analysis
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A psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a person’s dreams.
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Transference
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A client’s relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client’s life.
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Resistance
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A client’s unconscious defense strategies that prevent the psychoanalyst from understanding the client’s problems.
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humanistic therapies
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Treatments that uniquely emphasize people’s self-healing capacities and that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally.
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reflective speech
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A technique in which the therapist mirrors the client’s own feelings back to the client.
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Unconditional positive regard
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The therapist constantly recognizes the inherent value of the client, providing a context for personal growth and self-acceptance.
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Empathy
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The therapist strives to put himself or herself in the client’s shoes—to feel the emotions the client is feeling.
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Genuineness
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The therapist is a real person in his or her relationship with the client, sharing feelings and not hiding behind a facade.
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behavior therapies
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Treatments, based on behavioral and social cognitive theories, which use principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior
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Systematic desensitization
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A behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety-producing situations.
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Cognitive therapies
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Treatments emphasizing that cognitions (thoughts) are the main source of psychological problems; therapies that attempt to change the individual’s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions.
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Antianxiety drugs
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Commonly known as tranquilizers, drugs that reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable.
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Antidepressant drugs
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Drugs that regulate mood.
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Lithium
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The lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements, widely used to treat bipolar disorder.
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Antipsychotic drugs
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Powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia.
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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Also called shock therapy, a treatment, sometimes used for depression, that sets off a seizure in the brain.
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Psychosurgery
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A biological therapy, with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual’s adjustment.
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group therapy
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A sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional.
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Couples therapy
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Group therapy involving married or unmarried couples whose major problem lies within their relationship.