Biology Major Field Test Study Set

“4 Biomolecules and Monomers
Protein (amino acids) Carbohydrates (simple sugars) Lipids (glycerol and fatty acids) Nuclei acids (nucleotides)”
dipeptides
two amino acids bonded together
what is the general fatty acid formula
CH3(CH2)nCOOH where n= an even number between 12 and 24
explain identifying saturated vs. unsaturated fats
saturated: only single bonds in hydrocarbon chain… unsaturated: one or more double bonds
glycerides
glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Levels of Protein Structure
1. order of amino acids 2. alpha-helices or beta-pleated sheets 3. bonding b/w a.a. side chains 4. multi-subunit structure
nucleotide is composed of
phosphate group; sugar group; nitrogenous base
Vmax
maximum reaction rate at which point substrate is saturated with enzyme
Feedback Inhibition
end-product of enzyme catalyzed rxn. blocks original enz.
Competitive Inhibition
molecules compete with substrate for enzyme’s active sites
irreversible inhibitors
chemically and covalently bind to active site; rendering it permanently inactive
psuedoirreversible inhibitors
extremely high affinities for active site; hard to displace
noncompetitive inhibitors
do not compete for active site but act elsewhere on enz.; altering 3D shape
photosynthesis
anabolic process that converts sunlight into energy stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP, then more permanently stored in bonds of organic carbon compounds
electron transport chain
series of carrier molecules on the inner mitochondrial membrane which pass electrons through enzymes that pump protons to one side of the membrane, creating a proton gradient
chemiosmosis
the use of a gradient, such as a proton gradient, to generate energy. The ATP synthase enzyme uses the kinetic movement of protons down the gradient to store energy by converting ADP to ATP
ATP
Adenosine tri phosphate, a modified nucleotide that stores energy in it’s phosphate bonds.
fermentation
glycolysis and the additional steps leading to the formation of ethanol or lactic acid, to make ATP. It does not include the Kreb’s cycle (producing CO2) or the ETC.
occluding/tight junctions
nothing can diffuse between cells or past junction
anchoring junctions
physical joining so cells do not shear away
communicating junctions
gap junctions are formed by proteins called connexins that allow for undisrupted and very fast signal transmission
plasmodesmata
plant cells’ equivalent of gap junctions
G-actin
globular monomer
F-actin
long filament
microtubules
cellular conveyor belts
microtubule assoc. proteins
attach to tubulin on one end and cargo on the other dyneins: pull to center kinesins: outside”
9+2 structure
9 prs microtubules surrounding 2 central microtubules for stability (structure of cilia&flagella)
basal bodies
microtubule triplets; anchor cilia/flagella; foundation for new microtubules
centrioles
anchor microtubules growing into mitotic spindle
intermediate filaments
thin fibers wound together in tight coils; membrane stability
proto-oncogenes
normal genes involved in control of cell growth/division
oncogenes
mutations occur and no longer maintain control over a particular aspect of growth
density-dependent inhibition
normal cells able to suppress growth when near other cells
alleles
different forms of a gene
homozygous/heterozygous
homo: 2 copies of same allele; hetero: one dom.; one rec.
dominance
only one dom. needed for phenotype to be present
segregation
2 alleles for given trait seperate during meiosis
independent assortment
genes for one trait separate independent of genes for another trait
incomplete dominance
single dom. allele cannot produce full phenotype; see blending
codominance
2 different alleles both show up in phenotype
epistasis
second gene determines if first gene is expressed or not
mitochondrial inheritance
all genes present in mitochondria come from mother
genomic imprinting
certain alleles are encoded differently depended on which parent allele comes from
triple repeat extension
number of repeats increases with each generation
transformation
bacteria picks up free DNA
conjugation
cytoplasmic extensions between bacterial cells allow movement of plasmids
transduction
viruses infect bacterial cells
nucleosomes
spools of DNA wrapped around histone proteins
exons
coding sequences of DNA
introns
non-coding sequences of DNA
spliceosome
lg ribonucleotide that forms during excision of introns and splicing of exons
transposons
pieces of DNA that can move from place to place within organism’s genome
enhancers
non-coding regions of DNA that influence the activation of genes
methylation
DNA is subject to addition of CH3 to nitrogenous bases; can’t be transcribed
pyrimidine bases
C and T; single rings of nitrogen and carbon
purine bases
G and A; two fused rings of nitrogen and carbon
Okasaki fragments
sm. fragments of DNA that lagging strand is built out of as enzyme has to jump ahead and work backwards to go in 5 to 3 direction
endonucleases
cleave out and replace damaged DNA in middle of strands
thymine dimers
adj. T molecules bond covalently due to UV energy
primase
builds RNA primer for DNA replication
helicase
enzyme that unwinds DNA
topoisomerases
regulate supercoiling of DNA into chromosomes
DNA ligase
connects Okasaki fragments left over from discont. syn. on lagging strand of DNA
temperate phage
bacteriophage that has been integrated into host DNA
viroid
viruslike particles composed of single molecule of circ. RNA
prions
infectious pieces of protein
lysozome
