Biology Topic 2 Lab Tools and Lab Skills

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centrifuge
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separates mixtures based on density
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microscope
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helps scientists see things they can’t with the naked eye
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simple light microscope
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uses 1 lens to form an image and 1 eyepiece
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compound light microscope
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uses 2 lenses to form an image and 1 eyepiece
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simple and compound light microscopes
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image is reversed
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stereo dissecting microscope
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produces 3D images of specimens image is not reversed and 2 eyepieces
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electron microscope
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shines a beam of electrons through the specimen that must be dead before being viewed
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metric system
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the system of measurement used by scientists worldwide
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10
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the number that the multiples of the metric system are based on
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length
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how long something is
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mass
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the amount of matter in an object
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volume
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the amount of space something takes up
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temperature
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the amount of heat in an object
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metric ruler
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used to measure length
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balance
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used to measure mass
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graduated cylinder
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used to measure the volume of liquids
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thermometer
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used to measure temperature
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meter
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the metric unit for length
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gram
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the metric unit for mass
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liter
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the metric unit for volume
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celsius
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the metric unit for temperature
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meniscus
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the concave surface of a liquid in a graduated cylinder
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mm
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millimeters (are the lines that are one tenth each number on the metric ruler)
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cm
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centimeters (are the lines that are each number on the metric ruler)
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eyepiece
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contains the ocular lens
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revolving nosepiece
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holds the objective lenses and can be rotated to change magnification
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objective lenses
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magnification ranges from 4 times to 40 times
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stage clips
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hold the slide in place
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stage
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supports the slide being viewed
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light source
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projects light upwards through the diaphragm the specimen and the lenses
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arm
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used to support the microscope when carried
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coarse adjustment knob
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moves the stage up and down for focusing
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fine adjustment knob
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moves the stage slightly to sharpen the image
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diaphragm
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regulates the amount of light on the specimen
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base
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supports the microscope
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total magnification
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eyepiece magnification times objective magnification
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microscope field of view
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the area you see when you look into a microscope
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staining
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a technique used to make cell parts more visible
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pH
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the scale used to determine if a solution is an acid a base or a neutral
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litmus paper
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determines whether solutions are an acid or a base
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how litmus paper works
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an acid turns blue litmus paper red and a base turns red litmus paper blue a neutral does not change the color
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pH paper
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is used to determine the actual pH of a solution
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how pH paper works
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the paper is dipped in the solution and it turns a color that is then compared to a chart that shows the pH
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color and the pH scale
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the pH scale is 0 to 14 where 7 is neutral 0 to 6 is an acid and 8 to 14 is a base, the colors are neutral is greenish-yellow an acid is red to yellow and a base is green to violet
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Bromthymol blue
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turns yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide
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Benedict’s solution
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turns from blue to yellow orange brick red in the presence of glucose
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Lugol’s iodine
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turns from amber to blue-black in the presence of starch used for the staining of plant cells
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graphs
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help us visualize numerical data in an organized way that is easeier to interpret
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bar graphs
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used to show a comparison between multiple objects
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pie graphs
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used to compare parts of a whole
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line graphs
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used to show the relationship between variables
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direct relationship
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as x increases y increases
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inverse relationship
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as x increases y decreases
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constant relationship
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as x increases y remains the same
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independent variable
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is always on the x-axis
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dependent variable
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is always on the y-axis
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phase contrast microscope
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enhances and contrasts the image of transparent objects
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Phenolphthalein solution
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turns from clear to bright pink in the presence of either carbon dioxide or a base
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Biuret solution
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turns from light blue to purple in the presence of protein
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Methylene blue
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used for the staining of animal cells

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