# Flashcards on Ch 12 –

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question
1. A nation's standard of living is measured by its a. real GDP. b. real GDP per person. c. nominal GDP. d. nominal GDP per person.
B
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2. Real GDP per person a. minus real GDP per person from the previous period equals the growth rate of real GDP per person. b. provides more meaningful comparisons across time and countries than real GDP. c. provides a less useful measure of the standard of living than nominal GDP per person. d. All of the above are correct.
B
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3. If one wants to know how the material well-being of the average person has changed over time in a given country, one should look at the a. level of real GDP. b. growth rate of nominal GDP. c. growth rate of real GDP. d. growth rate of real GDP per person.
D
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4. Over the past century in the United States, real GDP per person has grown by about a. 1 percent per year. b. 2 percent per year. c. 3 percent per year. d. 4 percent per year.
B
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5. During the past century the average growth rate of U.S. real GDP per person implies that it doubled about every a. 100 years on average. b. 70 years. c. 35 years. d. 25 years.
C
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6. In the United States, as measured by real GDP per person, average income is about how many times as high as average income a century ago? a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8
D
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7. Over the past 100 years, U.S. real GDP per person has doubled about every 35 years. If in the next 100 years it doubles every 25 years, then a century from now U.S. real GDP per person will be a. 4 times higher than it is now. b. 8 times higher than it is now. c. 12 times higher than it is now. d. 16 times higher than it is now.
D
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8. Over the last century, US real GDP per person grew at a rate of about a. 2% per year, so that it is now 2 times as high as it was a century ago. b. 2% per year, so that it is now 8 times as high as it was a century ago. c. 4% per year, so that it is now 2 times as high as it was a century ago. d. 4% per year, so that it is now 8 times as high as it was a century ago.
B
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9. Over the past century in the United States, average income as measured by real GDP per person has grown about a. 3.5 percent per year, which implies a doubling about every 20 years. b. 2 percent per year, which implies a doubling about every 35 years. c. 4 percent per year, which implies a doubling about every 17.5 years. d. None of the above is correct.
B
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10. The level of real GDP person a. differs widely across countries, but the growth rate of real GDP per person is similar across countries. b. is very similar across countries, but the growth rate of real GDP per person differs widely across countries. c. and the growth rate of real GDP per person are similar across countries. d. and the growth rate of real GDP per person vary widely across countries.
D
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11. Income in developing countries like India and Indonesia a. is less than 1/7th of that in developed countries like Japan and the United States. b. is about 1/5th of that in developed countries like Japan and the United States. c. is about 1/3 of that in developed countries like Japan and the United States. d. is about 1/2 of that in developed countries like Japan and the United States.
A
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12. Real GDP per person in poor countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh is a. much more than twice as high as it was in the US in 1870. b. about twice as high as it was in the US in 1870. c. about the same as it was in the US in 1870. d. less that it was in the US in 1870.
D
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13. In 2003, the typical Bangladeshi had how many times the income of the typical American a century ago? a. 1/4 b. 1/2 c. 2/3 d. 1
B
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14. Which of the following countries, had the highest growth rate over the last 100 years? a. Brazil b. Germany c. Canada d. United States
A
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15. In recent decades, average income in some East Asian countries, such as South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, has risen about a. 2 percent per year. b. 4 percent per year. c. 7 percent per year. d. 10 percent per year.
C
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16. In some East Asian countries, average income, as measured by real GDP per person, has recently grown at an average annual rate that implies output should double about every a. 10 years. b. 15 years. c. 20 years. d. 25 years.
A
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17. Countries that grew the fastest over the last 100 years had growth rates of about a. 0.5 percent. b. 1.5 percent. c. 2.0 percent. d. 2.5 percent.
D
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18. Of the following countries which grew the slowest over the last 100 years? a. Brazil b. Mexico c. China d. United States
D
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19. In the length of one generation, which of the following countries has gone from being among the poorest countries in the world to being among the richest? a. Chad b. Ethiopia c. India d. South Korea
D
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20. Average income has been stagnant for many years in a. Ireland. b. Singapore. c. Ethiopia. d. All of the above are correct.
C
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21. Which list contains, in this order, a country whose real GDP per person grew faster and one whose real GDP per person grew slower than the US over the last 100 years? a. China, Pakistan b. United Kingdom, China c. Pakistan, Argentina d. Argentina, Japan
A
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22. Countries that have lower levels of real GDP per person than the US, a. tend to have growth rates that are higher than that of the US. b. tend to have growth rates that are about the same as the US. c. tend to have growth rates that are lower than that of the US. d. have growth rates that are higher than the US in some cases and lower in other cases.
D
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23. Which of the following is correct? a. Although levels of real GDP per person vary substantially from country to country, the growth rate of real GDP per person is similar across countries. b. Productivity is not closely linked to government policies. c. The level of real GDP per person is a good gauge of economic prosperity, and the growth rate of real GDP per person is a good gauge of economic progress. d. Productivity may be measured by the growth rate of real GDP per person.
C
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24. Which of the following is correct? a. Over the last 100 years Japan had a higher average growth rate than the United States. It follows that the standard of living in Japan is greater than in the United States. b. The typical person in Bangladesh today has about the same real income as a typical American 100 years ago. c. The typical citizen of China today has about half as much real income as the typical American today. d. None of the above is correct.
D
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25. Which of the following does the level of real GDP measure? a. total real income b. productivity c. the standard of living d. All of the above are correct.
A
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26. A nation's standard of living is determined by a. its productivity. b. its gross domestic product. c. its national income. d. how much it has relative to others.
A
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27. Which of the following is correct? a. Countries with the highest growth rates over the last 100 years are the ones that had the highest level of real GDP 100 years ago. b. Most countries have had little fluctuation around their average growth rates during the past 100 years. c. The ranking of countries by income changes substantially over time. d. Over the last 100 years, Japan had the highest real GDP growth rate, and now has the highest real GDP per person.
C
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28. Over the last 100 years which of the following had growth rates higher than that of the United States? a. the United Kingdom b. Bangladesh c. Brazil d. None of the above is correct.
C
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29. Which of the following nations experienced average rates of economic growth of less than 2.0 percent over the last 100 years? a. Bangladesh b. Pakistan c. United Kingdom d. All of the above are correct.
D
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30. In 1870, the richest country in the world was a. the United States. b. Spain. c. the United Kingdom. d. Germany.
C
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31. Last year real GDP per person in Olympus was 4,500. The year before it was 4,250. What was the growth rate of real GDP per person? a. 5.6 percent b. 5.9 percent c. 6.5 percent d. None of the above are correct to the nearest tenth.
B
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32. Last year real GDP in Oceania was 561.0 billion and the population was 2.2 million. The year before real GDP was 500.0 billion and the population was 2.0 million. What was the approximate growth rate of real GDP per person? a. 12 percent b. 10 percent c. 4 percent d. 2 percent
D
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33. In 2004 real GDP in Latania was 750 billion and the population was 3 million. In 2005 real GDP was 907.5 billion and the population was 3.3 million. What was the approximate growth rate of real GDP per person? a. 10 percent b. 14 percent c. 17 percent d. 21 percent
A
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34. In 2004, Freedonia had a population of 2,700 and real GDP of about 11,610,000. In 2005 it had a population of 2,500 and real GDP of about 10,000,000. What was the approximate growth rate of real GDP per person in Freedonia between 2004 and 2005? a. 7.5 percent b. 12.5 percent c. 20.5 percent d. 35.5 percent
A
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35. In 2004 Empira had a population of 5,000 and real GDP of 500,000. In 2005 it had a population of 5,100 and real GDP of about 520,200. So, real GDP per person in Empira grew at about a. 2%, which is high compared to average US growth over the last one-hundred years. b. 2%, which is about the same as average US growth over the last one-hundred years. c. 4% which is high compared to average US growth over the last one-hundred years. d. 4% which is about the same as average US growth over the last one-hundred years.
