Business Research Ch 6

Research design strategy encompasses all of the components below except _____.

A. data collection design

B. sampling design

C. instrument development

D. data analysis

E. all of the above are part of the design strategy

D. data analysis
Which type of study is loosely structured and designed to expand understanding of a topic and provide insights?

A. Formal

B. Causal-predictive

C. Exploratory

D. Experimental

E. Descriptive

C. Exploratory
The goal of a formal study is to _____.

A. discover future research tasks

B. expand understanding of a topic

C. test hypotheses

D. provide insight

E. develop hypotheses

C. test hypotheses
All of the following are possible goals of an exploratory study except _____.

A. discover future research tasks

B. expand understanding of a topic

C. test hypotheses

D. provide insight

E. develop hypotheses

C. test hypotheses
A statistical study is one that _____.

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses

B. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another

E. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses
A case study is one that _____.

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses

B. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another

E. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time

B. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations
In the best-selling book, Good to Great, the author examined the characteristics of eleven highly successful companies by studying the full context of each organization, using multiple sources of information, and identifying the relationship between managerial decisions and success. This is an example of a(n) _____.

A. case study

B. exploratory study

C. descriptive study

D. statistical study

E. causal study

A. case study
A descriptive study is one that _____.

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses

B. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another

E. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much
A causal-explanatory study is one that _____.

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses

B. emphasizes a full contextual analysis of a few events or conditions and their interrelations

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another

E. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another
A(n) _____ study explains what happened to a measured variable after-the-fact.

A. ex post facto

B. exploratory

C. experimental

D. statistical

E. causal

A. ex post facto
A(n) _____ study involves manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable.

A. ex post facto

B. exploratory

C. experimental

D. causal

E. C & D above

E. C & D above
An experimental study is one that _____.

A. attempts to capture a population’s characteristics by making inferences from a sample’s characteristics and testing resulting hypotheses

B. involves manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable

C. discovers answers to the questions who, what, when, where, or how much

D. attempts to reveal why or how one variable produces changes in another

E. provides repeated measures over an extended period of time

B. involves manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable
What type of study is being conducted when Land’s End Home mails a catalog with a fluffy set of towels on the cover to one group of consumers and the same catalog with a cover featuring a photograph of a beautifully-made bed to another consumer group in order to test differences in response between the two groups?

A. Case study

B. Longitudinal study

C. Exploratory study

D. Experiment

E. Ex post facto study

D. Experiment
InStyle magazine wants to examine the pull power of two types of copy in increasing the level of newsstand sales for a given month. The issue will feature British royal Kate Middleton but InStyle wants to know whether newsstand sales will be higher for a cover that mentions Middleton’s daily life or one that promises to share Middleton’s style secrets. The issues are identical with the exception of the copy underneath the cover graphic of Middleton. Which type of study is this an example of?

A. Case study

B. Experimental study

C. Exploratory study

D. Longitudinal study

E. Ex post facto study

B. Experimental study
Kroger, a grocery store chain, wants to identify the ideal store layout for increasing store sales. Because it primarily uses two store designs, one a grid layout with vertical aisles divided by a center aisle and another using a traditional straight-aisle pattern, Kroger will match pairs of stores that have different designs but similar shopper demographics and location. Sales from each pair will then be compared to determine if store design is related to sales. Which type of study is this an example of?

A. Case study

B. Experimental study

C. Exploratory study

D. Longitudinal study

E. Ex post facto study

E. Ex post facto study
Which of the following is not an example of a monitoring study?

A. Counting traffic at an intersection

B. Recording license plates in a parking lot

C. Mystery shopping in a competitor’s store

D. Documenting interactions between customers and a call center

E. Telephone interview

E. Telephone interview
The primary difference between a monitoring study and a communication study is that in a communication study, the researcher _____.

A. observes participants

B. documents activities without eliciting direct responses

C. asks questions of participants

D. collects data

E. records information over a period of time

C. asks questions of participants
Which of the following is a type of monitoring study?

A. Telephone interview

B. Counting cars in a parking lot

C. Mall-intercept interview

D. E-mail survey

E. All of the above

B. Counting cars in a parking lot
InZone Research will survey fans attending one of the Final Four games to assess preferences for pricing and products offered at concession stands. What type of study is this an example of?

A. formal

B. cross-sectional

C. longitudinal

D. monitoring

E. ex post facto

B. cross-sectional
When political researchers assess opinions towards President Obama’s plan for immigration reform, a(n) ______ study is used. However, when political researchers want to assess the change in opinion toward immigration reform since the 1990s, a(n) _____ study should be used.

A. monitoring; communication

B. experimental; ex post facto

C. cross-sectional; longitudinal

D. exploratory; formal

E. laboratory; field

C. cross-sectional; longitudinal
Harris Interactive monthly surveys members of its YouthQuery, a group of consumers ages 8-18 who were recruited to report consumption data on a variety of products and their response to various promotional methods. The YouthQuery members are part of a(n) _____.

