Biology Semester One Final Exam Study Guide

biology is the study of what?
life
characteristics of life
living things are made from cells. different levels of organization. DNA. use energy. grow and develop. respond to environment. reproduce. adapt to environment.
what is science? and the goals of science?
study of physical and natural world. and the goal is to explain it. (mostly the natural world in biology.)
what is homeostasis? give an example.
the ability of the body or cell to maintain an equilibrium with temperature. an example would be when we go in the cold and the heart rate slows down so the body shivers (shivers are the muscles spazz type things) so the heart rate can go up and heat the body. same with heat. sweat is the body’s way of cooling the body down.
what are the boiling and freezing points on the Celsius scale?
boiling- 100 C freezing- 0 c
what are the boiling and freezing points on the Fahrenheit scale?
boiling- 212 F freezing- 32 F
what are the levels of organization in biology? smallest to largest.
molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
the parts if an atom and the location of each within the atom.
protons- positive charge, found in the nucleus
neutrons- no charge, found in nucleus
electron- negative charge, found around the atom
what is a covalent bond?
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms.
compare element, compound, and mixture
element- consists of only one kind of element
compound- consists of two or more different elements bound together
mixture- consists of two or more different elements and/or molecules physically intermingled
what is an ionic bond?
complete to transfer of electrons between atoms
why is a water molecule polar?
the opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges. opposite charges cause the molecule to be polar.
what is a hydrogen bond?
a bond with polar molecules.
how do the hydrogen bonds play a role in water molecules sticking together?
they attract
how are cohesion and adhesion similar? different?
cohesion- attraction of water molecules
adhesion- attraction of other surfaces
what is a solution?
liquid mixture. (solvent+solute)
the difference between the solute and the solvent?
solute- powder/solid solvent- liquid
on the pH scale, what is acidic, basic, and neutral?
acidic- 0-9
basic- 8-14
neutral- 7
what number is considered the strongest acid? strongest base?
strongest acid-14
strongest base-0-1
the differences is monomers and polymers
monomers-small molecules join together
polymers-composed of comnomers
the four organic macromolecules, their basic structure, AND functions.
proteins-
monomer- amino acids. function-cell membrane. CHON- elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
carbohydrates-
monomer- glucose (C6H12O6). function-energy (starch- where plants store energy.. glycogen-where animals store energy.. cellulose- located in cell wall- makes plants sturdy.) CHO-elements
nucleic acid-
monomer- nucleotide-5 carbon sugar,phosphate group,nitrogen base. RNA & DNA. CHONP- elements.
lipids-
monomer-phospholipids- polar head and non polar tail. CHo-elements. energy.
what is a monosaccaharide and a polysaccharide?
mono-single sugar molecule (glucose)
poly- multiple sugar molecules (starch, glycogen, and cellulose)
which organic compound is the main source of energy for living things?
carbohydrates
what is a chemical reaction?
a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances.
what happens to chemical bonds in a chemical reaction?
they form or break down
what happens to atoms in a chemical reaction?
they are rearranged.
what is a reactant in a chemical reaction?
they are changed into other substances ____–>
what is a product in a chemical reaction?
what reactants are changed into –>___
how do enzymes affect reactions in living cells?
they speed up the reactions
parts of the microscope
eyepiece, arm, knob (2), light, base, diaphram, stage, objective lense
what is a prokaryote?
a cell with no nucleus
what is an eukaryote?
a cell with a nucleus
how do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ?
one has a nucleus and one does not
3 examples of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes
eu-plant, animal, and fungi
pro-bacteria, yeast, and algae
what are the 3 parts of the cell theory?
all living things are made up of cells. cells are made up of other cells. and they are the smallest basic unit of life.
what is found is the nucleus of the cell?