B
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36. Last year Panglossia had real GDP of 3000 billion. This year it had real GDP of 3116 billion. Which of the following values of population would be consistent with a 2.5% growth rate of real GDP per person? a. The population fell from 76 million to 75 million. b. The population rose from 75 million to 76 million. c. The population fell from 80 million to 78 million. d. The population rose from 80 million to 78 million.
B
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37. Which of the following is correct? a. If a relatively poor country had grown at 3.5 percent per year for the last 100 years, it would be a relatively rich country today. b. International data on the history of the growth of real GDP per person shows that the rich countries get richer and the poor countries get poorer. c. In the United States, average income today is about four times as high as average income a century ago. d. All of the above are correct.
A
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38. The average amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker's time is called a. per capita GDP b. per capita GNP c. productivity d. human capital
C
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39. Productivity is most closely matched with a country's a. Level of real GDP. b. Level of real GDP divided by hours worked. c. Growth rate of real GDP divided by hours worked. d. Growth rate of real GDP per person.
B
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40. Productivity a. is nearly the same across countries, and so provides no help explaining differences in the standard of living across countries. b. explains very little of the differences in the standard of living across countries. c. explains some, but not most of the differences in the standard of living across countries. d. explains most of the differences in the standard of living across countries.
D
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41. Which of the following is a correct way to measure productivity? a. divide the number of hours worked by output b. divide output by the number of hours worked c. compute output growth d. divide the change in output by the change in number of hours worked
B
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42. Cedar Valley Furniture uses 5 workers working 8 hours to produce 80 rocking chairs. What is the productivity of these workers? a. 2 chairs per hour. b. 1 hour per chair. c. 80 chairs. d. None of the above is correct.
A
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43. In one day Alpha Cabinet Company made 40 cabinets with 320 hours of labor. What was their productivity? a. 1/8 cabinet per hour b. 8 hours per cabinet c. 40 cabinets d. None of the above is correct.
A
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44. Consider two countries. Country A has a population of 1,000, of whom 800 work 8 hours a day to make 128,000 final goods. Country B has a population of 2,000 of whom 1,800 work 6 hours a day to make 270,000 final goods a. Country A has higher productivity and higher real GDP per person than country B. b. Country A has lower productivity and lower real GDP per person than country B. c. Country A has higher productivity, but lower real GDP per person than country B. d. Country B has lower productivity, but higher real GDP per person than country B.
B
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45. Libeteria has a population of 10,000, of whom 7,000 work 8 hours a day to produce a total of 224,000 final goods. Despotvanyla has a population of 5,000, of whom 4,000 work 12 hours a day to produce a total of 120,000 final goods. a. Libeteria has higher productivity and higher real GDP per person than Despotvanyla. b. Libeteria has higher productivity but lower real GDP per person than Despotvanyla. c. Libeteria has lower productivity but higher real GDP per person than Despotvanyla. d. Libeteria has lower productivity and lower real GDP per person than Despotvanyla.
A
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46. Which of the following is true? a. Productivity is hours worked divided by output produced. b. Americans have a higher standard of living than Indonesians because American workers are more productive than Indonesian workers. c. Trends in the market prices of most resources indicate that they have become increasingly scarce over time. d. All of the above are correct.
B
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47. Which of the following is not correct? a. Countries that have had higher output growth per person have typically done so without higher productivity growth. b. A country's standard of living and its productivity are closely related. c. Productivity refers to output produced per hour of work. d. Increases in productivity can be used to increase output or leisure.
A
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48. Both Tom and Jerry work eight hours a day. Tom can produce six baskets of goods per hour while Jerry can produce four baskets of the same goods per hour. It follows that Tom's a. productivity is greater than Jerry's. b. output is greater than Jerry's. c. standard of living is higher than Jerry's. d. All of the above are correct.
D
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49. Waldo works eight hours and produces 7 units of goods per hour. Emerson works six hours and produces 10 units of goods per hour. a. Waldo's productivity and output are greater than Emerson's. b. Waldo's productivity is greater than Emerson's but his output is less. c. Emerson's productivity and output are greater than Waldo's. d. Emerson's productivity is greater than Waldo's but his output is less.
C
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50. Mary looks over reports on four of her workers. Jack made 25 baskets in 5 hours. Walter made 36 baskets in 6 hours. Rudy made 40 baskets in 10 hours. Sam made 22 baskets in four hours. Who has the greatest productivity? a. Jack b. Walter c. Rudy d. Sam
B
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51. Real Foods produced 300,000 boxes of organic spiral noodles in 2004 and produced 360,000 boxes in 2005. They used the same total hours of work in each year. In 2005 their productivity a. fell. b. was the same as in 2004. c. rose 20%. d. rose 30%.
C
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52. Dilbert's Incorporated produced 5,000,000 units of accounting software in 2004. At the start of 2005 the pointy-haired boss reduced total annual hours of employment from 10,000 to 8,000 and production was 4,800,000. These numbers indicate that productivity a. fell by 4%. b. fell by 20%. c. rose by 12%. d. rose by 20%.
D
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53. Dilbert's Incorporated produced 6,000,000 units of software in 2005. At the start of 2006 pointy-haired boss raised employment from 10,000 total annual hours to 14,000 annual hours and production was 7,000,000 units. Based on these numbers what happened to productivity? a. It fell by about 16.7%. b. It stayed the same. c. It rose by about 16.7%. d. It rose by about 40%.
A
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54. The key determinant of a person's standard of living in a country is a. the amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker's time. b. the total amount of goods and services produced within the country. c. the total amount of its physical capital. d. its growth rate of real GDP.
A
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55. Which of the following is a determinant of productivity? a. human capital per worker b. physical capital per worker c. natural resources per worker d. All of the above are correct.
D
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56. The inputs used to produce goods and services are also called a. productivity indicators. b. capitalization producers. c. production functions. d. factors of production.
D
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57. The Peapod Restaurant uses all of the following to produce vegetarian meals. Which of them is an example of physical capital? a. The owner's knowledge of how to prepare vegetarian entrees. b. The money in the owner's account at the bank she borrowed money from. c. The tables and chairs in the restaurant. d. The land the restaurant was built on.
C
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58. The equipment and structures available to produce goods and services are called a. physical capital. b. human capital. c. the production function. d. technology.
A
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59. The saws, lathes, and drill presses that woodworkers at Cedar Valley Furniture use to produce furniture are called a. human capital. b. physical capital. c. natural resources. d. technological knowledge.
B
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60. Which of the following would not be considered physical capital? a. a new factory building b. a computer used to help Mercury Delivery Service keep track of its orders c. on-the-job training d. a desk used in an accountant's office
C
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61. Which of the following is physical capital? a. the strength of workers b. the knowledge of workers c. financial assets like cash and bonds d. the equipment in a factory
A
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62. Which of the following would be considered physical capital? a. the pizza oven at the Liquidity Preferences Tavern b. rivers on which goods are transported c. the skills and knowledge of a barber d. All of the above are correct.
