Biology EOC Review

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activation energy
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energy needed to start a chemical reaction; lowered by enzymes
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active transport
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movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell
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adaptation
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inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival
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allele
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the different forms of a gene; could be dominant or recessive
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amino acid
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basic building blocks of proteins
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analogous structures
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structures that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in form or function
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anaphase
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the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
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antibiotic
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compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
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antibody
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a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a pathogen that has entered the body
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antigen
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substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
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archaea
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domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
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ATP
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a nucleotide that stores and transfers energy within cells
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autotroph
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organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food; also called a producer
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bacteria
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domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
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bacteriophage
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virus that infects bacteria
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base deletion
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mutation which results in the loss of nucleotide pairs in a gene; have a major effect on the resulting protein
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base insertion
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mutation which results in the addition of nucleotide pairs in a gene; have a major effect on the resulting protein
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base-pair substitution
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a type of point mutation where one nucleotide and its partner are replaced by another pair of nucleotides
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behavioral adaptation
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an inherited behavior that helps an organism survive; like escaping from predators or find a mate
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binary fission
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asexual reproduction in prokaryotes by which one cell divides into two identical cells
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fetus
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an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
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fever
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a rise in the temperature of the body
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fitness
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the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment
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food chain
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a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
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food web
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a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
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fossil
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the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil
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gamete
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egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes (haploid), one from each homologous pair
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gene
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sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
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binomial nomenclature
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Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name including the genus and species
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biodiversity
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the variety of different species in a given area
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biogeochemical cycle
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process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another; like the carbon and nitrogen cycle
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biomass
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the total amount of living matter within a given trophic level
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capsid
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the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
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carbohydrate
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organic compound used by cells to store and release energy; composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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carbon cycle
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the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
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carnivore
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a consumer that only eats other consumers
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catalyst
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substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction; like an enzyme
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cell
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basic unit of life
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cell cycle
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the cycle of growth and reproduction of a cell, consisting of interphase (g1, s, g2) and mitosis (division of the nucleus-prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase) and cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm)
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cell division
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the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
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cell membrane
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The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell
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cell wall
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a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell; made of carbohydrates
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cellular respiration
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process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
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centriole
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organize the spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during animal cell mitosis
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centromere
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area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
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chlorophyll
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green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
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chloroplast
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organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
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chromatid
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one of two identical “sister” parts of a duplicated chromosome
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gradualism
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a model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity
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guard cell
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Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.
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habitat
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the place where an organism lives
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haploid number
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half the normal number of chromosomes; found in sex cells
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herbivore
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consumer that eats only producers; also called a primary consumer
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heterozygous
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having two different alleles for a trait
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homeostasis
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process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
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chromosome
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condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
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climax community
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a relatively stable long-lasting community reached in a successional series
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codon
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in RNA, a three-base “word” that codes for one amino acid
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commensalism
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symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
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competition
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the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
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concentration gradient
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difference in concentration of a substance on two sides of a membrane
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conclusion
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a summary of what you have learned from an experiment
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consumer
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an organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
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crossing over
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exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
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cytokinesis
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division of the cytoplasm
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cytoplasm
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a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
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data
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information gathered from observations
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decomposer
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organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
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deforestation
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the removal of trees
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differentiation
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process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
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diffusion
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the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; passive
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dihybrid cross
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genetic cross using two traits with two alleles each
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diploid number
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cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present
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disturbance
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A discrete event that disrupts an ecosystem or community. Examples of natural disturbances include fires, hurricanes, tornadoes, droughts, and floods. Examples of human-caused disturbances include deforestation, overgrazing, and plowing.
