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1. In the final days of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln
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insisted that the Confederacy had no legal right to exist
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2. At the end of the Civil War, the number of slaves in the United States was
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three-and-a-half million.
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3. In 1865, Southern blacks defined “freedom” as
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land reform.
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4. In 1865, Southern whites defined “freedom” as
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controlling their future without Northern interference.
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5. The Freedmen’s Bureau
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distributed food to millions of Southern blacks.
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6. As Republicans planned for Reconstruction,
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Radicals sought a range of punishments for white Southerners.
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7. President Abraham Lincoln’s “ten percent” plan for the South referred to
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the number of white voters required to take loyalty oaths before setting up a state government.
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8. The Wade-Davis Bill
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called for the disenfranchisement of leading Confederates.
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9. The story of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln
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involved a larger conspiracy to kill other members of the administration.
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10. As president, Andrew Johnson
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offered amnesty to Southerners who pledged their loyalty to the United States.
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11. In the 1860s, Black Codes were
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designed to give whites control over freedmen.
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12. The Fourteenth Amendment
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gave citizenship rights to all people born in the United States.
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13. Race riots in the South during the 1866 elections most helped the political fortunes of
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former Southern Whigs
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14. In 1867, Congressional plans for Reconstruction
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required new state governments in the South to give voting rights to black males.
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15. The Fifteenth Amendment dealt with the issue of
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suffrage.
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16. The Tenure of Office Act
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was designed to limit President Andrew Johnson’s authority.
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17. As a result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in Ex parte Milligan, Radical Republicans
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proposed abolishing the Court.
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18. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson was impeached because he
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All the answers are correct.
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19. At the conclusion of President Andrew Johnson’s impeachment trial,
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E. Johnson was spared conviction by one vote.
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20. During Reconstruction, the term “Scalawags” referred to
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A. Southern white Republicans.
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21. During Reconstruction, most “carpetbaggers” were
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Northern white veterans who moved to the South.
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22. During Reconstruction, Southern African-American officeholders
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E. underrepresented the total number of blacks living in the South.
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23. During Reconstruction, there was a dramatic improvement in Southern
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B. education.
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24. During Reconstruction, the Southern school system
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A. eventually reached forty percent of all black children.
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25. During Reconstruction, in regards to land ownership in the South,
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E. ownership by whites declined while ownership by blacks increased.
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26. Black sharecropping
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D. was a very common occupation of former slaves.
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27. During Reconstruction, per capita income for Southerners
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E. rose for blacks and declined for whites.
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28. During Reconstruction, the black labor force worked
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B. significantly fewer hours than had been the case during slavery.
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29. After the Civil War, most poor rural Southerners relied on credit from
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D. country stores.
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30. In the South, the crop-lien system
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A. encouraged the planting of cash crops.
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31. After the Civil War, most Southern black women
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C. engaged in income-producing activities.
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32. In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant
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C. entered the White House with no political experience.
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33. All of the following were involved in scandals during the Grant administration EXCEPT
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A. President Ulysses Grant.
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34. The Panic of 1873
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E. was the nation’s worst economic depression to that time.
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35. During the Grant administration, the United States acquired
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A. Alaska.
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36. The Alabama claims
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B. involved complaints by the United States against England.
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37. The “redeemed” governments of the South
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A. saw an end to occupation by federal troops.
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38. Congressional passage of the Enforcement Acts in 1870-1871
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A. was aimed at reducing white repression of blacks in the South.
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39. National support for Reconstruction was undermined by
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E. All the answers are correct.
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40. The elections of 1876 saw
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C. the candidate with the most popular votes fail to get elected.
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41. As president, Rutherford B. Hayes
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B. promised to serve only one term.
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42. Congressional Reconstruction might have been more effective if
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E. the federal government had better enforced the laws designed to assist blacks.
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43. After Reconstruction, political power under Southern “Redeemers”
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A. was very often restricted and conservative.
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44. Advocates of the “New South”
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C. promoted Southern industry and railroad development.
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45. In the South, during the last quarter of the nineteenth century
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A. its share of national manufacturing doubled.
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46. During the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Southern agriculture
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E. saw the great majority of farmers live under the tenant system.