enz. that can destroy bacterial cell walls and some viral capsules (present in saliva; tears; mucous)
monocytes
macrophages circ. in blood
polyclonal
antibodies that arise in natural course of fighting infection; produced by several diff clones of B cells and cover wide range of specicity
monoclonal
antibodies arising from a single clone (a single B cell that has rapidly divided into identical B cells)
lag period
period after exposure to antigen before helpful levels of antibodies are made by B cells
tissue-specific promoters
guarantee expression of particular gene in only one type of tissue
restriction enzymes
recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave them
Sanger method
DNA sequencing
Southern blot
used to probe DNA for certain sequences
RFLP
restriction fragment length polymorphisms; diff in length of fragments made by restriction enz digestion of 2 DNA samples
ruminants
variations in: enlarged multichambered stomachs; length of alimentary canal; shape of teeth
trachae
resp tubules that make up anthropod resp sys. open to outside through spiracles
cloaca
opening found at tail end of reptiles used for excretion and resp
homeotherms
maintain nearly constant body temp even as surroundings change (endotherms)
air sacs
allow fresh air to flow through lungs even during exhalation; present in birds; even in bones for better flight
lamellae
platelike structures on filaments of gill arches where O2 diffusion occurs in fish
countercurrent exchange
blood flows opposite of O2 source (fish)
opercula
gill coverings
Bohr Effect
O2 dissociation curve shifts right as pH drops; ev adaptation; hgb looses O2 more quickly in acidic environ. (to help O2 get into cells)
myoglobin
resp pigment found in muscle cells and where O2 used most quickly; higher O2 affinity
protonephridia
series of tubes in flatworms to tx excretory waste through; end in hollow bulbs (flame cells)
nephridia
specialized tubes to excrete mineral salts and urea in annelid worms
Malphhigian tubes
outfoldings of digestive tract in the midgut of insects for absorption
ectotherms
coldblooded; not capable of maintaining constant int temp (reptiles; amphibians etc.)
established/innate reflex
unconditioned stim and response it naturally elicits
neutral stimulus
stim that will not by itself elicit a response
display
innate behavior that has evolved as a signal for comm b/w members of same sp.
interoceptors
monitor aspects of int environ
proprioceptors
transmit info regarding position of body in space
exteroreceptors
sense things in ext environ
endolymph
fluid that fills 3 semicirc canals of ear
motor end plate
special region where motor nerve synapses on a muscle
hydrostatic skeleton
fluid skeleton; fluid held under pressure within closed body cavity (earthworm)
exoskeleton
hard shell or casing deposited on the surface of an organism (insects)
endoskeleton
internal sys of bones and cartilage that support surrounding soft tissues (vertebrates)
chemotaxis
movement in a direction based on a gradient of a diffusible chem that is sensed by smell (WBCs)
monozygotic twins
identical; single zygote splits into 2 embryos
dizygotic twins
two ova released in one ovarian cycle and are fertilized by 2 diff sperm
homeotic genes
remain capable of activation long after embryologic dev. ends
indeterminate cleavage
results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into complete organism
determinate cleavage
cells whose future differentiation pathways are det at an early dev stage
blastulation
morula develops fluid filled cavity called blastocoel
deuterostomes
blastopore=future anus (humans)
protostomes
blastophore=future mouth
ectoderm
integument; eye lens; nervous sys
endoderm
epi lining of digestive and resp tracts; parts of liver; pancreas; thyroid; bladder
mesoderm
musculoskeletal sys; circ sys; excretory sys; gonads; ct; digestive and resp organs
induction
influence of specific grp of cells on differentiation of another grp of cells; most often mediated by chem substances
spongy layer
contains cholorplasts with air spaces around cells
palisade layer
densely packed elongated cells spread over lg surface area
meristems
self-renewing cell pop that divide and cause plant growth either in height or width
primary growth
occurs as a result of cell division within apical meristems
secondary growth
growth outward (forms tree rings)
geotropism
growth of portions of plants towards or away from gravity (positive)
symplast
cytoplasmic compartment made cont by the presence of plasmodesmata in plant cell walls
tonoplast
membrane of the central vacuole; stores water and starch
macronutrients
biomolecules that make up majority of lipids; carbs; proteins and nucleic acids (c; h; n; o; p; s; ca; k; mg)
micronutrients
fe; cl; copper; manganese; zn; b; ni; molybdenum; used as cofactors for enzs
short-day plants
flower when exposed to daylight hrs shorter than threshold amt. (really long-night plants)
long-day plants
flower with days longer than a certain threshold (really short-night plants)
plasmids
sm circ pieces of extrachromosomal DNA containing few genes
obligate anaerobes
cannot survive in presence of oxy
faculatative anaerobes
can survive with or without oxy
obligate aerobes
require oxy to survive
saprobes
absorb nutrients from nonliving matter
plasmogamy
fusion of cytoplasms of male and female gametangia
karyogamy
fusion of male and female nuclei
radially symmetric
bodies stretch out in equal dimensions from a central pt
bilaterally symmetric
organized along one vertical or horizontal axis and tend to be long or thin
acoleomate