A
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63. Human capital is the a. knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training, and experience. b. stock of equipment and structures that is used to produce goods and services. c. total number of hours worked in an economy. d. same thing as technological knowledge.
A
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64. Which of the following is considered human capital? a. knowledge acquired from early childhood education programs b. knowledge acquired from grade school c. knowledge acquired from on-the-job training d. All of the above are correct.
D
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65. Which of the following is human capital? a. a student loan b. understanding how to use a company's accounting software c. training videos for new corporate employees d. All of the above are correct.
B
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66. Which of the following is considered human capital? a. the comfortable chair in your dorm room where you read economics texts b. the amount you get paid each week to work at the library c. the things you have learned this semester d. any capital goods that require a human to be present to operate
C
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67. Which of the following best illustrates the human capital of a survivor stranded on an island? a. The fishing poles she has produced. b. The invention of a better fishing lure. c. The fresh fruit and fish on and around the island. d. Her previous training in a survival course.
D
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68. Which of the following is a part of your Economics professor's human capital? a. the things she learned at some prestigious university b. her copy of Mankiw's text c. her chalk holder d. All of the above are correct.
A
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69. Which of the following is human capital? a. textbooks b. hand held power tools c. understanding how to repair cars d. All of the above are correct.
C
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70. Which of the following would be human capital and physical capital respectively? a. for an accounting firm, the accountants knowledge of tax laws and computer software b. for a grocery store, grocery carts and shelving c. for a school, chalkboard and desks d. for a library, the building and the reference librarians' knowledge of the Internet
A
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71. Natural resources a. are inputs provided by nature. b. are inputs such as land, rivers, and mineral deposits. c. take two forms: renewable and nonrenewable. d. All of the above are correct.
D
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72. The inputs into production of goods and services that are provided by nature, such as land, rivers, and mineral deposits are called a. physical capital. b. natural resources. c. human capital. d. technological knowledge.
B
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73. Which of the following lists contains, in this order, natural resources, human capital, and physical capital? a. For a restaurant: the land the restaurant was built on, the things the Chef learned at Cooking School, the freezers where the chops and steaks are kept. b. For a furniture company: wood, the company cafeteria, saws. c. For a railroad: fuel, railroad engines, railroad tracks. d. None of the above is correct.
A
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74. Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource? a. coal b. honey c. livestock d. All of the above are correct.
A
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75. Which of the following is a renewable natural resource? a. timber b. coal c. gold d. All of the above are correct.
A
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76. Which of the following is an example of a renewable resources? a. fish b. iron c. petroleum d. All of the above are correct.
A
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77. In a market economy, scarcity of resources is most clearly reflected in a. supply. b. demand. c. market prices. d. the stock of the resource.
C
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78. In a market economy, we know that a resource has become scarcer when a. its price rises relative to other prices. b. it is non-renewable and some of it is used. c. people search for substitutes. d. All of the above are correct.
A
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79. If the price of a good has risen over time, a. it must have become more scarce. b. it must have become less scarce. c. it has become more scarce only if the price adjusted for inflation has risen. d. it has become less scarce only if the price adjusted for inflation has risen.
C
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80. In a market economy, the real, or inflation adjusted, price of a resource measures its a. contribution to revenue. b. relative scarcity. c. productivity. d. contribution to efficiency.
B
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81. Greater scarcity of a natural resource is indicated a. by any increase in the price whether the price increase is less than or greater than the rate of inflation. b. only by any increase in the price which is less than the rate of inflation. c. only by any increase in the price which is greater than the rate of inflation. d. only by an increase in price which is caused by a decrease in supply and is greater than the rate of inflation.
C
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82. Historically, the market prices of most natural resources (adjusted for inflation) have a. increased. b. remained stable. c. remained stable or decreased. d. decreased.
C
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83. The behavior of market prices over time show that natural resources a. are a limit to economic growth. b. are unrelated to economic growth. c. are not a limit to economic growth. d. are the major determinant of productivity.
C
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84. Which of the following is true? a. There are no renewable natural resources. b. The prices of most natural resources are stable or falling relative to other prices. c. Technology requires greater use of natural resources. d. Human capital is equivalent to technology.
B
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85. If natural resources had become scarcer, then we'd expect their a. prices to have risen more than inflation as they have. b. prices to have risen more than inflation, but they have not. c. known quantities to have fallen as they have. d. known quantities to have fallen but they have not.
B
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86. If an inexpensive alternative to oil were found, the price of oil adjusted for inflation a. would decline as the alternative would reduce the demand for oil. b. would decline as the alternative would reduce the supply of oil. c. would increase as the alternative would increase the demand for oil. d. would increase as the alternative would increase the supply of oil.
A
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87. Over time people have become more conscientious about recycling paper. At the same time corporations have found new ways to use this scrap paper. From these two things a. we can be sure that scrap paper is now less scarce. b. we can be sure that scrap paper is now more scarce. c. we know that the scarcity of scrap paper has not changed. d. we cannot tell if the scarcity of scrap paper has changed.
D
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88. A leading environmental group recently published a report contending that humans are running a "resource deficit" because we are using natural resources faster than they can be regenerated. The group claims that this means that economic growth will eventually stop, and will even be reversed. An economist would a. agree with the report, and would point to rising natural resource prices as evidence. b. agree with the report, but wouldn't think it was important because growth will not slow down for several centuries. c. disagree with the report, in part because it ignores the mitigating effects of technological change. d. disagree with the report because labor and capital are the primary determinants of growth, and since they are plentiful, growth will not slow down.
C
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89. If a good has become more scarce than we know for sure that a. demand for it must have increased. b. the supply of it must have decreased. c. either demand for it must have increased or the supply of it must have decreased. d. both the supply of it and the demand for it decreased.
C
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90. Which of the following best states economists' understanding of the facts concerning the relationship between natural resources and economic growth? a. A country with no or few domestic natural resources is destined to be poor. b. Differences in natural resources have virtually no role in explaining differences in standards of living. c. Some countries can be rich mostly because of their natural resources and countries without natural resources need not be poor, but can never have very high standards of living. d. Abundant domestic natural resources may help make a country rich, but even countries with few natural resources can have high standards of living.
D
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91. In the country of Krypton, the price of lead increased from \$20 per pound to \$21 per pound during a time when the overall price level increased by 5 percent. During this period, the real price of lead a. increased. b. decreased. c. stayed the same. d. might have increased, decreased or stayed the same; more information is needed to be sure.
C
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92. Suppose over the last year that the price of scrap paper rose from \$100 a ton to \$108 a ton. Over the same time suppose an overall measure of prices rose from 125 to 130. The a. price of scrap paper rose by less than inflation, but this doesn't necessarily mean it became scarcer. b. price of scrap paper rose by less than inflation, and this means it became scarcer. c. price of scrap paper rose by more than inflation, and this means it became scarcer. d. price of scrap paper rose by more than inflation, but this doesn't necessarily mean that it become scarcer.
C
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93. After adjusting for inflation, over time the prices of most natural resources have been a. steady or falling, meaning that our ability to conserve them is growing more rapidly than their supplies are dwindling. b. steady or falling, meaning that their supplies are dwindling more rapidly than our ability to conserve them is growing. c. rising, meaning that our ability to conserve them is growing more rapidly than their supplies are dwindling. d. rising, meaning that their supplies are dwindling more rapidly than our ability to conserve them is growing.
