ch 1 unit test – Flashcards

question
major impact of the Columbian exchange on western Europe was the introduction of
answer
new food crops that improved the European diet
question
After the Spanish arrived, Native American populations were most greatly reduced by
answer
disease
question
All of the following are sources of wealth that European governments were looking for in the Americas in the 1600'2 and early 1700's, EXCEPT:
answer
technology (correct=fur, gold, trade)
question
All of the following were effects of the Columbian exchange, EXCEPT:
answer
Trade increased between the Americas and Asia
question
How did European settlers in North America legally justify seizing lands from native North American peoples?
answer
Because the Indians were not Christian, they had no right to the land
question
In the New World, the Columbian Exchange generally resulted in ...
answer
the introduction of infectious diseases. the introduction of domesticated animals such as cattle and horses. the introduction of food crops such as wheat.
question
Native Americans were more vulnerable to smallpox and measles than were Europeans because Europeans
answer
had developed resistance to the diseases
question
"(It) brought the potato, the pineapple, the turkey, dahlias, sunflowers, magnolias, maize, chilies and chocolate across the Atlantic. On the other hand, tens of millions died in the pandemics of the 16th century, victims of smallpox, measles and the other diseases brought by Europeans (and don't forget that the African slave trade was begun by the Europeans, to replace the work force they had decimated)" Which historical development is being described in this quotation?
answer
The Columbian Exchange
question
Review this list and then answer the question: • Maize and potatoes were grown in Europe. • Millions of Africans suffered during the Middle Passage. • Smallpox had devastating effects on indigenous peoples. • Spanish language is used in much of Latin America. Which global interaction is illustrated by these statements?
answer
Columbian Exchange
question
Smallpox, influenza, and measles spread rapidly in the Americas because of ...
answer
lack of previous exposure that would build natural immunity.
question
The "Columbian Exchange" refers to ...
answer
the changes produced by the trade of peoples, plants, animals, microbe, and ideas between the Old and New Worlds.
question
The first permanent English settlement was at:
answer
Jamestown
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The main goals of Christopher Columbus journey that landed in the Americas were to find gold, spread Christianity, and claim lands for which country?
answer
Spain
question
What was a major effect of the Columbian exchange?
answer
Potatoes entered the European diet.
question
Which event did NOT happen with the growth of Jamestown and tobacco farming?
answer
discovery of quick wealth
question
What was one effect of the Columbian exchange?
answer
introduction of new foods to both Europe and the Americas
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Which statement describes an impact of the Columbian exchange on the lives of Europeans?
answer
The combination of new products and ideas promoted economic growth.
question
Which of the following items came from North America?
answer
Chocolate
question
Which of the following was not native to the Americas?
answer
pig
question
Which of the following was not native to Europe?
answer
corn
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True or False: Vikings successfully crossed the Atlantic Ocean and visited the Western Hemisphere about 500 years before Columbus.
answer
true
question
The Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of plants and animals between East and West
answer
true
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The first European nation to establish colonies in the Americas was Portugal
answer
false
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In which area did good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil, and a short growing season most influence the colonial economy?
answer
New England colonies
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In which area did good land, food cash crops and farms with large families most influence the colonial economy?
answer
Middle Atlantic region
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In which area did good land, non-food cash crops and farm labor was provided by indentured servants and slaves most influence the colonial economy?
answer
Southern colonies
question
Subsistence farming can best be defined as ...
answer
producing just enough food for a family's survival.
question
This was the key to Jamestown's financial success:
answer
Tobacco
question
What was the Enlightenment?
answer
A period of time using reasoning and scientific discovery & experimentation,
question
What was The Great Awakening?
answer
A period of time when people started to actively practice religious beliefs.
question
What was the significance of William Penn's colony (Pennsylvania)?
answer
was the most tolerant colony
question
What were the original settlers of Jamestown looking for?
answer
gold
question
Which event did NOT happen with the growth of Jamestown and tobacco farming?
answer
discovery of quick wealth
question
Why did the Pilgrims come to America?
answer
For religious freedom
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Why did the Puritans settle in Massachusetts?
answer
escape from persecution
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All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except
answer
a. Africans were believed to be well suited to working in hot climates. b. slaves provided labor for their entire lifetimes. ****c. enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase.**** d. most white colonists thought black people were inferior.
question
As more and more settlers arrived in Jamestown, relations between the settlers and the Powhatan peoples
answer
worsened.
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Enlightenment thinkers stressed all of the following EXCEPT
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a. the use of reason. b. the scientific method. c. the importance of the individual. ****d. the unpredictability of nature.****
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In the early years of the Virginia colony, a field laborer was most likely to be
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an indentured servant or a former indentured servant.
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Jamestown's most serious problems during its first year were caused by
answer
the settlers attitudes and impracticality
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The colony that was founded on principles of social equality and religious tolerance was
answer
Pennsylvania
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The first English colonies in North America were set up in the hope of achieving
answer
financial gain for investors.
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The Puritans views and attitudes led them to promote the idea of
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hard work for common goals.
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To John Smith's dismay, the settlers in Jamestown directed most of their energy toward
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searching for gold and other riches
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The most important export from the Virginia Colony was cotton.
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false
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Not only goods, but people, were exchanged in the
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triangular trade
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The Middle Passage refers to:
answer
The leg of the triangular trade where slaves were brought to the Americas.
