Biology Major Field Test Study Set

“4 Biomolecules and Monomers
Protein (amino acids) Carbohydrates (simple sugars) Lipids (glycerol and fatty acids) Nuclei acids (nucleotides)”

dipeptides
two amino acids bonded together

what is the general fatty acid formula
CH3(CH2)nCOOH where n= an even number between 12 and 24

explain identifying saturated vs. unsaturated fats
saturated: only single bonds in hydrocarbon chain… unsaturated: one or more double bonds

glycerides
glycerol and 3 fatty acids

Levels of Protein Structure
1. order of amino acids 2. alpha-helices or beta-pleated sheets 3. bonding b/w a.a. side chains 4. multi-subunit structure

nucleotide is composed of
phosphate group; sugar group; nitrogenous base

Vmax
maximum reaction rate at which point substrate is saturated with enzyme

Feedback Inhibition
end-product of enzyme catalyzed rxn. blocks original enz.

Competitive Inhibition
molecules compete with substrate for enzyme’s active sites

irreversible inhibitors
chemically and covalently bind to active site; rendering it permanently inactive

psuedoirreversible inhibitors
extremely high affinities for active site; hard to displace

noncompetitive inhibitors
do not compete for active site but act elsewhere on enz.; altering 3D shape

photosynthesis
anabolic process that converts sunlight into energy stored in the phosphate bonds of ATP, then more permanently stored in bonds of organic carbon compounds

electron transport chain
series of carrier molecules on the inner mitochondrial membrane which pass electrons through enzymes that pump protons to one side of the membrane, creating a proton gradient

chemiosmosis
the use of a gradient, such as a proton gradient, to generate energy. The ATP synthase enzyme uses the kinetic movement of protons down the gradient to store energy by converting ADP to ATP

ATP
Adenosine tri phosphate, a modified nucleotide that stores energy in it’s phosphate bonds.

fermentation
glycolysis and the additional steps leading to the formation of ethanol or lactic acid, to make ATP. It does not include the Kreb’s cycle (producing CO2) or the ETC.

occluding/tight junctions
nothing can diffuse between cells or past junction

anchoring junctions
physical joining so cells do not shear away

communicating junctions
gap junctions are formed by proteins called connexins that allow for undisrupted and very fast signal transmission

plasmodesmata
plant cells’ equivalent of gap junctions

G-actin
globular monomer

F-actin
long filament

microtubules
cellular conveyor belts

microtubule assoc. proteins
attach to tubulin on one end and cargo on the other dyneins: pull to center kinesins: outside”

9+2 structure
9 prs microtubules surrounding 2 central microtubules for stability (structure of cilia&flagella)

basal bodies
microtubule triplets; anchor cilia/flagella; foundation for new microtubules

centrioles
anchor microtubules growing into mitotic spindle

intermediate filaments
thin fibers wound together in tight coils; membrane stability

proto-oncogenes
normal genes involved in control of cell growth/division

oncogenes
mutations occur and no longer maintain control over a particular aspect of growth

density-dependent inhibition
normal cells able to suppress growth when near other cells

alleles
different forms of a gene

homozygous/heterozygous
homo: 2 copies of same allele; hetero: one dom.; one rec.

dominance
only one dom. needed for phenotype to be present

segregation
2 alleles for given trait seperate during meiosis

independent assortment
genes for one trait separate independent of genes for another trait

incomplete dominance
single dom. allele cannot produce full phenotype; see blending

codominance
2 different alleles both show up in phenotype

epistasis
second gene determines if first gene is expressed or not

mitochondrial inheritance
all genes present in mitochondria come from mother

genomic imprinting
certain alleles are encoded differently depended on which parent allele comes from

triple repeat extension
number of repeats increases with each generation

transformation
bacteria picks up free DNA

conjugation
cytoplasmic extensions between bacterial cells allow movement of plasmids

transduction
viruses infect bacterial cells

nucleosomes
spools of DNA wrapped around histone proteins

exons
coding sequences of DNA

introns
non-coding sequences of DNA

spliceosome
lg ribonucleotide that forms during excision of introns and splicing of exons

transposons
pieces of DNA that can move from place to place within organism’s genome

enhancers
non-coding regions of DNA that influence the activation of genes

methylation
DNA is subject to addition of CH3 to nitrogenous bases; can’t be transcribed

pyrimidine bases
C and T; single rings of nitrogen and carbon

purine bases
G and A; two fused rings of nitrogen and carbon

Okasaki fragments
sm. fragments of DNA that lagging strand is built out of as enzyme has to jump ahead and work backwards to go in 5 to 3 direction

endonucleases
cleave out and replace damaged DNA in middle of strands

thymine dimers
adj. T molecules bond covalently due to UV energy

primase
builds RNA primer for DNA replication

helicase
enzyme that unwinds DNA

topoisomerases
regulate supercoiling of DNA into chromosomes

DNA ligase
connects Okasaki fragments left over from discont. syn. on lagging strand of DNA