A
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94. Proprietary technology is knowledge that is a. known but no longer used much. b. known, but only recently discovered. c. known mostly by only those in a certain profession. d. known only by the company that discovered it.
D
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95. Proprietary technology is technology that is a. widely used because it is easy to learn. b. widely used because the government subsidizes its use. c. not widely used because people could, but have not, taken the time to learn how to apply it. d. not widely used because it is known or controlled only by the company that discovered it.
D
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96. A management professor discovers a way for corporate management to operate more efficiently. He publishes his findings in a journal. His findings are a. proprietary and common knowledge. b. neither proprietary nor common knowledge. c. proprietary, but not common, knowledge. d. common, but not proprietary, knowledge.
D
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97. Your company discovers a better way to produce mousetraps, but your better methods are not apparent from the mousetraps themselves. Your knowledge of how to more efficiently produce mousetraps is a. common technological knowledge. b. common, but not technological, knowledge. c. proprietary technological knowledge. d. proprietary, but not technological, knowledge.
C
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98. Technological knowledge refers to a. human capital. b. available information on how to produce things. c. resources expended transmitting society's understanding to the labor force. d. All of the above are technological knowledge.
B
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99. Thomas Edison received patents on many of his inventions. While the patents existed, his ideas were a. public goods and proprietary knowledge. b. public goods but not proprietary knowledge. c. private goods and proprietary knowledge. d. private goods but not proprietary knowledge.
C
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100. The relationship between the quantity of output created and the quantity of inputs needed to create it is called a. the capital accumulation function. b. technological knowledge. c. the production function. d. human capital.
C
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101. An understanding of the best ways to produce goods and services is called a. human capital. b. physical capital. c. technology. d. productivity.
C
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102. If your firm has constant returns to scale, then if you doubled all your inputs your firm's output would a. not change. b. increase, but by less than double. c. double. d. more than double.
C
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103. You bake cookies. One day you double the time you spend, double the number of chocolate chips, flour, eggs, and all your other inputs, and bake twice as many cookies. Your cookie production function has a. decreasing returns to scale. b. zero returns to scale. c. constant returns to scale. d. increasing returns to scale.
C
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104. If there are constant returns to scale, the production function can be written as a. xY = 2xAF(L, K, H, N). b. Y/L = A F(xL, xK, xH, xN). c. Y/L = A F( 1, K/L, H/L, N/L). d. L = AF(Y, K, H, N).
C
question
105. If a production function has constant returns to scale, output can be doubled if a. labor alone doubles. b. all inputs but labor double. c. all of the inputs double. d. None of the above is correct.
C
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106. Suppose there are constant returns to scale. Now suppose that over time a country doubles its workers, its natural resources, and its human capital, but its technology is unchanged. Which of the following would double? a. both output and productivity b. output, but not productivity c. productivity, but not output d. neither productivity nor output
B
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107. If the production function for an economy had constant returns to scale, the labor force doubled, and all other inputs stayed the same, then real GDP would a. stay the same. b. increase by 50 percent. c. increase, but by something less than double. d. double.
C
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108. If the number of workers in an economy doubled, all other inputs stayed the same, and there were constant returns to scale, productivity would a. fall to less than half its former value. b. fall but by less than half. c. stay the same. d. rise but less than double.
B
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109. If an economy with constant returns to scale were to double its physical capital stock, its available natural resources, and its human capital, but leave the size of the labor force the same, a. its output would stay the same and so would its productivity. b. its output and productivity would increase, but less than double. c. its output and productivity would increase by more than double. d. None of the above is correct.
B
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110. Using the production function and notation in the text, K/L measures a. natural resources per worker. b. human capital per worker. c. output per worker. d. physical capital per worker.
D
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111. Using the notation and production function in the text, Y/L is a. productivity. b. output. c. the availability of natural resources. d. the amount of human capital.
A
question
112. Suppose that over the last ten years productivity grew faster in Oceania than in Freedonia and the population of both countries was unchanged. a. It follows that real GDP per person must be higher in Oceania than in Freedonia. b. It follows that real GDP per person grew faster in Oceania than in Freedonia. c. It follows that the standard of living must be higher in Oceania than in Freedonia. d. All of the above are correct.
B
question
113. Suppose that real GDP grew more in Country A than in Country B last year. a. Country A must have a higher standard of living than country B. b. Country A's productivity must have grown faster than country B's. c. Both of the above are correct. d. None of the above is correct.
D
question
114. Which of the following would increase productivity? a. an increase in the physical capital stock per worker b. an increase in human capital per worker c. an increase in natural resources per worker d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
115. One of the Ten Principles of Economics in Chapter 1 is that people face tradeoffs. The growth that arises from capital accumulation is not a free lunch. It requires that society a. conserve resources for future generations. b. sacrifice consumption goods and services now in order to enjoy more consumption in the future. c. recycle resources so that future generations can produce goods and services with the accumulated capital. d. None of the above is correct.
B
question
116. Accumulating capital a. requires that society sacrifice consumption goods in the present. b. allows society to consume more in the present. c. decreases saving rates. d. has no tradeoffs.
A
question
117. The traditional view of the production process is that capital is subject to a. constant returns. b. increasing returns. c. diminishing returns. d. diminishing returns for low levels of capital, and increasing returns for high levels of capital.
C
question
118. If there are diminishing returns to capital, then a. capital produces fewer goods as it ages. b. old ideas are not as useful as new ones. c. increases in the capital stock eventually decrease output. d. increases in the capital stock increase output by ever smaller amounts.
D
question
119. In the long run, a higher saving rate a. cannot increase the capital stock. b. means that people must consume less in the future. c. increases productivity. d. None of the above is correct.
C
question
120. In the long run an increase in the saving rate a. doesn't change the level of productivity or income. b. raises the levels of both productivity and income. c. raises the level of productivity but not the level of income. d. raises the level of income but no the level of productivity.
B
question
121. If a country were to increase its saving rate, then in the long run it would also increase its a. level of income. b. growth rate of income. c. growth rate of productivity. d. All of the above are correct.
A
question
122. If a country's saving rate declined, then other things the same, in the long run it would have a. lower productivity, but not lower real GDP per person. b. lower productivity and lower real GDP per person. c. lower real GDP per person, but not lower productivity d. neither lower productivity nor lower real GDP per person.
B
question
123. If a country's saving rate increases, then in the long run a. both productivity growth and income growth increase. b. only productivity growth increases. c. only income growth increases. d. neither productivity growth nor income growth increase.
D
question
124. If a country's saving rate increases, then in the long run a. productivity is higher but real GDP per person is not higher. b. real GDP per person is higher but productivity is not higher. c. productivity and real GDP per person are both higher. d. neither productivity nor real GDP per person are higher.
C
question
125. Other things the same, a country that increases its saving rate increases a. its future productivity and future real GDP. b. neither its future productivity nor future real GDP. c. its future productivity, but not its future real GDP. d. its future real GDP, but not its future productivity.
A
question
126. Other things the same, a country that increases its savings rate will have a. higher future capital and higher future real GDP per person. b. higher future capital but not higher future real GDP per person. c. higher future real GDP per person but not higher future capital. d. neither higher future capital nor higher future real GDP per person.
A
question
127. Suppose Albania increases its saving rate. In the long run a. the growth rates of productivity and real GDP per person increase. b. productivity and real GDP per person increase. c. the growth rate of productivity increases, and real GDP per person increases. d. productivity increases, and the growth rate of real GDP per person increases.