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All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except
answer
enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase.
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The "middle passage" refers to the part of the transatlantic trade network that carried
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Africans from Africa to the West Indies and North America
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What was the main reason that there were more enslaved persons in the South than in the North during the 1700s?
answer
The Southern economy depended on a larger number of field laborers.
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Which of the following directly contributed to the increase in African slaves brought to the colonies?
answer
a lack of indentured servants
question
The main cargo sent to North America via the middle passage was
answer
African slaves
question
According the Mercantilism economic system, which is NOT a source of wealth use to determine (or measure) the power of a country?
answer
a. favorable trade balance b. gold ****c. land**** d. silver
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In its economic relationship with its North American colonies, Great Britain followed the principles of 18th-century mercantilism by ...
answer
limiting the colonies' trade with other nations.
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Mercantilism, an economic system in which the colonies played an important role for Great Britain, involves all of the following EXCEPT...
answer
****a. being able to buy more products than it sells to other nations.**** b. establishing a favorable balance of trade. c. seeking wealth through obtaining large amounts of gold and silver. d. selling more goods than it buys from other nations.
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The British benefited from their mercantilist relationship with the American colonies primarily by ...
answer
buying raw materials from the colonies and selling them finished products.
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The British system of mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it ...
answer
placed restrictions on trading.
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What were the results of the Navigation Acts?
answer
England got tighter control of the colonies and the colonies made money with shipbuilding.
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According to the theory of mercantilism, a country has a favorable balance of trade when
answer
the value of exports is greater than the value of imports.
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The purpose of the Navigation Acts (1651) was to
answer
restrict colonial trade
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Under the policy of mercantilism, England relaxed its enforcement of trade regulations in the colonies in return for their continued economic loyalty.
answer
false
question
Which is the best description of the political development of colonial America in the mid-eighteenth century?
answer
The chief executive or governor dominated colonial government.
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True or False: Patriots and Loyalists supported some amount of individual choice for the colonies?
answer
true
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Based on the Patriot v Loyalist Town Meeting and discussion, you can give three very different reasons why the Revolutionary War happened
answer
...
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Patriots and Loyalists usually agreed on all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
answer
The visible presence of the military was vital to the success of the colonies.
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Which is an issue that the Loyalists would support?
answer
increasing Parliament's control of resources
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Which is a reason that divided Patriots and Loyalists about taxing the colonies?
answer
Colonial taxes should be used to pay off English government debt.
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What were the colonists and Great Britain in sharp disagreement over by 1764?
answer
how the colonies should be taxed and governed
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Representation in Parliament was the desire of ...
answer
patriots
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True of False: When the American Revolution was fought many loyalists did not go back to England.
answer
true
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Most colonists felt that British tax laws were unfair because ...
answer
the colonists had no representation of their own in Parliament.
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Loyalists supported colonial trade policies, as embodied in the Navigation Acts, based on the theory of ...
answer
mercantilism: insuring self-sufficiency by monopolizing trade.
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What issue would be most important to a Patriot?
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helping Parliament decide laws for the colonies
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True or False: The Patriots believed that mercantilism was necessary for the colonies.
answer
false
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What formal document explained the reasons why the American colonies wanted to separate from Britain?
answer
The Declaration of Independence
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Which is NOT an intent of the Declaration of Independence?
answer
***a. A letter to Canada to get them to leave England.*** b. A letter to other countries to gain their support c. Notification to England that the colonies are independent d. To rally the colonists to fight for independence
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Most of the Declaration of Independence consists of ...
answer
details about problems with England.
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why was federalism and a system of checks and balances used in the U.S. Constitution?
answer
Its writers feared a concentration of political power.
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One way in which the United States Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation was that the Constitution ...
answer
created a national government having three branches.
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What type of government did the Articles of Confederation establish?
answer
Congress
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(T/F) The Constitution laid out fundamental principles such as All Men are Created Equal and that people have a right to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness."
answer
false
question
According to the U.S. Constitution, which branch of the federal government is responsible for enforcing laws?
answer
Executive Branch
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Which was NOT a constitution of the United States?
answer
Declaration of Independence (United States Constitution and Articles of Confederation were)
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The Declaration of Independence has had a major influence on peoples throughout the world because it ...
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provides justification for revolting against unjust governments
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The Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention involved the issue of ...
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representation of large and small states in Congress
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The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution were primarily designed to protect what?
answer
Individual rights
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The Declaration of Independence was signed on which date?
answer
July 4, 1776
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Which of the following amendments to the Constitution was NOT part of the Bill of Rights?
answer
direct election of senators
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According to the U.S. Constitution, which branch of the federal government is responsible for making laws?
answer
legislative
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Which group would most likely approve of the Articles of Confederation?
answer
those who feared strong central government.
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What is the Bill of Rights?
answer
The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution.
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Ratification of the Constitution would not have happened without the promise of the addition of ...
answer
a Bill of Rights
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The Articles of Confederation failed because ...
answer
the national government was too weak.
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There was opposition to the ratification of the Constitution because
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The document lacked guaranteed rights for the citizens.
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Under the Articles of Confederation, the power to collect taxes was given to ...
answer
the state governments.
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A major argument for American independence found in the Declaration of Independence was that the British ...
answer
deprived Americans of their natural rights.
