Ch 1 Forensic Science and The Law

Forensic science is the application to
both criminal and civil laws

The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by?
Doyle

Who is known as the “father of forensic toxicology”?
Orfilia

Who developed the system known as anthropometry?
Bertillon

Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification?
Galton

Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, which he applied to criminal investigations?
Lattes

Who established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner?
Goddard

Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation?
Gross

Who established the first workable crime laboratory?
Locard

Who postulated the exchange of evidence principle?
Loccard

The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the:
Los Angeles Police Department

Approximately how many operating crime labs are there in the United States (federal, state, and country)?
300+

Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world?
FBI

Which could not be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab?
fingerprint analysis

Which unit has the responsibility for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons?
toxicology

The concept of “general acceptance” of scientific evidence relates to the:
Frye Standard

In the case of Daubert v. Merrel Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court advocated that a “gatekeeper” determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence. This gatekeeper is the:
trial judge

An expert witness must NOT be able to demonstrate:
formal degree in forensic science

The final evaluator of forensic evidence is the:
jury

What is the LEAST important consideration in the gathering of evidence at a crime scene?
guilt of the suspect(s)

Which matter is NOT the province of civil litigation? The determination of competency to:
stand trial for burglary

Bite marks would be LEAST likely to be found in cases involving:
arson

Forensic ontology refers to the study of:
teeth

What service is typically provided to law enforcement by crime labs?
criminalistics

What individual was not an earlier contributor to the field of forensic toxicology?
Alphonse Bertillon

The scientific method requires that scientific evidence be validated by:
questions, hypothesis, experiments

Thew ten sections of The American Academy of Forensic Science include:
general, toxicology, criminalistics, jurisprudence

The tendency of the public to believe that every crime with yield forensic evidence and their unrealistic expectations that a prosecutor’s case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic evidence is known as:
The scientific method

What is the major problem facing the forensic DNA community?
backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples

The wide variation in which services are offered in different crime labs is due to:
variations in local laws and budgetary and staffing limitations

The _____ unit applies principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence.
physical science

Which specialized are of forensic science examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings?
forensic psychiatry

A crime scene which involved the collapse of a structure would be analyzed by specialists in the area of:
forensic engineering

What factor(s) do(es) the court usually take into consideration as sufficient grounds for qualification as an expert witness?
experience, training, education

Specially trained personnel called ____ are employed by some crime labs on 24-hour call to retrieve evidence and have all the proper tools and supplies for proper collection and packaging of evidence at their disposal.
evidence technicians