having no body cavity between gut and outer wall
pseudocoleomate
having a body cavity that is lined by muscles and bvs on the outside surface of cavity
coleomate
having a body cavity lined by muscle tissue and bvs both on outer surface and inner surface; surrounding entire digestive tract
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
gene frequencies remain constant if: no emigration/immigration; lg. pop. size; no net mutations; no nat. selection; random mating
porifera
sponges
cnidaria
jellyfish; corals; hydra
platyhelminthes
flatworms; tapeworms
aschelminthes
roundworms; rotifers
annelida
earthworms; leachces
mollusca
clams; oysters; snails
arthropoda
insects; crabs; shrimp
echinodermata
sea stars; sea urchins; sea cucumbers
chordata
sea squirts; lancelets; ALL vertebrates
coniferous
cone-bearing
permafrost
layer of subsoil that never thaws (found on tundras)
primary succession
gradual change of new/lifeless ares of land into thriving ecosys
secondary succession
rebuilding of comm. after destruction
pioneer organisms
those that first take hold in barren habitat
nitrification
conversion of ammonia to nitrate
competitive exclusion principle
2 sp. competing for same lim. resources will result in one of the sp. being driven to extinction
keystone specie
if removed; widespread havoc and destruction within comm.
biomass
numbers of individuals within a comm.
gross primary productivity
total chemical energy generated by produces in a given area
net primary productivity
total productivity with losses from resp and other energy use by plants subtracted
carrying capacity
max size at which pop can stably interact with environ for long period of time
density-dependent limiting factor
affect pop growth to a greater degree the lger the pop gets
density-independent limiting factor
likely affect a pop growth regardless of size of pop or how well pop adapted to environ
K-selected sp
produce few lg well dev young; parental care; slow growth; delayed mat; delayed repro; long gestation
r-selected sp
lots of offspring at once; little or no care; fast growth; repro relatively soon after birth; short gestation
gene translocation
moves a gene from one region of chromo neare to a more active promoter region
cline
graded variation across a diversity of climates and other environmental conditions
ecotypes
locally adapted variants of an organism; differing genetically from other local forms
transplantation experiments
smaller; founder pop of a sp is moved to a new area where pop has not previously spread in order to see if org take hold
autopolyploidy
becoming polyploid by self fert
allopolyploidy
becoming polyploid by combining your chromo with another sp
inclusive fitness
grps overall fitness increased when some members behave in way that helps offspring survive/repro (kin selection)
adaptive radiation
emergence of many sp from a common ancestor after ancestral pop introduced into environ with diverse conditions/open niches
phylogeny
relationship of one sp to another
systematics
process of classifying organisms based on phylogeny
cladistics
grouping of species determined to be related because of distinguishing novel feature
cell cycle
Gap 1 (growth & protein synthesis); S (DNA synthesis); Gap 2 (checking DNA for errors; M (mitosis); Cytokinesis (cells moving away from each other)
mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
meiosis
production of haploid gametes from a diploid cell. In a human with 46 chromosomes, meiosis produces an egg and a sperm, each with 23 chromosomes.
crossing-over
the exchange of segments of DNA between homologous chromosomes
cell organelles & functions
ribosome
cell membrane
smooth ER
rough ER
Golgi apparatus
nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
peroxisomes
lysosomes
cell organelles & functions
ribosome: protein synthesis
cell membrane: selective permeability, communication
smooth ER: lipid production
rough ER: protein production
Golgi apparatus: modifying, packaging, shipping
nucleus: chromatin, transcription
nucleolus: manufacture of rRNA
mitochondria: aerobic respiration, contains own circular DNA, maternal inheritance
peroxisomes: detoxifies peroxides
lysosomes: contains enzymes for digestion in endocytosis
disruptive selection
favors extreme phenotypes
stabilizing selection
favors intermediate phenotypes, thought to be most common type. Classic example: baby birth weight (too big difficulty being born, too little health compromised)
directional selection
favors one extreme phenotype, usually when a population moves into a new environment (classic example of Darwin’s finches)
prokaryote
bacteria (no nucleus)
eukaryote
complex cells, including nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Plant cells include cellulose cell walls. Fungal cells include chitin cell walls.
virus
infectious microbe that is not considered “alive” because it does not metabolize.
retrovirus
RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that uses the RNA template to make DNA
antibiotic
a chemical specifically targeted to inhibit the growth of bacteria
glucose
the “typical” carbohydrate, formula C6H12O6. is the building block of starch and cellulose, the prototypical substrate of glycolysis.
sucrose
composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.
glycogen
molecule used for stored energy, especially in the liver.
kinase
an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from ATP to its substrate
phosphatase
an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from its substrate, using water and releasing the P as a phosphate ion.