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What was the Articles of Confederation?
answer
First constitution of the United States
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According to the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to alter or abolish a government if that government ...
answer
violates natural rights
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Separation of powers means...
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dividing the power of government within a single level of government.
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Popular sovereignty is the belief that ...
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the power is in the hands of the governed.
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Dividing the power of government between different levels of government, such as state government and federal government, is known as...
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Federalism
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What is the most correct statement about Popular Sovereignty?
answer
People decide an issue by voting.
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Dividing the power of a level of government, such as the federal government, is known as...
answer
Separation of power
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Ideas about how to define America's new republic included all these EXCEPT
answer
a. elected leadership b. federalism ****c. self-interest**** d. separation of powers
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Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of ...
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deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state.
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The three branches of government established by the current constitution include:
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Executive, Legislative, Judicial
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How does the Constitution of the United States of America prevent abuse of power by the three branches of government?
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separation of powers
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The doctrine of separation of powers calls for which of the following?
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Separation of the functions of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
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Popular Sovereignty is defined as:
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citizens (residents) vote to decide an issue.
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The establishment of a federal system means that ...
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the powers of government are divided between the national government and state governments.
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What is the most correct statement about Manifest Destiny?
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The obvious and ordained right to expand to the Pacific Ocean.
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Manifest Destiny was used to justify an American desire to ...
answer
expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean.
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Which action most justified taking over land from Mexicans and Native Americans?
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manifest destiny
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All of the land acquisitions listed below can be attributed to Manifest Destiny, EXCEPT:
answer
Florida acquisition
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The United States expanded westward to the Pacific Ocean by acquiring land using all of these methods EXCEPT:
answer
stealing
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Before the Civil War, women are most known for their active roles in all these movements EXCEPT:
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a. abolition ****b. campaigning for election**** c. health and education d. temperance
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True or False: Women were trying to get the right to vote as early as the 1840s.
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true
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Women's reform efforts in health and inhuman condition issues started with their involvement in trying to improve conditions ...
answer
in prison systems.
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What was the direct result of the Confederate States seceding from the United States?
answer
beginning of civil war
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Which of the following is considered to be a long term cause of the Civil War?
answer
The North and South had different economic philosophies that clashed with the other.
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What was John Brown's aim at Harpers Ferry?
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to seize a federal arsenal and start a widespread slave uprising
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The ruling of the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford demonstrate that the Supreme Court ...
answer
failed to protect the rights of minorities.
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As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to ...
answer
preserve the Union.
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At the outset, President Lincoln held that the Civil War was being fought to ...
answer
preserve the union
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What is the name given to those who opposed slavery?
answer
abolitionists
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The controversy over Federal Government Power versus States' Rights was a basic cause of the ...
answer
Civil War
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What did the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court do?
answer
allowed slavery to continue and allowed slaves to be considered property
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In the years after the Civil War, most freedmen ended up working as ...
answer
farmers under a sharecropper system.
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A major result of the Civil War was that the ...
answer
federal government's power over the states was strengthened.
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General Lee's surrender to General Grant took place at ...
answer
Appomattox Court House.
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The North's rapid economic growth during the Civil War was stimulated by ...
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increased government demand for many products.
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During the Civil War, southern women played an especially important part as ...
answer
managers of farms and plantations.
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The economic impact of the Civil war on the South included all of the following, EXCEPT:
answer
****a. The South appreciated the help of Northerners to rebuild the South following the war.**** b. The South was left embittered and devastated by the war. c. The South's factories, farms, railroads, and major cities were destroyed and lay in ruins. d. The south remained a backwards agriculture-based economy and the poorest section of the nation for many decades.
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The Battle of _________ was a turning point in the war because it made the South give up the idea of invading the North.
answer
Gettysburg
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ROANOKE ISLAND
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The Lost Colony • 1587 (1590 return) • Founded for economic reasons by the English • 1st permanent English settlement attempt • Disappeared
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JAMESTOWN - 1607
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positive: help from natives, beginning of trade. Negative: poor location (swamp), disease
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Pilgrims: Mayflower
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•1620 •Pilgrims (107) want to practice their religion •Colony struggled but survived with help from natives
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Massachusetts Bay Colony
