Biology DNA Unit Study Guide

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What three scientists played a key role in discovering DNAs structure? Why were each important?
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Watson and crick received the nobel prize for the DNA structure and Franklin made the Photo 51
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DNA is Shaped as a __ or __
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Double Helix or Twisted ladder
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What is the monomer of DNA? What are the three parts?
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Nucleotides, sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base
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Where is DNA in a eukaryotic cell? Why is it here and not in the cytoplasm?
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nucleus it’s too big to be anywhere else
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When in the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
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synthesis phase in interphase
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Summarize DNA replication
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Helicase unwinds the strand and breaks it apart, nucleotides are added to each and two identical strands are formed
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What is teh result of cell replication?
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there are now two identical dna strands
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What does \”semi conservative\” mean?
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saves half, recreates half (DNA strands)
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Explain the differences in RNA and DNA
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1) DNA is double stranded, and RNA is one strand. 2) RNA has Uracil, DNA has thymine. 3) RNA is in the cytoplasm, DNA in the nucleus
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What are base pairing rules of DNA to DNA
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T-A G-C
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What processes require DNA to be replicated?
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Replication of cells
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What are bonds broken
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hydrogen bonds
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What are the three types of RNA? What are their roles in protein synthesis?
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tRNA- carries amino acids to match mRNA mRNA- carries genetic info rRNA- forms with protein and ribosomes
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What is a chromosome? What is a gene?
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DNA wrapped around histones, and hereditary carrying piece
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Define chromatin
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DNA and Proteins in the nucleus
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What are histones
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proteins formed in eukaryotic cell that package and order DNA
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What is protein synthesis?
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When mRNA translates to make protein
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What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
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DNA>RNA>Protein
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Explain the process of transcription, where does it happen, why it happens, and how
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DNA is made into a smaller copy and unwound, then mRNA copies and leaves the nucleus
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Explain translation- how, why, when, where, what starts it, and when it ends
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In translation, mRNA is decoded into Amino Acids, that form proteins. It happens in ribosomes and ends when it hits a stop codon.
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What is a codon?
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3 nucleotides on mRNA
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What is an anticodon?
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the complementary strand to codons, made of TRNA
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What builds a protein?
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Amino Acids
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What does the order of DNA bases determine when making a protein?
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Amino acids
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What is a stop codon? What does it stop?
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It’s a strand of three nucleotides on mRNA. It stops the making of a protein
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What is a mutation? What could cause them?
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When DNA strands are copied wrong. Mess ups by DNA or any piece of replication
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Why is the DNA code considered universal?
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All living things are made of DNA
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What is an enzyme? Which enzyme is important in this chapter?
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Enzymes are catalysts for reactions. Helicase
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Deoxyribose
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With phosphates, makes the sides of the \”twisted ladder\”
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phosphate
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With Deoxyribose, makes the sides of the \”twisted ladder\”
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nitrogenous base
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A goes with T, G with C. Make up rungs of \”ladder\”
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nucleotide
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Half a base with a deoxyribose and a phosphate
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double helix
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Shape of the DNA
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hydrogen bonds
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Hold bases together
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Why is it possible for an amino acid to be specified by more than one kind of protein
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It’s a failsafe for mutation
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How many amino acids are there?
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20
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The cell uses info from mRNA to produce
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Protein
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During translation, the tupw of amino acid that is added to th egrowing polypeptide depends on the ______ on the mRNA and the ________ on the tRNA to which the amino acid is attached
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Codon-Anticodon
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where does translation take place?
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ribosomes
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What bases are on the end of the twisted strands?
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anticodons
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What do the strands and bases connect to in translation
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mRNA
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What are the twisted strands in translation?
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tRNA

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