DNA
all the animal organelles
nucleus, nucleolous, smooth and rough ER, ribosomes, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, cell membrane, nuclear membrane, vacuole, lysosome
what organelles are found in plants not in animals?
chloroplast, and cell wall
what are microtubules and microfilaments used for?
movement and structure
what is a cell wall, where would you find it, and what is it’s function?
it supports and protects the cell. it’s found in plant cells. it makes the plant sturdy
describe the cell membrane and give its function
it controls what goes in and out of the cell. it helps with structure and movement.
what is diffusion?
molecules spread from high level of concentration to low. equilibrium.
what is osmosis?
diffusion of water. it doesn’t require energy
what is a hypotonic solution?
a fat cell (hippo) more molecules inside
what is a hypertonic solution?
a shriveled cell. skinny
what is an isotonic solution?
equal concentration
what happens to a cell when you put it into a hypertonic solution? hypotinic? isotonic?
hypo- cell will grow and pop
hyper-cell will shrivel
iso-nothing happen to the cell because of equal concentration
what is facillitated diffusion?
type of passive transport that allows substances to cross membranes. it requires no energy
what is active transport?
when a molecule is pumped from low to high concentration. it requires energy.
what is an organ?
a group of tissue that work together to preform a certain function
what is an organ system?
a group of organs that work together to preform a certain function
what relation is there between an organ, a tissue, and a cell?
they make up eachother
the levels of organization in a multicellular organism
cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism
what are organisms that make their own food?
autotrophs
what are organisms that don’t make their own food?
heterotrophs
what is ATP and what is its function? 3 parts?
stores energy for later use.
adenine, 3 phosphate groups, and ribose
when is energy released from an ATP molecule?
when a phosphate group breaks off
what is photosynthesis?
when a plant takes sunlight and CO2 and turns it into food and oxygen
6H2O+6CO2–chloroplast/light–>C6H12O6+6O2
what are the products for photosynthesis?
glucose and oxygen
what are the reactants for photosynthesis?
water and carbon dioxide
why do plants appear green?
chlorophyll
what is granum? where is it located?
a stack of thylakoids. it is located in the chloroplast.
what is the stroma?
gel like material inside the chloroplast
where do light dependent reactions take place? what is released? photosystem 1 or 2 occurs first?
take place in the thylakoid space
oxygen is released
photosystem 2 occurs first
where does the calvin cycle take place? what is released? what is another name?
takes place in the stroma
glucose is released
light independent reaction
some of the things that affect photosynthesis?
light intensity, temperature, and water
what is cellular respiration?
a process that breaks down glucose and stores it for energy as ATP
what are the steps in cellular respiration?
glycolysis, kreb’s cycle, and electron transport chain
how many molecules does cellular respiration from what?
it produces 36 ATP from 1 glucose
equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6+6O2–mitochondria–>6H2O+6CO2
where does glycolysis take place?
cytoplasm
where does the electron transport chain take place?
cristae
where does the krebs cycle take place
matrix
how does glycolysis begin?
glucose
in cellular respiration, what molecule acts as an electron carrier?
NAD+
what are the two products of fermentation?
alcoholic and lactic acid
if oxygen is present after glycolysis, the next step will be what?
krebs cycle
what does aerobic mean?
with oxygen
what does anaerobic mean?
without oxygen
what is the starting molecule for the krebs cycle?
pyruvic acid
the energy is electrons during cellular respiration is used to make what?
ATP
what does the body use as a source of energy during exercise?
glucose and glycogen
compare cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
opposite
why is there a limitation to cell size?
DNA overload, limited nutrients and resources
what are parts of the cell cycle?
Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
how many daughter cells does one cell going through the cell cycle divide into?
2 daughter cells
what is the longest phase of the cell cycle and what takes place during this phase?
interphase. the cells grows
the different phases if mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
what is the longest phase of mitosis?
prophase
what is cytokinesis?
when the cytoplasm pinches and 2 cells are formed
during what stages are chromosomes visible?
prophase-telophase
what is the purpose of spindle fibers?
helps seperate chromosomes
what regulates the cell cycle?
cyline
what is cancer?
the uncontrolled growth of cells
what are homologous chromosomes?
2 sets from both parents
what does it mean to be diploid?
2 sets=1 whole
human- 46 sets= 23 wholes
what does it mean to be haploid?
1 set= 1/2
different stages of meiosis
I,P,M,A,T and P2,M2,A2,T2
are the cells genetically different or genetically identical?
different
how many daughter cells do we get with meiosis?
4
how many cell divisions do we have with meiosis?
2