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• 1628 (1624 attempt failed) • Settled by Puritans • Separatists from the Church of England to avoid persecution • Did they support religious toleration? - No
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Pennsylvania
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• 1681 • Founded by William Penn • Settled by Quakers in search of religious freedom • Most tolerant colony of the time - fair treatment of all - land ownership - non-violence
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Northern Colonies Economy
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Trade, good harbors, on trade routes Individual manufacturing: Water powered mills (textiles), Iron works, Rum making Based on the sea: Fishing, Ship building Agriculture: Subsistence (for own use) agriculture, Poor soil, long winters
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Middle Colonies Economy
answer
iron works, rum making, small/ med. farms (w/ indentured servants), cash crops: grains, fuit/ veggie, cows, pigs, chicken
question
Southern colonies economy
answer
Rope, tar, turpentine, tobacco, indigo, rice, plantation system: slaves/ ind. servants, small farms too
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colonial government
answer
governor, governor's advisory council, legislature, town meeting
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revolutionary war (length)
answer
1775-1781
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Louisiana Purchase (1803)
answer
Thomas Jefferson authorized purchase of territory from Napoleon Bonaparte of France for $15 million More than doubled the size of the United States Led to Lewis and Clark expedition to explore new territory
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war of 1812
answer
President: James Madison (Madison's War) Causes: - British impressment (taking sailors off U.S. ships to work on British ships) - British supplying Native Americans with arms Key Events: - British burned the Capitol in Washington D.C. - Frances Scott Key wrote Star Spangled Banner - Impressive victory at Battle of New Orleans
question
missouri compromise
answer
1820 The issue is balance of power in the U.S. Government - Non-slave states vs. slave states Devised by Henry Clay Maine = Free Missouri = Slave Rest of Louisiana Territory split into two parts North of 36 degrees is free South of 36 degrees is slave
question
indian removal act
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1830: Congress (with support of President Andrew Jackson) passed Indian Removal Act Force Native Americans to move west Many tribes signed removal treaties Worcester vs. Georgia (1832): state of GA couldn't regulate the Cherokee Nation by law or invade Cherokee lands President Jackson refused to abide this court ruling
question
trail of tears
answer
Following court's ruling, U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them into camps and then journey west Fall of 1838, Cherokee were sent off in groups of 1,000 each Journey = 800 miles, mostly on foot Cherokee buried more than a quarter of their people along the Trail of Tears
question
texas independence
answer
(texans are own people: not part of mexico) americans reside there, annexed in 1845 by US
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Mexican American war
answer
1846-48
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Civil War long term causes
answer
- Job Competition (for immigrants) - different types of economy (industrial/capital North v. slave labor/agricultural South) - Opposed to use of slave labor - Uncle Tom's Cabin - Fugitive Slave Act/Personal Liberty Laws - KS-NE Act (Bleeding Kansas) - Dred Scott Decision
question
fugutive slave act
answer
- Fugitives not entitled to trial by jury - $10 reward for returning alleged fugitive - $5 reward if person that freed them, returned them - $1,000 fine/imprisonment for helping fugitive
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personal liberty law
answer
- Passed in North in response to Fugitive Slave Act - Forbid imprisonment of runaway slaves - Fugitive slaves would have jury trials
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Harriet Beecher Stowe
answer
- Published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 - Exposed the cruelty of slavery - 3,000 copies sold the 1st day - More than a million copies sold by 1853
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Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854
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- Proposed by Stephen Douglas - Break Nebraska into two states - Repealed the Missouri Compromise because it would allow slavery in the North - Allowed popular sovereignty to determine slavery
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Sack of Lawrence
answer
- North and South poured into Kansas - Anti-slavery settlers founded Lawrence - 800 pro slavery men burned down headquarters in Lawrence (destroyed 2 newspaper printing presses and looted houses and stores)
question
john brown
answer
- Anti-slavery fanatic ("God called" on him to fight slavery) - Heard about Lawrence and wanted revenge - Mistakenly heard that 5 people killed in Lawrence - He found 5 proslavery settlers - chopped off their hands and stabbed them - "Pottawatomic Massacre"
question
bleeding kansas
answer
- John Brown's massacre started fury in Kansas - 200 people killed - Territory became bloody and paranoid
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dred scott
answer
- Slave from MO, moved to IL, WI and then back to MO - when owner dies, sued because he should be free since lived in free states - MO Supreme Court ruled in favor of Scott's new owner - Appealed to U.S. Supreme Court - slaves are not free if moved to a free state - approved extension of slavery into territories
question
Harpers ferry
answer
October 16, 1859 - John Brown led 18 men to start an uprising and free slaves - Captured federal armory (weapons & ammunition) - Local troops killed 8 of Brown's men - Robert Lee (w/ U.S. marines) stormed Brown's barricade. - Lee killed 2 more of Brown's men and captured Brown - December 1859, Brown was hung for treason
question
triggering events
answer
Lincoln is elected President in 1860 In February of 1861, The Confederate States of America is formed Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederate States of America Confederacy fires on South Carolina Union fort at Fort Sumter in April, 1861
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July 21, 1861 - Bull Run (Virginia)
answer
- First battle - Union expected easy victory - Confederate victory
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September 1862 - Antietam (Maryland)
answer
- Union troops under McClellan found Lee's army orders wrapped around cigars - Bloodiest single day battle in American history - Casualties: 23,000 - Battle was a draw (no clear winner)
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Emancipation Proclamation
answer
- January, 1863 - Freed slaves under Confederate Rule (outside Union control) - Aimed at the states in rebellion
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Gettysburg (Pennsylvania)
answer
- 3 day battle - 1st 2 days, the Confederates were in the lead - It ended in a Union victory - Union lost 23,000 and Confederates lost 28,000 - Turning point of war
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Clara Barton - Union nurse
answer
- At start of the Civil War - worked as a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office - "Angel of the battlefield" for her efforts to bring medical care to Civil War battlefields - She helped decrease the death rate - Founded the American Red Cross - 1881
question
lincoln assassination
answer
April 14, 1865 (Five days after surrender)
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question
major impact of the Columbian exchange on western Europe was the introduction of
answer
new food crops that improved the European diet
question
After the Spanish arrived, Native American populations were most greatly reduced by
answer
disease
question
All of the following are sources of wealth that European governments were looking for in the Americas in the 1600'2 and early 1700's, EXCEPT:
answer
technology (correct=fur, gold, trade)
question
All of the following were effects of the Columbian exchange, EXCEPT:
answer
Trade increased between the Americas and Asia
question
How did European settlers in North America legally justify seizing lands from native North American peoples?