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DNA
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deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
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kingdom
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large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla
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learned behavior
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a behavior an animal learns from its parents
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lipid
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macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
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lysosome
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cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
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macromolecule
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any large complex organic molecule
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meiosis
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Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
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mRNA
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messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
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metaphase
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second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
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domain
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Most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
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dominant
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trait that will show up in an organism’s phenotype if gene is present
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double helix
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two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
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ecological succession
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gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
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ecosystem
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living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions
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egg
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Female sex cell
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embryo
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organism in its early stage of development
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embryology
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study of multicellular organisms as they develop from fertilized eggs to fully formed organisms
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endocytosis
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process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane; active transport
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endoplasmic reticulum
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a system of membranes that is found in a cell’s cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
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energy pyramid
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a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
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enzyme
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protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
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equilibrium
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When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
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eukaryote
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A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
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eutrophication
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rapid growth of algae in bodies of water, due to high levels of nitrogen and often phosphate
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evolution
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the gradual change in a species over time
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exocytosis
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process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell; active transport
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experiment
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the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation
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facilitated diffusion
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movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels; passive transport
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fertilization
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the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
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nucleic acid
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a long chain of smaller molecules called nucleotides; DNA and RNA
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nucleotide
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monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
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nucleus
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a part of the cell containing DNA responsible for growth and reproduction
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omnivore
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organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
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organ
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a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
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organ system
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group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
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organelle
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a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
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organism
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a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
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gene flow
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movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
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gene pool
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all of the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
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generation
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one step in the line of descent of a family
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genetic recombination
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new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
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genetics
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the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
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genome
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the complete genetic material contained in an individual
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genotype
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genetic makeup of an organism; like BB, Bb, or bb
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genus
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taxonomic group containing one or more species
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geology
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science dealing with the earth’s history as recorded in rocks
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geotropism
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response to the earth’s gravity, as the growing of roots downward in the ground
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glycolysis
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first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
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golgi body
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a structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and transports them out of the cell
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pollution
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Release of harmful materials into the environment
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predation
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an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
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primary consumer
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consumer that feeds directly on producers
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primary succession
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the series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms exist
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producer
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an organism that can make its own food
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prokaryote
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A unicellular organism that LACKS a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
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recessive
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The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
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replication
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(genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
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reproductive isolation
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separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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resistance
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the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria)
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response
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a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some stimulus or agent
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ribosome
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An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
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RNA
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ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
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secondary consumer
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consumer that eats primary consumers
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spindle
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tiny fibers that are seen in cell division
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stimulus
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a signal to which an organism responds
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stomata
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Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
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homologous chromosomes
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Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
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homologous structures
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Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
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homozygous
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having two identical alleles for a trait
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hormone
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substance produced in one part of an organism that affects another part of the same organism
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hydrotropism
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a plants growth response to water; plant grows towards the water
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hypertonic
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when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
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hypotonic
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when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
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independent assortment
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the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes
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infectious disease
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A disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be spread from one individual to another.
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instinct
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a behavior that an organism inherits
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isotonic
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when the concentration of two solutions is the same
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keystone species
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a species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem
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secondary succession
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succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
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seed
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a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat
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selectively permeable
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a property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
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somatic cell
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Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
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speciation
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the formation of new species as a result of evolution
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species
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taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
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structural adaptation
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a physical feature of an organism’s body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism
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substrate
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The reactant on which an enzyme works.
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symbiosis
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relationship in which two species live closely together
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taxonomy
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a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
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telophase
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the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
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theory
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well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
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thigmotropism
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plant growth in response to touch
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transpiration
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loss of water from a plant through its leaves
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trophic level
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feeding level in an ecosystem
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tropism
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the growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
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vaccine
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substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
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mitochondria
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cellular organelles where cellular respiration occurs
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mitosis
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part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
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monohybrid cross
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a cross in which only one characteristic is tracked
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mutagen
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physical or chemical agent that causes mutations
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mutation
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change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
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mutualism
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symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
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natural resource
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materials found in nature that are used by living things
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natural selection
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process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
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negative feedback
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mechanism of homeostasis that tends to stabilize a process by reducing its rate or output
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niche
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the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
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nitrogen cycle
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the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere
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nuclear membrane
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controls what goes in and out of the nucleus
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tissue
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group of similar cells that perform a particular function
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toxin
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a poison that can harm an organism
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trait
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a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
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transcription
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process where the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
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tRNA
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transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
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translation
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decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
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vacuole
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cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
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variation
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differences between organisms
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vascular tissue
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tissue that conducts water and nutrients through the plant body in plants
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vestigial structure
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parts of an organism that are no longer functioning and do not affect survival
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virus
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package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein coat that must use a host cell’s machinery to reproduce itself
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xylem
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the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in plants
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zygote
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fertilized egg
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osmosis
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diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
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parasitism
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symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
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passive transport
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The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
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pathogen
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disease-causing agent
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phenotype
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physical characteristics of an organism; like green eyes, bushy tail or sleek tail
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phloem
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the vascular tissue through which food moves in plants
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photosynthesis
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process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydrates
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phototropism
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Plant growth in response to light
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phylogenetic tree
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diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor; resembles a tree
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phylogeny
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The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
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pioneer species
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first species to populate an area during primary succession
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pollination
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transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
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prophase
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first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
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protein
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macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
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protein synthesis
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the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
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protist
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single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
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punctuated equilibrium
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pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
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Punnett square
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a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

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