temperate phage
bacteriophage that has been integrated into host DNA

viroid
viruslike particles composed of single molecule of circ. RNA

prions
infectious pieces of protein

lysozome
enz. that can destroy bacterial cell walls and some viral capsules (present in saliva; tears; mucous)

monocytes
macrophages circ. in blood

polyclonal
antibodies that arise in natural course of fighting infection; produced by several diff clones of B cells and cover wide range of specicity

monoclonal
antibodies arising from a single clone (a single B cell that has rapidly divided into identical B cells)

lag period
period after exposure to antigen before helpful levels of antibodies are made by B cells

tissue-specific promoters
guarantee expression of particular gene in only one type of tissue

restriction enzymes
recognize specific DNA sequences and cleave them

Sanger method
DNA sequencing

Southern blot
used to probe DNA for certain sequences

RFLP
restriction fragment length polymorphisms; diff in length of fragments made by restriction enz digestion of 2 DNA samples

ruminants
variations in: enlarged multichambered stomachs; length of alimentary canal; shape of teeth

trachae
resp tubules that make up anthropod resp sys. open to outside through spiracles

cloaca
opening found at tail end of reptiles used for excretion and resp

homeotherms
maintain nearly constant body temp even as surroundings change (endotherms)

air sacs
allow fresh air to flow through lungs even during exhalation; present in birds; even in bones for better flight

lamellae
platelike structures on filaments of gill arches where O2 diffusion occurs in fish

countercurrent exchange
blood flows opposite of O2 source (fish)

opercula
gill coverings

Bohr Effect
O2 dissociation curve shifts right as pH drops; ev adaptation; hgb looses O2 more quickly in acidic environ. (to help O2 get into cells)

myoglobin
resp pigment found in muscle cells and where O2 used most quickly; higher O2 affinity

protonephridia
series of tubes in flatworms to tx excretory waste through; end in hollow bulbs (flame cells)

nephridia
specialized tubes to excrete mineral salts and urea in annelid worms

Malphhigian tubes
outfoldings of digestive tract in the midgut of insects for absorption

ectotherms
coldblooded; not capable of maintaining constant int temp (reptiles; amphibians etc.)

established/innate reflex
unconditioned stim and response it naturally elicits

neutral stimulus
stim that will not by itself elicit a response

display
innate behavior that has evolved as a signal for comm b/w members of same sp.

interoceptors
monitor aspects of int environ

proprioceptors
transmit info regarding position of body in space

exteroreceptors
sense things in ext environ

endolymph
fluid that fills 3 semicirc canals of ear

motor end plate
special region where motor nerve synapses on a muscle

hydrostatic skeleton
fluid skeleton; fluid held under pressure within closed body cavity (earthworm)

exoskeleton
hard shell or casing deposited on the surface of an organism (insects)

endoskeleton
internal sys of bones and cartilage that support surrounding soft tissues (vertebrates)

chemotaxis
movement in a direction based on a gradient of a diffusible chem that is sensed by smell (WBCs)

monozygotic twins
identical; single zygote splits into 2 embryos

dizygotic twins
two ova released in one ovarian cycle and are fertilized by 2 diff sperm

homeotic genes
remain capable of activation long after embryologic dev. ends

indeterminate cleavage
results in cells that maintain the ability to develop into complete organism

determinate cleavage
cells whose future differentiation pathways are det at an early dev stage

blastulation
morula develops fluid filled cavity called blastocoel

deuterostomes
blastopore=future anus (humans)

protostomes
blastophore=future mouth

ectoderm
integument; eye lens; nervous sys

endoderm
epi lining of digestive and resp tracts; parts of liver; pancreas; thyroid; bladder

mesoderm
musculoskeletal sys; circ sys; excretory sys; gonads; ct; digestive and resp organs

induction
influence of specific grp of cells on differentiation of another grp of cells; most often mediated by chem substances

spongy layer
contains cholorplasts with air spaces around cells

palisade layer
densely packed elongated cells spread over lg surface area

meristems
self-renewing cell pop that divide and cause plant growth either in height or width

primary growth
occurs as a result of cell division within apical meristems

secondary growth
growth outward (forms tree rings)

geotropism
growth of portions of plants towards or away from gravity (positive)

symplast
cytoplasmic compartment made cont by the presence of plasmodesmata in plant cell walls

tonoplast
membrane of the central vacuole; stores water and starch

macronutrients
biomolecules that make up majority of lipids; carbs; proteins and nucleic acids (c; h; n; o; p; s; ca; k; mg)

micronutrients
fe; cl; copper; manganese; zn; b; ni; molybdenum; used as cofactors for enzs

short-day plants
flower when exposed to daylight hrs shorter than threshold amt. (really long-night plants)

long-day plants
flower with days longer than a certain threshold (really short-night plants)

plasmids
sm circ pieces of extrachromosomal DNA containing few genes

obligate anaerobes
cannot survive in presence of oxy

faculatative anaerobes
can survive with or without oxy

obligate aerobes
require oxy to survive

saprobes
absorb nutrients from nonliving matter

plasmogamy
fusion of cytoplasms of male and female gametangia

karyogamy
fusion of male and female nuclei

radially symmetric
bodies stretch out in equal dimensions from a central pt

bilaterally symmetric
organized along one vertical or horizontal axis and tend to be long or thin

acoleomate
having no body cavity between gut and outer wall

pseudocoleomate
having a body cavity that is lined by muscles and bvs on the outside surface of cavity

coleomate
having a body cavity lined by muscle tissue and bvs both on outer surface and inner surface; surrounding entire digestive tract