answer
Because the Indians were not Christian, they had no right to the land
question
In the New World, the Columbian Exchange generally resulted in ...
answer
the introduction of infectious diseases. the introduction of domesticated animals such as cattle and horses. the introduction of food crops such as wheat.
question
Native Americans were more vulnerable to smallpox and measles than were Europeans because Europeans
answer
had developed resistance to the diseases
question
"(It) brought the potato, the pineapple, the turkey, dahlias, sunflowers, magnolias, maize, chilies and chocolate across the Atlantic. On the other hand, tens of millions died in the pandemics of the 16th century, victims of smallpox, measles and the other diseases brought by Europeans (and don't forget that the African slave trade was begun by the Europeans, to replace the work force they had decimated)" Which historical development is being described in this quotation?
answer
The Columbian Exchange
question
Review this list and then answer the question: • Maize and potatoes were grown in Europe. • Millions of Africans suffered during the Middle Passage. • Smallpox had devastating effects on indigenous peoples. • Spanish language is used in much of Latin America. Which global interaction is illustrated by these statements?
answer
Columbian Exchange
question
Smallpox, influenza, and measles spread rapidly in the Americas because of ...
answer
lack of previous exposure that would build natural immunity.
question
The "Columbian Exchange" refers to ...
answer
the changes produced by the trade of peoples, plants, animals, microbe, and ideas between the Old and New Worlds.
question
The first permanent English settlement was at:
answer
Jamestown
question
The main goals of Christopher Columbus journey that landed in the Americas were to find gold, spread Christianity, and claim lands for which country?
answer
Spain
question
What was a major effect of the Columbian exchange?
answer
Potatoes entered the European diet.
question
Which event did NOT happen with the growth of Jamestown and tobacco farming?
answer
discovery of quick wealth
question
What was one effect of the Columbian exchange?
answer
introduction of new foods to both Europe and the Americas
question
Which statement describes an impact of the Columbian exchange on the lives of Europeans?
answer
The combination of new products and ideas promoted economic growth.
question
Which of the following items came from North America?
answer
Chocolate
question
Which of the following was not native to the Americas?
answer
pig
question
Which of the following was not native to Europe?
answer
corn
question
True or False: Vikings successfully crossed the Atlantic Ocean and visited the Western Hemisphere about 500 years before Columbus.
answer
true
question
The Columbian Exchange refers to the transfer of plants and animals between East and West
answer
true
question
The first European nation to establish colonies in the Americas was Portugal
answer
false
question
In which area did good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil, and a short growing season most influence the colonial economy?
answer
New England colonies
question
In which area did good land, food cash crops and farms with large families most influence the colonial economy?
answer
Middle Atlantic region
question
In which area did good land, non-food cash crops and farm labor was provided by indentured servants and slaves most influence the colonial economy?
answer
Southern colonies
question
Subsistence farming can best be defined as ...
answer
producing just enough food for a family's survival.
question
This was the key to Jamestown's financial success:
answer
Tobacco
question
What was the Enlightenment?
answer
A period of time using reasoning and scientific discovery & experimentation,
question
What was The Great Awakening?
answer
A period of time when people started to actively practice religious beliefs.
question
What was the significance of William Penn's colony (Pennsylvania)?
answer
was the most tolerant colony
question
What were the original settlers of Jamestown looking for?
answer
gold
question
Which event did NOT happen with the growth of Jamestown and tobacco farming?
answer
discovery of quick wealth
question
Why did the Pilgrims come to America?
answer
For religious freedom
question
Why did the Puritans settle in Massachusetts?
answer
escape from persecution
question
All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except
answer
a. Africans were believed to be well suited to working in hot climates. b. slaves provided labor for their entire lifetimes. ****c. enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase.**** d. most white colonists thought black people were inferior.
question
As more and more settlers arrived in Jamestown, relations between the settlers and the Powhatan peoples
answer
worsened.
question
Enlightenment thinkers stressed all of the following EXCEPT
answer
a. the use of reason. b. the scientific method. c. the importance of the individual. ****d. the unpredictability of nature.****
question
In the early years of the Virginia colony, a field laborer was most likely to be
answer
an indentured servant or a former indentured servant.
question
Jamestown's most serious problems during its first year were caused by
answer
the settlers attitudes and impracticality
question
The colony that was founded on principles of social equality and religious tolerance was
answer
Pennsylvania
question
The first English colonies in North America were set up in the hope of achieving
answer
financial gain for investors.
question
The Puritans views and attitudes led them to promote the idea of
answer
hard work for common goals.
question
To John Smith's dismay, the settlers in Jamestown directed most of their energy toward
answer
searching for gold and other riches
question
The most important export from the Virginia Colony was cotton.
answer
false
question
Not only goods, but people, were exchanged in the
answer
triangular trade
question
The Middle Passage refers to:
answer
The leg of the triangular trade where slaves were brought to the Americas.