B
question
128. Suppose that Turkey undertakes a policy to increase its saving rate. This policy will likely a. have no impact on GDP growth. b. lead to higher GDP growth for a few years. c. lead to higher GDP growth for a period of several decades. d. lead to a permanently higher growth rate.
C
question
129. Suppose that a country increased its saving rate. In the long run it would have a. higher productivity, and another unit of capital would increase output by more than before. b. higher productivity, but another unit of capital would increase output by less than before. c. lower productivity, and another unit of capital would increase output by more than before. d. lower productivity, but another unit of capital would increase output by less than before.
B
question
130. Other things equal, relatively poor countries tend to grow a. slower than relatively rich countries; this is called the poverty trap. b. slower than relatively rich countries; this is called the fall-behind effect. c. faster than relatively rich countries; this is called the catch-up effect. d. faster than relatively rich countries; this is called the constant-returns-to-scale effect.
C
question
131. Suppose that there are diminishing returns to capital. Suppose also that two countries are the same except one has more capital and so more real GDP per person than the other. Finally, suppose that the saving rate in both countries increases from 5 percent to 6 percent. Over the next ten years we would expect that a. the growth rate will not change in either country. b. the country that started with less capital will grow faster. c. the country with started with more capital will grow faster. d. both countries will grow at the same rate.
B
question
132. Suppose that there are diminishing returns to capital. Suppose also that two countries are the same except one has less capital and so less real GDP per person. Suppose that both increase their saving rate from 3 percent to 4 percent. In the long run a. both countries will have permanently higher growth rates of real GDP per person, and the growth rate will be higher in the country with more capital. b. both countries will have permanently higher growth rates of real GDP per person, and the growth rate will be higher in the country with less capital. c. both countries will have higher levels of real GDP per person, and the temporary increase in growth in the level of real GDP per person will have been greater in the country with more capital. d. both countries will have higher levels of real GDP per person, and the temporary increase in growth in the level of real GDP per person will have been greater in the country with less capital.
D
question
133. Real GDP per person is \$20,000 in Meridian, \$15,000 in Articland, and \$5,000 in Equitorial. Saving per person is \$1,000 in all three countries. Other things equal, we would expect that a. all three countries will grow at the same rate. b. Meridian will grow the fastest. c. Articland will grow the fastest. d. Equitorial will grow the fastest.
D
question
134. Other things the same, if a country increased its saving rate, in 40 years or so it would likely have a. higher productivity, and a higher growth rate of real GDP. b. higher productivity, but not a higher growth rate of real GDP. c. the same productivity and growth of real GDP it began with. d. None of the above is correct.
B
question
135. Which of the following best describes the response of output as time passes to an increase in the saving rate? a. The growth rate of output does not change. b. The growth rate of output increases and gets even larger as time passes. c. The growth rate of output increases and does not change as time passes. d. The growth rate of output increases, but diminishes to its former level as time passes.
D
question
136. An increase in the saving rate would, other things the same, a. increase growth more for a poor country than a rich country, and raise growth permanently. b. increase growth more for a poor country than a rich country, but raise growth temporarily. c. increase growth more for a rich country than a poor country, and raise growth permanently. d. increase growth more for a rich country than a poor country, but raise growth temporarily.
B
question
137. The traditional view of the production process is that capital is subject to a. diminishing returns, so that other things the same real GDP in poor countries should grow at a faster rate than in rich countries. b. diminishing returns, so that other things the same real GDP in poor countries should grow at a slower rate than in rich countries. c. increasing returns, so that other things the same real GDP in poor countries should grow at a faster rate than in rich countries. d. increasing returns, so that other things the same real GDP in poor countries should grow at a slower rate than in rich countries.
A
question
138. The traditional view that the production process has diminishing returns implies that a. the increase in output growth from an increase in the saving rate rises over time, and that, other things the same, rich countries should grow faster than poor ones. b. the increase in output growth from an increase in the saving rate falls over time, and that, other things the same, rich countries should grow faster than poor ones. c. the increase in output growth from an increase in the saving rate rises over time, and that, other things the same, poor countries should grow faster than rich ones. d. the increase in output growth from an increase in the saving rate falls over time, and that, other things the same, poor countries should grow faster than rich ones.
D
question
139. On a production function, as capital per worker increases, output per worker a. increases. This increase is larger at larger values of capital per worker. b. increases. This increase is smaller at larger values of capital per worker. c. decreases. This decrease is larger at larger value of capital per worker. d. decreases. This decrease is smaller at larger value of capital per worker.
B
question
140. The slope of the production function with capital per worker on the horizontal axis and output per worker on the vertical axis a. is positive and gets steeper as capital per worker rises. b. is positive and gets flatter as capital per worker rises. c. is negative and gets steeper as capital per worker rises. d. is negative and gets flatter as capital per worker rises.
B
question
141. The catch-up effect refers to the idea that a. saving will always catch-up with investment spending. b. it is easier for a country to grow fast and so catch-up if it starts out relatively poor. c. population eventually catches-up with increased output. d. if investment spending is low, increased saving will help investment to "catch-up."
B
question
142. The logic behind the catch-up effect is that a. workers in countries with low incomes will work more hours than workers in countries with high incomes. b. the capital stock in rich countries deteriorates at a higher rate because it already has a lot of capital. c. new capital adds more to production in a country that doesn't have much capital than in a country that already has much capital. d. None of the above is correct.
C
question
143. Which of the following countries benefited a lot from the catch-up effect in the last half of the twentieth century? a. Ethiopia b. the United States c. Canada d. South Korea
D
question
144. Which of the following is consistent with the catch-up effect? a. The United States had a higher growth rate before 1900 than after. b. After World War II the United States had lower growth rates than war-ravaged European countries. c. Although the United States has a relatively high level of output per person, its growth rate is rather modest compared to some countries. d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
145. Over the period 1960-1991, a. South Korea had a higher growth rate than the United States because it had a higher ratio of investment to GDP. b. The United States had a higher growth rate than South Korea because it had a higher ratio of investment to GDP. c. South Korea had a higher growth rate than the United States even though it had a similar ratio of investment to GDP. d. The United States had a higher growth rate than South Korea even though it had a similar ratio of investment to real GDP.
C
question
146. Lower Equitoral and Upper Equitorial are the same except Lower Equitorial has a smaller capital stock. Both countries undertake policies that raise their saving rates to the same higher level. We'd expect that a. both countries would have permanent increases in their growth rates, but the increase would initially be larger in Lower Equitorial. b. both countries would have permanent increases in their growth rates, but the increase would initially be smaller in Upper Equitorial. c. both countries would have temporary increases in their growth rates, but the increase would be larger in Lower Equitorial. d. both countries would have temporary increases in their growth rates, but the increase would be smaller in Lower Equitorial.
C
question
147. If an American-based firm opens and operates a new watch factory in Panama, then it is engaging in a. foreign portfolio investment. b. foreign financial investment. c. foreign direct investment. d. indirect foreign investment.
C
question
148. In the 1800s, Europeans purchased stock in American companies that used the funds to build railroads and factories. The Europeans who did this made a. foreign portfolio investments. b. indirect domestic investments. c. foreign direct investments. d. foreign indirect investments.
