Biology Chapter 7 Study Guide

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Prokaryotic Cell
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Prokaryotic Cells are cells that do not contain a nucleus, lack most organelles, and contain DNA in the nucleoid. Prokaryotic Cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. They grow, reproduce, respond to the environment, and can even move by gliding along surfaces or swimming through liquids. Bacteria are classified as Prokaryotic Cells.
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Eukaryotic Cell
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Eukaryotic Cells are cells that contain a nuclei and chromosomes in the nucleus. Eukaryotic Cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell. They contain dozens of structures and internal membranes, and many are highly specialized. Some live solitary lives as single-celled organisms some form large multicellular organisms. Plants, animal, fungi, and protists are Eukaryotic Cells.
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Cytosol/Cytoplasm
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The cytosol or the cytoplasm is the portion of the cell outside of the nucleus.
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Organelle
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Organelles are basically “little organs”.
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Nucleus
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The nucleus is a a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell’s genetic material in the form of DNA. The nucleus control’s many of the cells activities.
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Chromosomes
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Chromosomes are the threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes and is passed sown from one generation to the next.
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Chromatin
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The granular material you can see in the nucleus is the chromatin. Chromatin are long strands of DNA found in the Eukaryotic Cell nucleus and they condense to form chromosomes.
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Genes
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Genes are the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trial.
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Nucleolus
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The nucleolus is a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus.
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Nuclear Envelope
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The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus and is composed of two membranes. The nuclear envelope is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores, which allow material to move into and out of the nucleus.
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Ribosomes
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Ribosomes are small particles of RNA that make proteins. They produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus.
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Free Ribosomes
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Free Ribosomes are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, the proteins they manufacture enter the cytosol.
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Bound Ribosomes
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Bound Ribosomes are attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope – proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles like lysosomes.
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Endomembrane System
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The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles. Consists of ER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Vacuoles
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
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Endoplasmic Reticulum is the internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell.
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Rough ER
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The rough ER is the portion of the ER involved in the synthesis of proteins. It is called the rough ER because of the ribosomes found on the surface.
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Smooth ER
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The smooth ER is the other portion of the ER that surface does not contain ribosomes. The smooth ER performs specialized tasks including the synthesis of membrane lipids and detoxification of drugs.
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Golgi Apparatus
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The golgi apparatus are the next organelle the proteins move into after being produced in the rough ER. The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside of the cell.
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Lysosome
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Lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes. Lysosomes are the clean up crew for the cell. On e of the functions of the lysosome is the digestion, or breakdown, of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.
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Peroxisomes
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Peroxisomes (microbodies) are organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all cells.
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Mitochondria
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Mitochondria are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
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Plastids
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Plastids are a group of plant organelles that are used for storage of starches, lipids, or pigments. They are also organelles that are surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own DNA.
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Chloroplast
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Chloroplasts are organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy. (Photosynthesis)
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Vacuoles
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Vacuoles are saclike structures (cell organelles) that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
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Cytoskeleton
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The cytoskeleton is a network of proteins filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. The cytoskeleton is also involved in movement.
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Microfilaments
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Microfilaments are long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell and are found in the cytoskeleton.
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Microtubulues
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Microtubules are hollow structures made up proteins known as tubulins. They play critical roles in cell shape and cell division.
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Centrioles
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Centrioles are located near the nucleus and help to organize cell divsion. Centrioles are not found in plant cells.
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Basal Bodies
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Basal bodies are centrioles forming the bases of cilia and flagella.
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Flagella
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Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move. In prokaryotic cells the flagella wiggle back and forth to aid movement and in eukaryotic cells they spin.
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Cilia
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Cilia are the hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner similar to the flagella.
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Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
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Explanation of the origin of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria and chloroplasts were one free living cells that became engulfed in another cell.
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Plasma (Cell) Membrane
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Phospholipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins. Contains receptors for communication; forms intercellular connections and boundaries; acts as a physical barrier to enclose cell contents; regulates movement into and out of the cell.
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Fluid-Mosaic Model
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The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
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Phospholipid
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Phospholipids are lipids made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids with a glycerol backbone.
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Peripheral Protein
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A protein appendage loosely bound to the surface of a membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
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Transport Protein
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A protein located in the cell membrane that helps move specific substances in and out of the cell.
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Diffusion
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Diffusion is a process where the particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
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Passive Transport
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The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy same as passive diffusion. Passive transport occurs in non-living and living organisms.
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Active Transport
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The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Active transport is where the particles move from an area where there is less concentration to an area where there is more.
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Osmosis
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Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
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Selectively Permeable
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A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
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Osmotic Concentration
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Concentration of all solutes in a solution.
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Osmotic Pressure (Potential)
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The pressure required to stop the movement of water completely.
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Hypertonic
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Hypertonic(above strength) is more concentration of one.
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Hypotonic
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Hypotonic (below strength) is less concentration of the other.
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Isotonic
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Isotonic (same strength) is when the solution has the same concentration on both sides.
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Plasmolysis
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Plasmolysis is when a cell is in a hypertonic environment, the cell will lose water to its surroundings, shrink, and its plasma membrane will pull away from the wall.
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Lysis
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Lysis is a dissolution or destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria.
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Facilitated Diffusion
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A pathway provided by transport proteins that helps certain molecules pass through a membrane.
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Membrane Pump
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A membrane transporter that actively pumps out normally toxic substances from the cytoplasm of cells.
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Sodium-Potassium Pump
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A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
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Endocytosis
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A process by which a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane.
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Phagocytosis
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A process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
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Exocytosis
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The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out.

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