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All of the following were reasons why Southern planters chose to use enslaved Africans on their plantations except
answer
enslaved Africans were very inexpensive to purchase.
question
The "middle passage" refers to the part of the transatlantic trade network that carried
answer
Africans from Africa to the West Indies and North America
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What was the main reason that there were more enslaved persons in the South than in the North during the 1700s?
answer
The Southern economy depended on a larger number of field laborers.
question
Which of the following directly contributed to the increase in African slaves brought to the colonies?
answer
a lack of indentured servants
question
The main cargo sent to North America via the middle passage was
answer
African slaves
question
According the Mercantilism economic system, which is NOT a source of wealth use to determine (or measure) the power of a country?
answer
a. favorable trade balance b. gold ****c. land**** d. silver
question
In its economic relationship with its North American colonies, Great Britain followed the principles of 18th-century mercantilism by ...
answer
limiting the colonies' trade with other nations.
question
Mercantilism, an economic system in which the colonies played an important role for Great Britain, involves all of the following EXCEPT...
answer
****a. being able to buy more products than it sells to other nations.**** b. establishing a favorable balance of trade. c. seeking wealth through obtaining large amounts of gold and silver. d. selling more goods than it buys from other nations.
question
The British benefited from their mercantilist relationship with the American colonies primarily by ...
answer
buying raw materials from the colonies and selling them finished products.
question
The British system of mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it ...
answer
placed restrictions on trading.
question
What were the results of the Navigation Acts?
answer
England got tighter control of the colonies and the colonies made money with shipbuilding.
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According to the theory of mercantilism, a country has a favorable balance of trade when
answer
the value of exports is greater than the value of imports.
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The purpose of the Navigation Acts (1651) was to
answer
restrict colonial trade
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Under the policy of mercantilism, England relaxed its enforcement of trade regulations in the colonies in return for their continued economic loyalty.
answer
false
question
Which is the best description of the political development of colonial America in the mid-eighteenth century?
answer
The chief executive or governor dominated colonial government.
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True or False: Patriots and Loyalists supported some amount of individual choice for the colonies?
answer
true
question
Based on the Patriot v Loyalist Town Meeting and discussion, you can give three very different reasons why the Revolutionary War happened
answer
...
question
Patriots and Loyalists usually agreed on all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
answer
The visible presence of the military was vital to the success of the colonies.
question
Which is an issue that the Loyalists would support?
answer
increasing Parliament's control of resources
question
Which is a reason that divided Patriots and Loyalists about taxing the colonies?
answer
Colonial taxes should be used to pay off English government debt.
question
What were the colonists and Great Britain in sharp disagreement over by 1764?
answer
how the colonies should be taxed and governed
question
Representation in Parliament was the desire of ...
answer
patriots
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True of False: When the American Revolution was fought many loyalists did not go back to England.
answer
true
question
Most colonists felt that British tax laws were unfair because ...
answer
the colonists had no representation of their own in Parliament.
question
Loyalists supported colonial trade policies, as embodied in the Navigation Acts, based on the theory of ...
answer
mercantilism: insuring self-sufficiency by monopolizing trade.
question
What issue would be most important to a Patriot?
answer
helping Parliament decide laws for the colonies
question
True or False: The Patriots believed that mercantilism was necessary for the colonies.
answer
false
question
What formal document explained the reasons why the American colonies wanted to separate from Britain?
answer
The Declaration of Independence
question
Which is NOT an intent of the Declaration of Independence?
answer
***a. A letter to Canada to get them to leave England.*** b. A letter to other countries to gain their support c. Notification to England that the colonies are independent d. To rally the colonists to fight for independence
question
Most of the Declaration of Independence consists of ...
answer
details about problems with England.
question
why was federalism and a system of checks and balances used in the U.S. Constitution?
answer
Its writers feared a concentration of political power.
question
One way in which the United States Constitution differed from the Articles of Confederation was that the Constitution ...
answer
created a national government having three branches.
question
What type of government did the Articles of Confederation establish?
answer
Congress
question
(T/F) The Constitution laid out fundamental principles such as All Men are Created Equal and that people have a right to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness."
answer
false
question
According to the U.S. Constitution, which branch of the federal government is responsible for enforcing laws?
answer
Executive Branch
question
Which was NOT a constitution of the United States?
answer
Declaration of Independence (United States Constitution and Articles of Confederation were)
question
The Declaration of Independence has had a major influence on peoples throughout the world because it ...
answer
provides justification for revolting against unjust governments
question
The Great Compromise of the Constitutional Convention involved the issue of ...
answer
representation of large and small states in Congress
question
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution were primarily designed to protect what?
answer
Individual rights
question
The Declaration of Independence was signed on which date?
answer
July 4, 1776
question
Which of the following amendments to the Constitution was NOT part of the Bill of Rights?
answer
direct election of senators
question
According to the U.S. Constitution, which branch of the federal government is responsible for making laws?
answer
legislative
question
Which group would most likely approve of the Articles of Confederation?
answer
those who feared strong central government.
question
What is the Bill of Rights?
answer
The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution.
question
Ratification of the Constitution would not have happened without the promise of the addition of ...
answer
a Bill of Rights
question
The Articles of Confederation failed because ...
answer
the national government was too weak.
question
There was opposition to the ratification of the Constitution because
answer
The document lacked guaranteed rights for the citizens.
question
Under the Articles of Confederation, the power to collect taxes was given to ...
answer
the state governments.
question
A major argument for American independence found in the Declaration of Independence was that the British ...
answer
deprived Americans of their natural rights.
question
What was the Articles of Confederation?