A
question
149. Suppose that an American opens and operates a candy factory in Finland. This is an example of a. foreign direct investment. American saving is used to finance Finish investment. b. foreign direct investment. American saving is used to finance American investment. c. foreign portfolio investment. American saving is used to finance Finish investment. d. foreign portfolio investment. American saving is used to finance American investment.
A
question
150. Foreign saving is used for domestic investment when foreigners engage in a. foreign direct investment. b. foreign portfolio investment. c. either foreign direct investment or foreign portfolio investment. d. None of the above is correct.
C
question
151. Suppose U.S.-based Intel Corporation builds and operates a new computer chip factory in Honduras. Future production from such an investment would a. increase Honduran GDP more than it would increase Honduran GNP. b. increase Honduran GNP more than it would increase Honduran GDP. c. not affect Honduran GNP, but would increase Honduran GDP. d. have no affect on either Honduran GDP or GNP.
A
question
152. Suppose Japanese-based Sony Corporation builds and operates a new digital camera factory in the United States. Future production from such an investment would a. increase U.S. GNP more than it would increase U.S. GDP. b. increase U.S. GDP more than it would increase U.S. GNP. c. not affect U.S. GNP, but would increase U.S. GDP. d. have no affect on U.S. GNP or GDP.
B
question
153. The opening of a new American-owned factory in Egypt would tend to increase Egypt's GDP more than it increases Egypt's GNP because a. some of the income from the factory accrues to people who do not live in Egypt. b. gross domestic product is income earned within a country by both residents and nonresidents, whereas gross national product is the income earned by residents of a country while producing both at home and abroad. c. all of the income from the factory is included in Egypt's GDP. d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
154. Investment from abroad a. is a way for poor countries to learn the state-of-the-art technologies developed and used in richer countries. b. is viewed by economists as a way to increase growth. c. often requires removing restrictions that governments have imposed on foreign ownership of domestic capital. d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
155. An organization that tries to encourage the flow of investment to poor countries is the a. World Bank. b. Organization of Less Developed Countries. c. Alliance of Developing Countries. d. International Development Alliance.
A
question
156. In the US each additional year of schooling has historically raised a person's wage on average by about a. 2 percent. b. 5 percent. c. 10 percent. d. 15 percent.
C
question
157. In the US each additional year of schooling has historically raised a person's wage on average by about a. 5%. In less developed countries the gap between the wages of educated and uneducated workers is smaller. b. 10%. In less developed countries the gap between the wages of educated and uneducated workers is smaller. c. 5%. In less developed countries the gap between the wages of educated and uneducated workers is larger. d. 10%. In less developed countries the gap between the wages of educated and uneducated workers is larger.
D
question
158. Which of the following is generally an opportunity cost of investment in human capital? a. future job security b. forgone present wages c. increased earning potential d. All of the above are correct.
B
question
159. Educated people may generate ideas that increase production. These ideas a. produce a return to society from education that is greater than the return to the individual. b. could justify government subsides for education. c. are external benefits of education. d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
160. Which of the following is an example of the "brain drain"? a. A country's most highly educated workers emigrate to rich countries. b. A country has such a poor educational system that human capital falls over time. c. The population of a country grows so fast that the educational system can't keep up. d. A country steals patented technology from another country.
A
question
161. Economist Robert Fogel focused on which of the following factors as one determinant of long-run economic growth? a. education b. research and development c. nutrition d. trade restrictions
C
question
162. According to research by Robert Fogel, what proportion of the British population in 1780 was so malnourished that they could not perform manual labor? a. 40% b. 20% c. 10% d. 5%
B
question
163. Roughly what percentage of growth in real GDP per person in Britain between 1790 and 1980 was accounted for by improved nutrition according to the estimates of Robert Fogel? a. 60% b. 45% c. 30% d. 15%
C
question
164. Which of the following is correct? a. In an economy-wide sense property rights are an important prerequisite for the price system to work. b. Property rights give people the ability to exercise authority over the resources they own. c. An absence of well-established and well-enforced property rights appears to associated with a reduced standard of living. d. All of the above are correct.
D
question
165. The dictator of Turan has recently begun to arbitrarily seize farms belonging to his political opponents, and he has given the farms to his friends. His friends don't know much about farming. The courts in Turan have ruled that the seizures are illegal, but the dictator has ignored the rulings. Other things equal, we would expect that the growth rate in Turan will a. fall temporarily, but will return to where it was when the new owners learn how to farm. b. increase because the total amount of human capital in the country will increase as the new owners learn how to farm. c. fall and remain lower for a long time. d. not be affected unless widespread civil disorder or civil war results.
C
question
166. The dictator of a certain country requires that companies planning to open or expand must pay a large fee to file an application one year prior to plans to build new factories or expand existing ones. Other things the same, in the long run this requirement would a. reduce real GDP per person and productivity. b. reduce real GDP per person but not productivity. c. reduce productivity but not real GDP per person. d. None of the above is correct.
A
question
167. Suppose that a new government is elected in Tempestia. The new government takes steps toward improving the court system and reducing government corruption. The citizens of Tempestia find these efforts credible and outsiders believe these changes will be effective and long lasting. These changes will probably a. raise real GDP per person and productivity in Tempestia. b. raise real GDP per person but not productivity in Tempestia. c. raise productivity but not real GDP per person in Tempestia. d. raise neither productivity nor real GDP per person in Tempestia.
A
question
168. Inward-oriented policies a. include imposing tariffs and other trade restrictions. b. have generally increased productivity and growth in the countries that pursued them. c. promote the production of goods and services the country produce most efficiently. d. All of the above are correct.
A
question
169. Inward-oriented policies a. are generally supported by economists. b. are primarily concerned with the development of human capital. c. in some ways are like prohibiting the use of certain technologies. d. All of the above are correct.
C
question
170. The President of a developing country proposes that his country needs to help domestic firms by imposing trade restrictions. a. These are outward-oriented policies and most economists believe they would have beneficial effects on growth. b. These are outward-oriented policies and most economists believe they would have adverse effects on growth. c. These are inward-oriented policies and most economists believe they would have beneficial effects on growth. d. These are inward-oriented policies and most economists believe they would have adverse effects on growth.
D
question
171. In the past there have been violent protests against the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. The protesters argued that these institutions promote free trade and also encourage corporations in rich countries to invest in poor countries. The protesters contended that these practices make rich countries richer and poor countries poorer. An economist would a. disagree with the protesters because these practices will help make both rich and poor countries richer. b. disagree with the protesters about free trade, but would agree with the protesters about corporate investment. c. disagree with the protesters about corporate investment, but would agree with the protesters about free trade. d. agree with the protesters.
A
question
172. Outward-oriented policies a. prevent countries from taking advantage of gains from trade. b. have generally led to high growth for the countries that pursued them. c. receive little support from economists, despite such polices success. d. None of the above is correct.
B
question
173. When a country removes trade barriers and imports toys and exports farm machinery, a. its growth slows. b. its productivity decreases. c. it is essentially transforming farm machinery into toys. d. its economic well-being decreases while that of the country that sells toys increases.
C
question
174. Suppose a country reduces trade restrictions. This country would be pursing an a. inward policy, which most economists believe has beneficial effects on the economy. b. inward policy, which most economists believe has adverse effects on the economy. c. outward policy, which most economists believe has beneficial effects on the economy. d. outward policy, which most economists believe has adverse effects on the economy.
