Ch 11: Gender

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affirmative action
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a method for opening opportunities to women and minorities that specifically redresses past discrimination by taking positive measures to recruit and hire previously disadvantaged groups
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biological determinism
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explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics
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discrimination
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overt negative and unequal treatment of the members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in that group or stratum
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dual labor market
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the division of the labor market into two segments: the primary and secondary labor markets
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Equal Rights Amendment
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a constitutional principle, never passed, guaranteeing that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged on the basis of sex
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feminism
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a way of thinking and acting that advocates a more just society for women
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feminist theory
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analyses of women and men in society intended to improve women’s lives
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gender
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socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex
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gender apartheid
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the extreme segregation and exclusion of women from public life
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gender identity
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one’s definition of self as a woman or man
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gender segregation
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the distribution of men and women in different jobs in the labor force
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gender socialization
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the process by which men and women learn the expectations associated with their sex
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gender stratification
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the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender
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gendered institutions
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the total pattern of gender relations that structure social institutions, including the stereotypical expectations, interpersonal relationships, and the different placement of men and women that are found in institutions
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hermaphroditism
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a condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produces persons with biologically mixed sex characteristics
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homophobia
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the fear and hatred of homosexuality
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human capital theory
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a theory that explains differences in wages as the result of differences in the individual characteristics of the workers
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intersexed person
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a person born with the physical characteristics of both sexes
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labor force participation rate
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the percentage of those in a given category who are employed
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liberal feminism
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a feminist theoretical perspective asserting that the origin of women’s inequality is in traditions of the past that pose barriers to women’s advancement
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matriarchy
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a society or group in which women have power over men
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multiracial feminism
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form of feminist theory noting the exclusion of women of color from other forms of theory and centering its analysis in the experiences of all women
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occupational segregation
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a pattern in which different groups of workers are separated into different occupations
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patriarchy
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a society or group where men have power over women
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radical feminism
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a feminist theoretical perspective that interprets the origins of women’s oppression as lying in the system of capitalism
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Title IX
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legislation that prohibits schools that receive federal funds from discriminating based on gender
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transgendered
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those who deviate from the binary (that is, male or female) system of gender

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