answer
First constitution of the United States
question
According to the Declaration of Independence, the people have the right to alter or abolish a government if that government ...
answer
violates natural rights
question
Separation of powers means...
answer
dividing the power of government within a single level of government.
question
Popular sovereignty is the belief that ...
answer
the power is in the hands of the governed.
question
Dividing the power of government between different levels of government, such as state government and federal government, is known as...
answer
Federalism
question
What is the most correct statement about Popular Sovereignty?
answer
People decide an issue by voting.
question
Dividing the power of a level of government, such as the federal government, is known as...
answer
Separation of power
question
Ideas about how to define America's new republic included all these EXCEPT
answer
a. elected leadership b. federalism ****c. self-interest**** d. separation of powers
question
Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of ...
answer
deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state.
question
The three branches of government established by the current constitution include:
answer
Executive, Legislative, Judicial
question
How does the Constitution of the United States of America prevent abuse of power by the three branches of government?
answer
separation of powers
question
The doctrine of separation of powers calls for which of the following?
answer
Separation of the functions of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
question
Popular Sovereignty is defined as:
answer
citizens (residents) vote to decide an issue.
question
The establishment of a federal system means that ...
answer
the powers of government are divided between the national government and state governments.
question
What is the most correct statement about Manifest Destiny?
answer
The obvious and ordained right to expand to the Pacific Ocean.
question
Manifest Destiny was used to justify an American desire to ...
answer
expand the United States to the Pacific Ocean.
question
Which action most justified taking over land from Mexicans and Native Americans?
answer
manifest destiny
question
All of the land acquisitions listed below can be attributed to Manifest Destiny, EXCEPT:
answer
Florida acquisition
question
The United States expanded westward to the Pacific Ocean by acquiring land using all of these methods EXCEPT:
answer
stealing
question
Before the Civil War, women are most known for their active roles in all these movements EXCEPT:
answer
a. abolition ****b. campaigning for election**** c. health and education d. temperance
question
True or False: Women were trying to get the right to vote as early as the 1840s.
answer
true
question
Women's reform efforts in health and inhuman condition issues started with their involvement in trying to improve conditions ...
answer
in prison systems.
question
What was the direct result of the Confederate States seceding from the United States?
answer
beginning of civil war
question
Which of the following is considered to be a long term cause of the Civil War?
answer
The North and South had different economic philosophies that clashed with the other.
question
What was John Brown's aim at Harpers Ferry?
answer
to seize a federal arsenal and start a widespread slave uprising
question
The ruling of the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford demonstrate that the Supreme Court ...
answer
failed to protect the rights of minorities.
question
As the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln stated that his primary goal was to ...
answer
preserve the Union.
question
At the outset, President Lincoln held that the Civil War was being fought to ...
answer
preserve the union
question
What is the name given to those who opposed slavery?
answer
abolitionists
question
The controversy over Federal Government Power versus States' Rights was a basic cause of the ...
answer
Civil War
question
What did the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court do?
answer
allowed slavery to continue and allowed slaves to be considered property
question
In the years after the Civil War, most freedmen ended up working as ...
answer
farmers under a sharecropper system.
question
A major result of the Civil War was that the ...
answer
federal government's power over the states was strengthened.
question
General Lee's surrender to General Grant took place at ...
answer
Appomattox Court House.
question
The North's rapid economic growth during the Civil War was stimulated by ...
answer
increased government demand for many products.
question
During the Civil War, southern women played an especially important part as ...
answer
managers of farms and plantations.
question
The economic impact of the Civil war on the South included all of the following, EXCEPT:
answer
****a. The South appreciated the help of Northerners to rebuild the South following the war.**** b. The South was left embittered and devastated by the war. c. The South's factories, farms, railroads, and major cities were destroyed and lay in ruins. d. The south remained a backwards agriculture-based economy and the poorest section of the nation for many decades.
question
The Battle of _________ was a turning point in the war because it made the South give up the idea of invading the North.