C
question
175. Presidents of the African countries of Mali and Burkina Faso were particularly concerned with subsidies richer countries provide for domestic production of a. oil. b. tobacco. c. gold. d. cotton.
D
question
176. In 2003 The Presidents of the African countries of Mali and Burkina Faso a. requested that rich countries apply free trade rules to those products where poor countries have a proven competitive advantage. b. argued that free trade was not a policy that developing nations would find it wise to follow. c. said that at their current stage of development that most of the principles of market economies were not practical. d. None of the above is correct.
A
question
177. National defense and knowledge are generally considered to be a. private goods. b. public goods. c. proprietary goods. d. societal goods.
B
question
178. Patents turn new ideas into a. public goods, and increase the incentive to engage in research. b. public goods, but decrease the incentive to engage in research. c. private goods, and increase the incentive to engage in research. d. private goods, but decrease the incentive to engage in research.
C
question
179. Once an idea enters society's pool of knowledge, the knowledge becomes a a. societal good. b. private good. c. public good. d. proprietary good.
C
question
180. In medieval Europe an important technological advance was the use of the padded horse collar for plowing. Once this idea was thought of, other people used it. This illustrates that knowledge is generally a a. public good. b. societal good. c. private good. d. normal good.
A
question
181. Drug companies can usually obtain patents on new drugs. This turns new ideas into a. private goods, and increase the incentive to engage in research. b. private goods, but decrease the incentive to engage in research. c. public goods, and increase the incentive to engage in research. d. public goods, and decrease the incentive to engage in research.
A
question
182. Malthus predicted that the power of population a. was greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence. His forecast was on the mark. b. was greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence. His forecast was off the mark. c. was less than the power of the earth to produce subsistence. His forecast was on the mark. d. was less than the power of the earth to produce subsistence. His forecast was off the mark.
B
question
183. A rapid increase in the number of workers, other things the same, is likely in the short term to a. raise real GDP per person, but decrease real GDP. b. decrease both real GDP and real GDP per person. c. raise both real GDP and real GDP per person. d. raise real GDP, but decrease real GDP per person.
D
question
184. Which of the following is not correct? a. China allows only one child per family and couples that violate this rule are subject to substantial fines. b. In developed countries, population growth is 3 percent; in many developing countries it is 5 percent. c. Educational attainment tends to be lowest in countries with the highest population growth. d. Economists generally believe that a country that decreases a high population growth rate can increase its economic growth rate.
B
question
185. Which of the following countries achieved higher economic growth, in part by mandating a reduction in population growth? a. Great Britain b. China c. Australia d. France
B
question
186. Which of the following is an observation made by Kremer? a. World growth rates increased as the population increased. b. Technological progress allows for increasing population because of advances in agriculture. c. World population is growing so rapidly that soon it will outstrip natural resources and our standard of living will decline. d. All of the above are observations made by Kermer.
A
question
187. Which of the following is correct? a. If developing countries limit career and educational opportunities for women, birth rates are likely to be lower. b. Growth rates in developed and developing countries are nearly the same. c. Historically, in periods where the rate of population growth was high, so was the rate of growth in world real GDP per person. d. None of the above is correct.
C
question
188. Which of the following is true? a. Kremer argued that with greater population, society would generate more ideas so that growth of real GDP per person could continue. Malthus argued that increasing population would outstrip agricultural production. b. Kremer argued that increases in population would reduce the amount of human and physical capital per worker so that eventually the standard of living would decline. Malthus argued that increases in technology would allow increased output growth so that even with population growth, society would enjoy a higher standard of living. c. Malthus argued that with greater population, society would generate more ideas so that growth of real GDP per person could continue. Kremer argued that increasing population would outstrip agricultural production. d. Malthus argued that increases in population would reduce the amount of human and physical capital per worker so that eventually the standard of living would decline. Kremer argued that increases in technology would allow increased output growth so that even with population growth, society would enjoy a higher standard of living.
A
question
189. Over extended periods of time population growth a. has no effect on the standard of living. b. has uncertain effects on the standard of living. c. clearly raises the standard of living. d. clearly lowers the standard of living.
B
question
190. On the basis of theory and empirical evidence economists have concluded several things concerning growth. Which of the following is not one of these conclusions? a. A relatively simple way to increase growth rates permanently is to increase a country's saving rate. b. Growth is generally inhibited rather than promoted by policies like protective tariffs. c. Well-established property rights that are enforced by fair and efficient courts are important to economic growth. d. Countries with few domestic natural resources still have opportunities for economic growth.
A
question
191. All else equal, which of the following would tend to cause real GDP per person to rise? a. Changing policy from outward to inward oriented. b. Investment in human capital. c. In the short-term, effects of a rapid growth in the number of workers. d. All of the above are correct.
B
question
192. Which of the following statements is not correct? a. The catch-up effect is based on the assumption of diminishing returns to capital. b. Investment in poor countries by citizens of rich countries is one way poor countries can learn new technologies. c. Malthus argued that charity and government aid was an effective way to reduce poverty. d. Peace and justice are keys to growth.
C
question
193. Senator Noitall says that in order to help poor countries develop, the United States should: 1. Prevent U.S. corporations from investing in poor countries because they take profits that the poor countries should have; 2. Not import goods from poor countries that use child labor; 3. Work to promote political stability in poor countries; and 4. Reduce poor countries reliance on market forces in their economies. How many of these ideas are likely to help poor countries grow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
A
question
194. Senator Smith says that in order to help poor countries develop, the United States should: 1. Prevent U.S. corporations from investing in poor countries because they take profits that the poor countries should have; 2. reduce or eliminate subsidizes to U.S. producers when poor countries have a comparative advantage producing those goods the U.S. subsidizes; 3. Work to promote political stability in poor countries; and 4. Reduce poor countries reliance on market forces in their economies. How many of these ideas are likely to help poor countries grow? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
B
question
195. The president of a poor country has announced that he will implement the following measures which he claims are designed to increase growth: 1. Reduce corruption in the legal system; 2. Reduce reliance on market forces because they allocate goods and services in an unfair manner; 3. Restrict investment in domestic industries by foreigners because they take some of the profits out of the country; 4. Encourage trade with neighboring countries; and 5. Increase the fraction of GDP devoted to consumption. How many of these measures will have a positive effect on growth? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4
B
question
196. The Economic Development Minister of a country has a list of things she thinks may explain her country's low growth of real GDP per person relative to other countries. She asks you to pick the one you think most likely explains her country's low growth. Which of the following contributes to low growth? a. poorly enforced property rights. b. outward oriented trade policies. c. policies that permit foreign investment. d. All of the above are correct.
A
question
197. Some poor countries appear to be falling behind rather than catching up with rich countries. Which of the following could explain the failure of a poor county to catch up? a. The poor country has outward-oriented trade policies. b. The poor country allows foreign direct investment. c. The poor country has poorly developed property rights. d. All of the above are correct.
C
question
198. According to an in-house review, what percent of World Bank projects had been properly evaluated to see if they made a difference? a. 2% b. 10% c. 30% d. 70%
A
question
199. Which of the following World Bank poverty aid programs did the Poverty Action Lab find to have no beneficial effects? a. hiring high-school graduates to tutor groups of lagging students in Bombay slums b. adding an extra teacher to classrooms in rural India c. giving poor Kenyan students drugs to treat intestinal worms d. All of the above programs were shown to have no beneficial effects.