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47. Among his ideas, Booker T. Washington
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B. favored industrial over classical education.
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48. In his 1895 “Atlanta Compromise” speech, Booker T. Washington
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E. called for tacit acceptance of the emerging system of racial segregation.
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49. The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that
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C. racial segregation was legal if whites and blacks had equal “accommodations.”
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50. In the 1890s, pressure in the South to restrict black voting rights came from
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D. All the answers are correct.
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51. Jim Crow laws
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A. imposed a system of state-supported segregation.
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52. In the 1890s, voting percentages in the South
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E. decreased for whites and blacks.
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53. In the 1890s, the black journalist Ida B. Wells devoted her writing to attacking
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the crime of lynching.
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In comparing turnpike transportation to canal transportation, A. canal transportation was generally developed before turnpike transportation. B. canal construction was less expensive than turnpike construction. C. canal boats could haul vastly larger loads than could road transports. D. state governments gave little financial support to canal transportation. E. New York was the first to finance turnpike construction.
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Ans: C
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The Erie Canal was A. limited to flat land. B. built entirely by private investors. C. built without either locks or gates. D. a tremendous financial success. E. a great boon to the growth of Philadelphia.
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Ans: D
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In the 1830s, limited liability laws were developed in the United States that A. protected the stockholders’ full investment in a company. B. restricted the amount of capital a corporation could possess. C. prevented a corporation from being dominated by a small group of stockholders. D. protected corporations from liability lawsuits. E. meant stockholders could not be charged with losses greater than their investment.
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Ans: E
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By 1860, factories in the United States A. were concentrated in the Northeast. B. produced goods whose total value greatly exceeded the nation’s agricultural output. C. employed one-third of the nation’s manufacturing labor force. D. All the answers are correct. E. None of the answers are correct.
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Ans: A
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When the Lowell factory system began A. craftsmen were part of the production system. B. workers were fairly well paid and lived in supervised dormitories. C. workers had few benefits outside of a set wage scale. D. the work day ended when production quotas were met. E. workers rarely stopped working in the mills until retirement.
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Ans: B
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As the Lowell factory system progressed into the 1840s, A. wages rose while working hours increased to ten hours. B. female workers staged a successful strike for better living conditions. C. the owners increasingly used immigrants as their labor force. D. a paternalist management system was developed. E. many mill girls moved into management roles in the factory system.
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Ans: C
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The rise of the American factory system A. complemented the nation’s traditional republican ideals. B. resulted in a rise in the status of skilled artisans among consumers. C. saw the government act to maintain the trade of skilled artisans. D. led some Northerners to advocate repealing abolition. E. led to the creation of skilled workingmen’s craft societies.
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Ans: E
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All of the following factors inhibited the growth of labor unions EXCEPT A. the large number of immigrant workers. B. the political strength of industrial capitalists. C. ethnic divisions among workers. D. the question of whether to include women members. E. hostile laws and hostile courts.
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Ans: D
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All of the following statements regarding American leisure activities prior to 1860 are true EXCEPT A. Shakespeare was the nation’s most popular playwright. B. reading was a principle leisure activity among affluent Americans. C. minstrel shows were increasingly popular. D. popular tastes in public spectacle tended toward the bizarre and fantastic. E. unpaid vacations were becoming common among the middle class.
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Ans: E
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In the 1840s, P.T. Barnum’s American Museum in New York showcased A. nature and natural history. B. American artists. C. human oddities. D. past American leaders and heroes. E. European artists.
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Ans: C
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One actual slave revolt in the nineteenth-century South was led by A. Nat Turner. B. Denmark Vesey. C. Gabriel Prosser. D. Frederick Douglass. E. Harriet Tubman.
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Ans: A
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Southern whites who did not own slaves A. rarely married into the families living on large slave plantations. B. openly opposed the planter elite. C. were forced to move west to maintain a livelihood. D. generally opposed the institution of slavery. E. were largely dependent on the plantation economy.
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Ans: E
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Which of the following nineteenth-century leaders is primarily known for her pioneering work in the American feminist movement? A. “Mother” Ann Lee B. Harriet Tubman C. Sojourner Truth D. Rachel Eaton E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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Ans: E
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The transcendentalist writer Ralph Waldo Emerson A. believed American thinkers should be allied with European intellectuals. B. asserted that through nature, individuals could find personal fulfillment. C. was a leading critic of the American political system. D. asserted that organized religion served no useful purpose in society. E. remained a deeply religious clergyman throughout his life.