A. longitudinal study

B. cross-sectional study

C. monitoring study

D. cohort study

E. statistical study

A. longitudinal study
Longitudinal studies of cohort groups _____.

A. study the same people over time

B. use panel members as participants

C. study attitudes at a single point in time

D. use different participants for each sequenced measurement

E. occur under actual environmental conditions

D. use different participants for each sequenced measurement
When studies are conducted under controlled conditions that do not simulate actual environmental conditions, the study is conducted _____.

A. experimentally

B. ex post facto

C. under field conditions

D. under laboratory conditions

E. via monitoring

D. under laboratory conditions
Studies that are conducted under field conditions _____.

A. occur under actual environmental conditions

B. simulate environmental conditions

C. imitate reality

D. control for extraneous variables

E. facilitate measurement of the variables of interest

A. occur under actual environmental conditions
Which of the following is true of studies conducted under laboratory conditions?

A. Occur under actual environmental conditions

B. Simulate environmental conditions

C. Imitate reality

D. Dependent variable naturally occurs

E. Facilitate measurement of the variables of interest

E. Facilitate measurement of the variables of interest
A simulation is a study that is designed to _____.

A. occur under actual environmental conditions

B. imitate reality

C. facilitate measurement

D. control all possible variables

E. all of the above

B. imitate reality
A(n) _____ is a study in which the conditions of a system or process are replicated.

A. laboratory study

B. field study

C. mall-intercept study

D. simulation

E. mystery shopping study

D. simulation
Exploratory studies are particularly useful when researchers _____.

A. seek to describe a population’s parameters based on the characteristics of a sample

B. seek to evaluate changes in attitudes over time

C. lack a clear idea of the study’s problems

D. seek to test specific hypotheses

E. all of the above

C. lack a clear idea of the study’s problems
Which of the following exploratory techniques is used most often in business research?

A. Proxemics

B. Empathic research

C. Focus groups

D. Street ethnography

E. Surveys

C. Focus groups
Exploratory research is finished in all of the following situations except when _____.

A. the range and scope of management decisions are established

B. the major dimensions of the research task are established

C. hypotheses are developed

D. additional research is necessary

E. investigative questions are defined

D. additional research is necessary
Which of the following is not an objective of exploratory research?

A. Expand understanding of management dilemma

B. Gather background information

C. Identify information necessary for formulating investigative questions

D. Identify sources of measurement questions

E. All of the above

E. All of the above
All of the following are part of an exploratory phase search strategy except _____.

A. discovery and analysis of secondary sources

B. expert interviews

C. interviews with those involved with the problem

D. brainstorming

E. experiments

E. experiments
Discussions with those who are knowledgeable about the problem or its possible solutions are called _____.

A. brainstorming

B. experience surveys

C. focus groups

D. experiments

E. projection techniques

B. experience surveys
What other area of the research process is affected by the exploration phase?

A. Research design

B. Research proposal

C. Investigative questions

D. Measurement questions

E. All of the above

E. All of the above
The study of the use of space is called _____.

A. kinesics

B. proxemics

C. methodology

D. linguistics

E. feng shui

B. proxemics
Street ethnography is used in exploratory research to _____.

A. gather information from well-informed people

B. describe the culture and structure of a group

C. examine underlying attitudes

D. study the use of space

E. evaluate body-motion communication

B. describe the culture and structure of a group
An experience survey is a type of _____.

A. interview

B. survey

C. monitoring study

D. statistical study

E. observation

A. interview
Which of the following is true of focus group interviews?

A. Typically made up of 3-5 participants

B. Led by a group leader who is chosen by the participants

C. Meet for 90 minutes to 2 hours

D. Provide quantitative data

E. Used in formal studies

C. Meet for 90 minutes to 2 hours
A correlation refers to the _____.

A. estimates of frequency with which a characteristic appears

B. establishing of the direction of causality between two variables

C. described characteristics associated with a subject population

D. relationship by which two or more variables covary

E. estimation of the proportion of a population with certain characteristics

D. relationship by which two or more variables covary
When two variables vary together but changes in the variables are not due to changes in the other, a _____ relationship is said to exist.

A. reciprocal

B. asymmetrical

C. causal

D. symmetrical

E. spurious

D. symmetrical
Which of the following is not a type of evidence used to test causal hypotheses?

A. Covariation between variables A and B

B. Time order of events

C. Alternative causes

D. Disposition of variable B

E. All of the above can be used to test causal hypotheses

D. Disposition of variable B
The research experiment is superior to the ex post facto research design when the researcher:

A. Must avoid influencing the variables under study and therefore avoid biasing the results.

B. Needs to cause variables to be changed or held constant in keeping with specified research objectives.

C. Is limited to hold all factors constant by selection of subjects according to strict sampling procedures and statistical manipulation of findings.