B
question
200. Economists differ in their views of the role of the government in promoting economic growth. According to the text, at the very least, the government should a. lend support to the invisible hand by maintaining property rights and political stability. b. limit foreign investment to industries that don't already exist in the country. c. impose trade restrictions to protect the interests of domestic producers and consumers. d. subsidize key industries.
A
question
1. Real GDP per-capita in rich countries, such as Germany, is sometimes more than 10 times that of poor countries like Pakistan.
T
question
2. Both the standard of living and the growth of real GDP per person vary widely across countries.
T
question
3. If they could increase their growth rates slightly, countries with low income would catch up with rich countries in about ten years.
F
question
4. In the United States real GDP per person is about \$37,500, while in some poor countries real GDP per person is less than \$3,500.
T
question
5. Although growth rates across countries vary some, rankings of country by income remain pretty much the same over time.
F
question
6. International data on the history of real GDP growth rates shows that over the last 100 years or so, rich countries got richer and poor countries got poorer.
F
question
7. Productivity can be found as number of hours worked divided by output.
F
question
8. Indonesians, for example, have a lower standard of living than Americans because they have a lower level of productivity.
T
question
9. As capital per worker rises, output per worker rises. However, the increase in output per worker from an addition to capital is smaller the larger the existing amount of capital per worker.
T
question
10. A forest is an example of a nonrenewable resource.
F
question
11. Historical trends in the prices of most natural resources compared to other goods indicate that natural resources became scarcer over time.
F
question
12. It is possible for a country without a lot of domestic natural resources to have a high standard of living.
T
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13. Constant returns to scale is the point on a production function where increasing inputs will no longer increase output.
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14. An increase in the saving rate does not permanently increase the growth rate of real GDP per person.
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15. Other things the same, another unit of capital will increase output by more in a poor country than in a rich country.
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16. Two countries with the same saving rates must have the same growth rate of real GDP per person.
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17. If your company opens and operates a branch in a foreign country, you will be engaging in foreign direct investment.
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18. Investment in human capital has opportunity costs, but investment in physical capital does not.
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19. Incentives for parents to send their children to school, such as small monthly payments to parents if their children have regular attendance, appear to increase school attendance.
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20. A country that made their courts less corrupt and their government more stable would likely see their standard of living rise.
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21. If a country made it easier for people to establish and prove the ownership of their property, real GDP per person would likely rise.
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22. Economists generally believe that inward-oriented policies are more likely to foster growth than outward oriented policies.
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23. If a rich country reduced subsidies to domestic producers who produce goods for which poor countries have a comparative advantage, the standard of living in these poor countries would likely rise.
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24. One reason that governments may find it useful to sponsor universities and basic research is that to a large extent knowledge is generally a private good.
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25. The population growth rate tends to be higher in developed countries than in developing countries.
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26. In countries where women are discriminated against, policies that increase their career and educational opportunities are likely to decrease the birth rate.
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27. Countries with high population growth rates tend to have lower levels of educational attainment.
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28. Michael Kramer found that world growth rates fell as population increased.
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1. Use the data on U.S. real GDP below to compute real GDP per person for each year. Then use these numbers to compute the percentage increase in real GDP per person from 1987 to 2005.
Real GDP per person in 1987 was \$6,435,000/243= about \$26,481 income per person in 2005 was \$11,092,000/296.6 = about \$37,397. Income per person grew by (37,397 - 26,481)/26,481 = about 41.2 percent.
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2. Why is productivity related to the standard of living? In your answer be sure to explain what productivity and standard of living mean. Make a list of things that determine labor productivity.
The standard of living is a measure of how well people live. Income per person is an important dimension of the standard of living and is positively correlated with other things such as nutrition and life expectancy that make people better off. Productivity measures how much people can produce in an hour. As productivity increases, people can produce more (and use less to produce the same amount) and so their standard of living increases. The factors that determine labor productivity include the amounts of physical capital (equipment and structures), human capital (knowledge and skills), and natural resources available to workers, as well as the state of technological knowledge in society.
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3. What is a production function? Write an equation for a typical production function, and explain what each of the terms represents.
A production function is a mathematical representation of the relationship between the quantity of inputs used in production and the quantity of output produced using these inputs. A typical production function could be written as Y = A F(L, K, H, N), where Y denotes the quantity of output, L the quantity of labor, K the quantity of physical capital, H the quantity of human capital, N the quantity of natural resources, and A is a variable that reflects the available production technology. PTS: 1
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4. What is the difference between human capital and technology?
Technology is society's understanding of production techniques. Human capital is the labor force's understanding of these ideas. A society may have lots of information available about how to produce goods, but still have lots of people who know little of this information. For example, in the United States there exists information about how best to use a butter churn and how to make lye soap, but most people know nothing about it. PTS: 1
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5. The catch-up effect says that countries with low income can grow faster than countries with higher income. However, in statistical studies that include many diverse countries we do not observe the catch-up-effect unless we control for other variables that affect productivity. Considering the determinants of productivity, list and explain some things that would tend to prohibit or limit a poor country's ability to catch up with the rich ones.
The argument that poor countries will tend to catch up with rich ones is based on the idea that another unit of capital will increase output more in a country that has little capital than one that has much capital. So, for a given share of GDP devoted to investment, a poor country will grow faster than a rich one. This argument assumes that other things are the same, but share of GDP invested may be lower in a poor country and the productivity of investment may be less. A politically unstable environment where property rights are unprotected or not secure tends to discourage investment. A country that has limited trade because of legal restrictions or geography cannot focus on producing what it produces best and so has lower productivity. To get the most out of investment, or even simply to use some types of new investment, requires having workers who have acquired some basic human capital.
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6. Some data that at first might seem puzzling: The share of GDP devoted to investment was similar for the United States and South Korea from 1960-1991. However, during these same years South Korea had a 6 percent growth rate of average annual income, while the United States had only a 2 percent growth rate. If the saving rates were the same, why were the growth rates so different?
The explanation is based on the concept of diminishing returns to capital. A country that has a lot of income, and so a lot of capital, gains less by adding more capital than does a country that currently has little capital. It is easy to envision how a poor country without much capital could increase its output considerably with even a little more capital.
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7. In addition to investment in physical and human capital, what other public policies might a country adopt to increase productivity?
In addition to investment in physical and human capital, a country might increase productivity by (a) specifying and enforcing property rights, (b) encouraging free trade, (c) controlling population growth, and (d) promoting research and development.
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8. Why does a nation's standard of living depend on property rights?
Property rights are an important prerequisite for the price system to work in a market economy. If an individual or company is not confident that claims over property or over the income from property can be protected, or that contracts can be enforced, there will be little incentive for individuals to save, invest, or start new businesses. Likewise, there will be little incentive for foreigners to invest in the real or financial assets of the country. The distortion of incentives will reduce efficiency in resource allocation and will reduce saving and investment which in turn will reduce the standard of living.
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9. How do outward-oriented policies affect a nation's productivity?
Most economists believe that poor nations are better off pursuing outward-oriented policies that promote free trade. Countries that use their comparative advantage in trade are, in effect, helping themselves through the gains from trade in the same way that nations that develop new technology raise their standard of living. Hence, a country that eliminates trade restrictions will experience the same kind of economic growth that would occur after a major technological advance. Inward-oriented trade policies are akin to a country choosing to restrict the use of superior technologies.
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10. At first patents might seem like a deterrent to growth because in effect they restrict the use of new technology. Yet many economists believe that patents generate growth. Explain why.