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Ans: B
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The 1848 Seneca Falls, New York convention on women’s rights A. issued a manifesto patterned after the Declaration of Independence. B. asserted that women should have a place in society distinctly different from men. C. refused to allow men to attend. D. called on the government to treat both genders and all races with equality. E. shied away from demanding female suffrage as too radical.
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Ans: A
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The Massachusetts reformer who built a national movement for new methods of treating the criminally ill was A. Susan B. Anthony. B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. C. Lucretia Mott. D. Angelina Grimke. E. Dorothea Dix.
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Ans: E Page: 317
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The effect of Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the nation was to A. spread the message of abolitionism to an enormous new audience. B. reveal the ugly extent of the vicious slave trade to America. C. ignite such anger in the South that several states soon seceded from the Union. D. offer the first written history of American slavery. E. help humanize Southern slaveholders in the minds of Northern readers.
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Ans: A Page: 324
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The transcendentalist movement A. anticipated the environmental protection movement of the twentieth century. B. understood the interconnectedness of species. C. made the first scientific studies on behalf of preserving the natural environment. D. All the answers are correct. E. None of the answers are correct.
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Ans: A Page: 308
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Transcendentalists A. rejected European intellectuals. B. regarded reason to be the most important human faculty. C. argued that emotional responses inhibited the internal development of individuals. D. believed all individuals should develop their intellectualism. E. argued for the liberating potential of “understanding.”
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Ans: B Page: 307
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In the 1820s and 1830s, the government of Mexico A. consistently opposed American immigration into Texas. B. consistently favored American immigration into Texas. C. remained noncommittal about American immigration into Texas. D. moved from opposing to favoring American immigration into Texas. E. moved from favoring to opposing American immigration into Texas.
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Ans: E
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In 1836, the Battle of San Jacinto A. was a victory for General Santa Anna. B. saw British troops fight alongside Mexican troops. C. resulted in victory for forces led by Stephen Austin. D. led to independence for Texas. E. saw Sam Houston briefly taken prisoner.
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Ans: D Page: 329
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In the mid-1850s, the struggle over Kansas saw A. President Franklin Pierce oppose pro-slavery settlers in the territory. B. John Brown murder several pro-slavery settlers. C. the Missouri legislature ban its own citizens from entering Kansas. D. federal troops take military control of the region. E. a large antislavery posse sack the proslavery town of Lawrence, Kansas.
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Ans: B Page: 346
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In 1849, President Zachary Taylor favored admitting California A. as a free state. B. as a slave state. C. with no determination on the issue of slavery. D. as a territory. E. as two separate states, one slave and one free.
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Ans: A Page: 341
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The admission of California into the United States was a divisive national issue because A. Westerners in other territories believed they deserved statehood before California. B. California’s entry would upset the nation’s numerical balance of free and slave states. C. most Californians opposed entry into the United States. D. California adopted a constitution that allowed slavery. E. lawmakers believed California gold would upset the currency and cause inflation.
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Ans: B Page: 341
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During the debate on the Compromise of 1850, A. Daniel Webster managed to forge a successful compromise. B. John C. Calhoun called for Southern secession if California were admitted as a free state. C. Stephen A. Douglas stepped down as secretary of state. D. Jefferson Davis resigned from the Senate. E. President Zachary Taylor suddenly died.
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Ans: E Page: 341
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The Compromise of 1850 allowed for the admission of California A. as a slave state. B. along with a strengthened Fugitive Slave Act. C. along with an agreement to construct a transcontinental railroad. D. with the agreement that there would be no additional states added for ten years. E. as a free state, along with Utah and New Mexico as slave states.
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Ans: B Page: 343
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As a result of the gold rush, by 1850, California A. Indians saw their social conditions improve. B. had a large surplus of labor. C. had a very diverse population. D. had a population larger than any state in the Union. E. became virulently anti-slavery.