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
gene frequencies remain constant if: no emigration/immigration; lg. pop. size; no net mutations; no nat. selection; random mating

porifera
sponges

cnidaria
jellyfish; corals; hydra

platyhelminthes
flatworms; tapeworms

aschelminthes
roundworms; rotifers

annelida
earthworms; leachces

mollusca
clams; oysters; snails

arthropoda
insects; crabs; shrimp

echinodermata
sea stars; sea urchins; sea cucumbers

chordata
sea squirts; lancelets; ALL vertebrates

coniferous
cone-bearing

permafrost
layer of subsoil that never thaws (found on tundras)

primary succession
gradual change of new/lifeless ares of land into thriving ecosys

secondary succession
rebuilding of comm. after destruction

pioneer organisms
those that first take hold in barren habitat

nitrification
conversion of ammonia to nitrate

competitive exclusion principle
2 sp. competing for same lim. resources will result in one of the sp. being driven to extinction

keystone specie
if removed; widespread havoc and destruction within comm.

biomass
numbers of individuals within a comm.

gross primary productivity
total chemical energy generated by produces in a given area

net primary productivity
total productivity with losses from resp and other energy use by plants subtracted

carrying capacity
max size at which pop can stably interact with environ for long period of time

density-dependent limiting factor
affect pop growth to a greater degree the lger the pop gets

density-independent limiting factor
likely affect a pop growth regardless of size of pop or how well pop adapted to environ

K-selected sp
produce few lg well dev young; parental care; slow growth; delayed mat; delayed repro; long gestation

r-selected sp
lots of offspring at once; little or no care; fast growth; repro relatively soon after birth; short gestation

gene translocation
moves a gene from one region of chromo neare to a more active promoter region

cline
graded variation across a diversity of climates and other environmental conditions

ecotypes
locally adapted variants of an organism; differing genetically from other local forms

transplantation experiments
smaller; founder pop of a sp is moved to a new area where pop has not previously spread in order to see if org take hold

autopolyploidy
becoming polyploid by self fert

allopolyploidy
becoming polyploid by combining your chromo with another sp

inclusive fitness
grps overall fitness increased when some members behave in way that helps offspring survive/repro (kin selection)

adaptive radiation
emergence of many sp from a common ancestor after ancestral pop introduced into environ with diverse conditions/open niches

phylogeny
relationship of one sp to another

systematics
process of classifying organisms based on phylogeny

cladistics
grouping of species determined to be related because of distinguishing novel feature

cell cycle
Gap 1 (growth & protein synthesis); S (DNA synthesis); Gap 2 (checking DNA for errors; M (mitosis); Cytokinesis (cells moving away from each other)

mitosis
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

meiosis
production of haploid gametes from a diploid cell. In a human with 46 chromosomes, meiosis produces an egg and a sperm, each with 23 chromosomes.

crossing-over
the exchange of segments of DNA between homologous chromosomes

cell organelles & functions
ribosome
cell membrane
smooth ER
rough ER
Golgi apparatus
nucleus
nucleolus
mitochondria
peroxisomes
lysosomes
cell organelles & functions
ribosome: protein synthesis
cell membrane: selective permeability, communication
smooth ER: lipid production
rough ER: protein production
Golgi apparatus: modifying, packaging, shipping
nucleus: chromatin, transcription
nucleolus: manufacture of rRNA
mitochondria: aerobic respiration, contains own circular DNA, maternal inheritance
peroxisomes: detoxifies peroxides
lysosomes: contains enzymes for digestion in endocytosis

disruptive selection
favors extreme phenotypes

stabilizing selection
favors intermediate phenotypes, thought to be most common type. Classic example: baby birth weight (too big difficulty being born, too little health compromised)

directional selection
favors one extreme phenotype, usually when a population moves into a new environment (classic example of Darwin’s finches)

prokaryote
bacteria (no nucleus)

eukaryote
complex cells, including nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Plant cells include cellulose cell walls. Fungal cells include chitin cell walls.

virus
infectious microbe that is not considered “alive” because it does not metabolize.

retrovirus
RNA virus that contains reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that uses the RNA template to make DNA

antibiotic
a chemical specifically targeted to inhibit the growth of bacteria

glucose
the “typical” carbohydrate, formula C6H12O6. is the building block of starch and cellulose, the prototypical substrate of glycolysis.

sucrose
composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule.

glycogen
molecule used for stored energy, especially in the liver.

kinase
an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from ATP to its substrate

phosphatase
an enzyme that transfers a phosphate from its substrate, using water and releasing the P as a phosphate ion.