answer
Gettysburg
question
ROANOKE ISLAND
answer
The Lost Colony • 1587 (1590 return) • Founded for economic reasons by the English • 1st permanent English settlement attempt • Disappeared
question
JAMESTOWN - 1607
answer
positive: help from natives, beginning of trade. Negative: poor location (swamp), disease
question
Pilgrims: Mayflower
answer
•1620 •Pilgrims (107) want to practice their religion •Colony struggled but survived with help from natives
question
Massachusetts Bay Colony
answer
• 1628 (1624 attempt failed) • Settled by Puritans • Separatists from the Church of England to avoid persecution • Did they support religious toleration? - No
question
Pennsylvania
answer
• 1681 • Founded by William Penn • Settled by Quakers in search of religious freedom • Most tolerant colony of the time - fair treatment of all - land ownership - non-violence
question
Northern Colonies Economy
answer
Trade, good harbors, on trade routes Individual manufacturing: Water powered mills (textiles), Iron works, Rum making Based on the sea: Fishing, Ship building Agriculture: Subsistence (for own use) agriculture, Poor soil, long winters
question
Middle Colonies Economy
answer
iron works, rum making, small/ med. farms (w/ indentured servants), cash crops: grains, fuit/ veggie, cows, pigs, chicken
question
Southern colonies economy
answer
Rope, tar, turpentine, tobacco, indigo, rice, plantation system: slaves/ ind. servants, small farms too
question
colonial government
answer
governor, governor's advisory council, legislature, town meeting
question
revolutionary war (length)
answer
1775-1781
question
Louisiana Purchase (1803)
answer
Thomas Jefferson authorized purchase of territory from Napoleon Bonaparte of France for $15 million More than doubled the size of the United States Led to Lewis and Clark expedition to explore new territory
question
war of 1812
answer
President: James Madison (Madison's War) Causes: - British impressment (taking sailors off U.S. ships to work on British ships) - British supplying Native Americans with arms Key Events: - British burned the Capitol in Washington D.C. - Frances Scott Key wrote Star Spangled Banner - Impressive victory at Battle of New Orleans
question
missouri compromise
answer
1820 The issue is balance of power in the U.S. Government - Non-slave states vs. slave states Devised by Henry Clay Maine = Free Missouri = Slave Rest of Louisiana Territory split into two parts North of 36 degrees is free South of 36 degrees is slave
question
indian removal act
answer
1830: Congress (with support of President Andrew Jackson) passed Indian Removal Act Force Native Americans to move west Many tribes signed removal treaties Worcester vs. Georgia (1832): state of GA couldn't regulate the Cherokee Nation by law or invade Cherokee lands President Jackson refused to abide this court ruling
question
trail of tears
answer
Following court's ruling, U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them into camps and then journey west Fall of 1838, Cherokee were sent off in groups of 1,000 each Journey = 800 miles, mostly on foot Cherokee buried more than a quarter of their people along the Trail of Tears
question
texas independence
answer
(texans are own people: not part of mexico) americans reside there, annexed in 1845 by US
question
Mexican American war
answer
1846-48
question
Civil War long term causes
answer
- Job Competition (for immigrants) - different types of economy (industrial/capital North v. slave labor/agricultural South) - Opposed to use of slave labor - Uncle Tom's Cabin - Fugitive Slave Act/Personal Liberty Laws - KS-NE Act (Bleeding Kansas) - Dred Scott Decision
question
fugutive slave act
answer
- Fugitives not entitled to trial by jury - $10 reward for returning alleged fugitive - $5 reward if person that freed them, returned them - $1,000 fine/imprisonment for helping fugitive
question
personal liberty law
answer
- Passed in North in response to Fugitive Slave Act - Forbid imprisonment of runaway slaves - Fugitive slaves would have jury trials
question
Harriet Beecher Stowe
answer
- Published Uncle Tom's Cabin in 1852 - Exposed the cruelty of slavery - 3,000 copies sold the 1st day - More than a million copies sold by 1853
question
Kansas - Nebraska Act 1854
answer
- Proposed by Stephen Douglas - Break Nebraska into two states - Repealed the Missouri Compromise because it would allow slavery in the North - Allowed popular sovereignty to determine slavery
question
Sack of Lawrence
answer
- North and South poured into Kansas - Anti-slavery settlers founded Lawrence - 800 pro slavery men burned down headquarters in Lawrence (destroyed 2 newspaper printing presses and looted houses and stores)
question
john brown
answer
- Anti-slavery fanatic ("God called" on him to fight slavery) - Heard about Lawrence and wanted revenge - Mistakenly heard that 5 people killed in Lawrence - He found 5 proslavery settlers - chopped off their hands and stabbed them - "Pottawatomic Massacre"
question
bleeding kansas
answer
- John Brown's massacre started fury in Kansas - 200 people killed - Territory became bloody and paranoid
question
dred scott
answer
- Slave from MO, moved to IL, WI and then back to MO - when owner dies, sued because he should be free since lived in free states - MO Supreme Court ruled in favor of Scott's new owner - Appealed to U.S. Supreme Court - slaves are not free if moved to a free state - approved extension of slavery into territories
question
Harpers ferry
answer
October 16, 1859 - John Brown led 18 men to start an uprising and free slaves - Captured federal armory (weapons & ammunition) - Local troops killed 8 of Brown's men - Robert Lee (w/ U.S. marines) stormed Brown's barricade. - Lee killed 2 more of Brown's men and captured Brown - December 1859, Brown was hung for treason
question
triggering events
answer
Lincoln is elected President in 1860 In February of 1861, The Confederate States of America is formed Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederate States of America Confederacy fires on South Carolina Union fort at Fort Sumter in April, 1861
question
July 21, 1861 - Bull Run (Virginia)
answer
- First battle - Union expected easy victory - Confederate victory
question
September 1862 - Antietam (Maryland)
answer
- Union troops under McClellan found Lee's army orders wrapped around cigars - Bloodiest single day battle in American history - Casualties: 23,000 - Battle was a draw (no clear winner)
question
Emancipation Proclamation
answer
- January, 1863 - Freed slaves under Confederate Rule (outside Union control) - Aimed at the states in rebellion
question
Gettysburg (Pennsylvania)
answer
- 3 day battle - 1st 2 days, the Confederates were in the lead - It ended in a Union victory - Union lost 23,000 and Confederates lost 28,000 - Turning point of war
question
Clara Barton - Union nurse
answer
- At start of the Civil War - worked as a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office - "Angel of the battlefield" for her efforts to bring medical care to Civil War battlefields - She helped decrease the death rate - Founded the American Red Cross - 1881
question
lincoln assassination
answer
April 14, 1865 (Five days after surrender)