D. Decides to use the design more common to research in the social sciences and business.

B. Needs to cause variables to be changed or held constant in keeping with specified research objectives.
The basic method by which we determine equivalence between study and control groups in an ex post facto study is by

A. Matching

B. Definition

C. Induction

D. Random assignment

A. Matching
The basic method by which equivalence between experimental and control groups is determined is

A. Matching

B. Definition

C. Frequency control

D. Cross-classifying

E. Random assignment

E. Random assignment
Which of the following statements is false with respect to the two-stage research approach to a management question? The two-stage approach:

A. Often uncovers evidence that a major study is unnecessary in the first stage.

B. Is particularly useful when the research is to be done on a fixed cost basis.

C. Is particularly useful when the complications and problems that will be encountered are difficult to anticipate.

D. Is less expensive and less in-depth than a one-stage research approach.

D. Is less expensive and less in-depth than a one-stage research approach.
Which of the following can be classified as a causal research study? The researcher is attempting to find out:

A. What percentage of the population believes consumer products are of the same or better quality today than 10 years ago.

B. Which manufacturers in the U.S. contribute the highest percentage of their net income to private non-profit organizations.

C. How the murder rate in Detroit fluctuates with the economy and population trends.

D. Why unemployment is higher in Chicago than Houston.

D. Why unemployment is higher in Chicago than Houston.
Research designs may be viewed as being

A. Exploratory or experimental

B. Laboratory or ex post facto

C. Cross-sectional or case

D. Descriptive or causal

E. Longitudinal or statistical

D. Descriptive or causal
The interactions between two sets of variables may reflect relationships that are

A. Symmetrical

B. Reciprocal

C. Asymmetrical

D. All of the above

D. All of the above
“The introduction of a four day week leads to increased productivity particularly among young workers by improving job satisfaction.” In this statement, improving job satisfaction is the:

A. Independent Variable

B. Dependent Variable

C. Intervening Variable

D. Moderating Variable

C. Intervening Variable
The major relationships of interest to the research analyst are those which are

A. Asymmetrical

B. Exclusive

C. Independent

D. Reciprocal

E. Symmetrical

A. Asymmetrical
The Critical Path Method is

A. a type of research design

B. the crucial steps in an experiment

C. the selection process for choosing critical members of a control group

D. scheduling for activities and stages and timing for each activity or stage used in research planning

E. none of the above

D. scheduling for activities and stages and timing for each activity or stage used in research planning
An intranet can be used for which of the following:

A. A longitudinal study

B. An experiment

C. A communication study

D. An exploratory study

E. All of the above

E. All of the above
A participant’s perceptual awareness refers to their

A. awareness of the sponsor of the study

B. changing their behavior in a study

C. understanding of the purpose of the study as explained to them by the researcher

D. awareness that they are part of a disguised study

E. All of the above

D. awareness that they are part of a disguised study
Secondary data analysis related to business research should start with

A. A literature search of published documents by authors outside the organization

B. Reports of prior research done by the organization

C. Data mining of an organization’s data warehouse

D. Industry catalogs, subject guides, and electronic sources

E. None of the above

B. Reports of prior research done by the organization
Explain the difference between a field setting (research under field conditions), laboratory setting, and simulation.
A field setting means that the study measures the variables of interest in the actual environmental conditions. The dependent variable may occur naturally in the field. A laboratory setting uses an arbitrary condition designed to facilitate measurement rather than imitate reality. A simulation ideally combines the advantages of a field setting with that of a laboratory setting. In a simulation, the setting seeks to replicate the natural environment while allowing for control and measurement.
Compare and contrast the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
Whether a study should be a cross-sectional study or a longitudinal study refers to the time dimension appropriate to a study. Cross-sectional studies focus on one point in time while a longitudinal study takes repeated measures over time. Both allow for the measurement of various variables such as attitudes, sales, etc., but only the longitudinal format allows for trends over time to be identified. Cross-sectional studies are less time-consuming and less expensive.
What is an asymmetrical relationship? List and explain the four types of asymmetrical relationships that a research may observe.
An asymmetrical relationship exists when a change in one variable (IV) is responsible for a change in another variable (DV). There are four types of asymmetrical relationships. A stimulus-response type occurs when an event or change results in a response from some object. A property-disposition type occurs when an existing property causes a disposition. A disposition-behavior type of relationship occurs when a disposition or attitude causes a specific behavior. A property-behavior type of relationship occurs when an existing characteristic such as age causes a specific behavior.
What are the three types of evidence a research seeks when testing causal hypotheses? Explain
The three types of evidence are 1) covariation between the two variables, 2) time order of events moving in the hypothesized direction, and 3) the elimination of other possible causes of the outcome. Covariation asks if the variables occur together in the way hypothesized. Time order of events asks whether the independent variable occurs prior to the dependent variable. Elimination of other causes asks if there are other explanations for the outcome.