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Ans: C Page: 340
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In the California gold rush, A. most of the participants were seasoned miners. B. a majority of the participants found some quantities of gold. C. upwards of ninety-five percent of the participants were white men. D. few of the participants ended up staying in California. E. Chinese immigrants who arrived were unable to find work.
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Ans: C Page: 340
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In 1836, Texas did not immediately join the United States because A. Congress feared that giving statehood to Texas might lead to war with Mexico. B. the American leadership in Texas delayed in applying for statehood. C. President Andrew Jackson thought that action would add to sectional tensions. D. England had forged its own political ties to Texas. E. Texas settlers overwhelmingly did not want to be part of the United States.
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Ans: C Page: 329
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By 1830, Texas A. was an independent republic. B. saw the United States unsuccessfully attempt to purchase it. C. barred slavery within its borders. D. had a population with more people from Mexico than from the United States. E. still had no legal American settlements in its borders.
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Ans: B Page: 328
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Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant at Appomattox Courthouse after A. President Jefferson Davis announced the Confederate government was defeated. B. President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. C. Lee recognized the futility of continued fighting. D. President Lincoln met President Davis. E. President Jefferson Davis was captured by Union forces.
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Ans: C Page: 388
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In 1860, President James Buchanan asserted that A. no state had the constitutional right to secede from the United States. B. the federal government had no authority to stop a state from seceding from the Union. C. South Carolina could not take Fort Sumter. D. All the answers are correct. E. None of the answers are correct.
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Ans: D Page: 358
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Prior to becoming president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis A. had been vice-president of the United States. B. had called for a gradual phase-out of slavery. C. had begged South Carolina not to leave the Union. D. had called for the imprisonment of abolitionists. E. had been regarded as a moderate on secession
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Ans: E Page: 366
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As president, Jefferson Davis A. deferred all major military strategy to Robert E. Lee. B. created an effective central command system. C. had virtually no knowledge at all of military tactics and strategy. D. relied heavily on the advice of Braxton Bragg. E. offered experienced military advice to his generals.
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Ans: E Page: 371
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In the 1860 elections, the political party most deeply divided over slavery was A. the Republican Party. B. the Whig Party. C. the Know-Nothing Party. D. the Constitutional Union Party. D. the Democratic Party.
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Ans: E Page: 352
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In the election of 1860, A. Abraham Lincoln was elected with much less than half of the popular vote. B. the Republican political platform called for an end to slavery. C. Abraham Lincoln’s relative obscurity proved to be a drawback. D. Stephen Douglas narrowly lost in the electoral vote. E. disenchanted Northern Democrats nominated John Bell for president.
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Ans: A Page: 352
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In the election of 1860, A. the Republicans called for a suspension of plans for a transcontinental railroad. B. Stephen Douglas received a larger popular vote than Abraham Lincoln. C. John Bell and J.C. Breckinridge, taken together, bested Lincoln in the popular vote. D. the Republicans won a narrow majority in Congress. E. white Southerners concluded their position in the Union was hopeless.
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Ans: E Page: 353
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In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham Lincoln declared freedom for slaves A. in the parts of the Confederacy already under Union control. B. in the slave states that had remained loyal to the Union. C. that joined the Union military. D. throughout all states that existed as part of the United States prior to the Civil War. E. in the parts of the Confederacy still in rebellion.
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Ans: E Pages: 363-364
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On April 14, 1861, Fort Sumter surrendered after A. Confederate forces bombarded it. B. President Lincoln chose to not resupply the fort. C. Southern soldiers occupied the fort. D. the fort’s commander decided to join the Confederacy. E. the Union commanding officer, Robert Anderson, was killed.
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Ans: A Page: 358
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The Battle of Gettysburg A. represented the last time Confederate forces seriously threatened Union territory. B. saw Union General George Meade lose nearly a third of his army. C. saw Union General George Meade clearly be more aggressive than Robert E. Lee. D. saw Robert E. Lee poised for victory after his attack on Cemetery Ridge. E. was a Union victory, thanks to Meade having found a copy of Lee’s orders.
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Ans: A Page: 384
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In his capacity of commander in chief, President Abraham Lincoln A. argued it was essential that that laws of the Constitution be upheld during the war. B. increased the size of the army without the approval of Congress. C. quickly called on Congress to enact a naval blockade of the South. D. moved cautiously in asserting his war powers. E. waited for Congress to declare war before dispatching troops to the South.
