ch.1 soc.

sociology , anthropology , economics and history study various aspects of human society and are therefore considered
social sciences
the body of knowledge obtained using methods based upon systematic observation is called
science
The scientific study of social behavior and human groups is known as
sociology
an attempt to explain problems , actions , or behavior in a comprehensive manner is called a
theory
the words that max weber used to stress the need for sociologists to take into account peoples emotions , thoughts, beliefs, understandings and attitudes was
verstehen
functionalist perspective
emphasizes the way in which the part of society are structured to maintain its stability
conflict perspective
assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
interactionist perspective
it generalizes about everyday form of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
queer theory
stresses that to fully understand society , scholars must study it from the perspective of a range of sexual identities
marx and engels label the exploited workers the ______ and the wealthy owners the _________
proletariat , bourgeoisie
the division of an individuals identity into two or more social realities is known as ________ and is a term coined by W.E.B DuBois
double consciousness
which of the following was perhaps the first sociologist to successfully combine theory and research in his sociological work
Robert Merton
what does robert merton call someone who engages in deviant behavior in order to achieve socially approved goals
innovators
according to french sociologist Pierre Bourdieu , which of the following refers to non economic goods, such as family background and education, which are reflected in knowledge of language and the arts
cultural capital
what english sociologist wrote the first book on sociological research methods
harriet martineau
herbert spencer argued that social change would eventually happen on its own and oppose taking action for immediate change. for this reason spencer was accepted by
the powerful
weber used the term verstehen to analyze social behavior. He believed that to understand behavior we must look at how other people view and explain their own behavior from a ______ perspective
subjective
a hypothetical bureaucracy that represents all characteristics of a bureaucracy would be what weber called
an ideal type
A theory is not an absolute , final statement about human behavior ,why not
as more information becomes available the theory will be modified to be more complex and more accurate
durkheim was concerned about modern industrial societies having a detrimental effect on the individual due to social change and argued that ignorer to adapt to these changes , the individual should
become a member of a group
marx emphasized the ________ that influence an individual place in society
group identifications and associations
which theoretical perspective best help shed light on the tensions and problems society faces
conflict
The conflict perspective focuses on
inequality and tension between groups
karl marx view of society is best described as part of which of the following sociological perspectives
conflict
who wrote form the perspective of an african american woman and used her analysis of society as a means of combating oppression
ida wells-barnett
which of the following did queer theorist eve sedwick argue
any analysis of society is incomplete if it does not include the spectrum of sexual identities
an interactions sociologist would be likely to study
behavior in small groups, how workers communicate on the job which soloist is widely considered to be the founder of the interactionist perspective
which sociologist is widely considered to be the founder of the interactionist perspective
George herbert mead
comparing everyday life to theater and stage, the dramaturgical approach to sociology was made popular by
erving goffman
Though sociologists draw on all approaches for various purposes , they do tent to favor one particular perspective over others. which of the following statements about tendency is true?
it can skew results to four on one view and not provide the full view
which of the following would best describe manifest function of education
providing knowledge to students
which of the following are examples of something clinical sociologists might do
family therapy , reorganize a medical center
marx argued that the domination on owners over workers was maintained by
the economic , political, and social relationships in a capitalist society
charles horton cooley studied society from a sociological perpective but focused on
family and other small groups
robert merton contributed to the study of sociology combined
theory and research
according to merton, ______ use illegal or deviant means of obtaining the accepted goal of achieving material wealth
innovators
herrlet martineau contributed to the study of sociology by translating the writings of which early french philosopher of sociology into English
auguste comte
which of the following early thinkers advocated letting the weak perish so the strong would survive
herbert spencer
Durkheim believed that the growing division of labor in industrial societies caused laborers to become more specialized in their , leading to loss of direction he called
anomie
marx view of society describes social institutions as a means of
maintaining the privileges of some groups
herbert mead studied social issues form the integrationists point of view , thereby gathering his information from
small groups
individuals who feel a loss of direction when social control has become ineffective experience a state of what durkheim called
anomie
microsociology
small group of people
macrosociology
large group of people
A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s own society
as a outsider
C. Wright Mills advocated the use of the sociological imagination to view divorce in the United States because divorce
is not just an individual’s personal problem but a societal concern.
sociology is considered a science because sociologists
engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding
Sociologists argue that, unlike scientific knowledge, common sense conclusions are
not always reliable
Émile Durkheim’s explanation of suicide was scientific because he
developed conclusions based on systematic examination of data.
In The Communist Manifesto, Marx argued that the working class must
overthrow the existing class system of capitalist societies.
A sociologist interviews high-salaried corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) to discover whether they feel stress in their everyday lives as a result of the pressure to produce at an unrealistic level. This sociologist is employing
verstehen
A sociology instructor asks students to make lists of the characteristics of the best and worst possible instructors. These lists, which would be used to evaluate all instructors, are an example of a(n)
ideal type
A study of divorce rates among the populations of Canada, England, the U.S., and France is an example of
macrosociology.
A sociologist studies drug-use patterns among small groups of college students in a Midwestern college. This would be an example of
microsociology.
Which of the following would be an example of social capital?
powerful family political connections
Which of the following could be a manifest function of colleges?
They prepare students for post-college careers.
A sociologist who studies the unequal economic reality between men and women would probably be following which of the these perspectives?
conflict
Which sociological approach would view sports as an agent for defining people’s social positions as players, coaches, and referees as a result of their performances and reputations?
interactionist perspective
Which sociological perspective would suggest that sports participants may work together harmoniously and abandon previously held stereotypes and prejudices despite class, racial, and religious differences?
interactionist perspective
George Herbert Mead served on committees dealing with Chicago’s labor problems and public education. These activities are examples of
applied sociology.
he fact that the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the U.S. led to an economic decline throughout the world is an example of
globalization
What is considered to be the major theme of analysis in sociology today?
social inequality
________ is the occupation in which the largest percentage of undergraduate sociology majors find employment.
social services
The use of the discipline of sociology with the specific intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions is called
clinical sociology.