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Ans: B Page: 362
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In the election of 1864, President Abraham Lincoln A. emphasized the success of the Republican Party in fighting the Civil War. B. won by a narrow margin in the electoral vote. C. faced a Democratic opponent who was a former Union general. D. proposed a truce in the Civil War. E. was greatly aided by Robert E. Lee’s surrender just before election day.
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Ans: C Page: 363
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The most important Union military commander was A. George McClellan. B. Ulysses S. Grant. C. Abraham Lincoln. D. William Tecumseh Sherman. E. George Meade.
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Ans: C Page: 369
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President Abraham Lincoln believed the main objective of the Union armies was to A. occupy Confederate territory. B. free Southern slaves. C. destroy Confederate armies. D. control Confederate ports. E. capture Richmond.
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Ans: C Page: 369
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General Ulysses S. Grant A. did not agree with Abraham Lincoln’s general strategic objectives. B. followed Winfield Scott as Lincoln’s military chief of staff. C. believed the key to victory was to capture the Confederate capital. D. was ultimately succeeded by Henry W. Halleck as chief of staff of the army. E. thought the main Union effort should target enemy armies and resources.
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Ans: E Page: 369
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In 1864, General William T. Sherman’s “March to the Sea” A. attempted to avoid the civilian population. B. saw him face more resistance than Grant faced to his north. C. never reached the Atlantic Ocean. D. resulted in mass starvation among Sherman’s troops. E. was designed to demoralize Southerners.
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Ans: E Page: 386
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The name given to the effort by whites and blacks to help runaway slaves escape was the A. Frederick Douglass road. B. underground railroad. C. Fugitive Slave Act. D. Cumberland passage. E. Second Middle Passage.
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Ans: B Page: 296
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Among his ideas, Booker T. Washington A. rejected the ideology of the “New South creed.” B. favored industrial over classical education. C. called on the federal government to offer job training for blacks. D. proposed an exodus of blacks from the South to the West. E. argued that blacks spent too much time trying to impress the white middle class.
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Ans: B Page: 419
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The Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that A. communities could have schools for whites only if there were no schools for blacks. B. the Fourteenth Amendment was unconstitutional. C. racial segregation was legal if whites and blacks had equal “accommodations.” D. private institutions were exempt from laws against racial discrimination. E. segregation by race in education was inherently unconstitutional.
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Ans: C Page: 419
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The Freedmen’s Bureau A. distributed food to millions of Southern blacks. B. pushed for voting rights for former male slaves. C. gave forty acres of land and a mule to millions of Southern blacks. D. was created to operate for only five years. E. created millions of federal public works jobs for former slaves.
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Ans: A Page: 395
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The Fifteenth Amendment dealt with the issue of A. slavery. B. citizenship. C. cruel and unusual punishment. D. income tax. E. suffrage.
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Ans: E Page: 402
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The story of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln A. involved a larger conspiracy to kill other members of the administration. B. saw John Wilkes Booth convicted of the murder of the president. C. brought a Radical Republican to the presidency. D. was intended to bring Andrew Johnson into the presidency. E. had been planned at the highest levels of the Confederate government.
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Ans: A Page: 398
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The Fourteenth Amendment A. ended slavery throughout the United States. B. gave voting rights to all male Americans. C. gave citizenship rights to all people born in the United States. D. was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. E. was written in such a way as to appease the woman’s suffrage movement.
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Ans: C Page: 401
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During Reconstruction, there was a dramatic improvement in Southern A. transportation. B. education. C. industry. D. banking. E. agriculture.
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Ans: B Page: 405
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During Reconstruction, the Southern school system A. eventually reached forty percent of all black children. B. did not allow blacks to be teachers. C. initially were not segregated. D. only offered primary instruction. E. barely reached any children of former slaves.
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Ans: A Page: 406
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The passage of the Fugitive Slave Act A. intensified the debate over slavery. B. upset Southerners as much as Northerners. C. was readily accepted by Northerners in the spirit of compromise. D. All the answers are correct. E. None of the answers are correct.
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Ans: A

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