Biology Chapter 3: Organic Chemistry

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2 Broad Categories
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How many categories are compounds divided into?
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Organic and Inorganic Compounds
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The two categories of compounds into these.
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Organic
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This compound contains carbon atoms that are covalent my bonded to carbon and to other elements.
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Living Things
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An organic compound is a compound that contains carbon and is found in all of these.
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The Chemistry of Life
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The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of what?
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Biochemistry
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This is the chemistry of living organisms.
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Carbon
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This is present in all organisms.
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Four
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Carbon has this amount of electrons in their outer energy levels and can form this amount of covalent bonds.
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Single Chains, Branched Chains, Ring Chains
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Carbon can take in these different structures
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Functional Group
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This is a cluster of atoms that can influence the characteristics/ behavior of a larger molecule.
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Monomer
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This is a single molecular unit.
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Polymer
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A long chain of linked monomers.
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Macromolecule
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A chain of polymers bonded together to form a very large molecule.
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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
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Examples of Macromolecules
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Condensation Reaction
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The chemical reaction that takes place to bind monomers together to make polymers and macromolecules. Water is released in this process.
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Dehydration Synthesis Reaction
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Another name for Condensation Reaction.
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Hydrolysis Reaction
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A chemical reaction that breaks polymers and macromolecules apart. The reverse of a condensation reaction.
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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
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4 Main classes of organic compounds that are essential to the life processes of all living things.
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Carbohydrates
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An organic compound made ups of Carbon,Hydrogen ,Oxygen.
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Monosaccharide
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Monomers/ subunits of Carbohydrates.
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Saccharide
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This means sugar.
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Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
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The most common monosaccharides.
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Glucose
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Blood Sugar. Main source of energy for the cells.
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Fructose
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Fruit sugar. The sweetest monosaccharide.
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Galactose
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Found in milk. Is usually combined with glucose and fructose.
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Isomers
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Compounds with same chemical formula but have different forms.
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Starch, Cellulose, Glycogen
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Three most important polysaccharides.
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Starch
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A storage macromolecule of repeating units of glucose in plants.
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Glycogen
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A storage molecule of repeating units of glucose in animals. A polymer of glucose monomers.
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Glycogen
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Main storage of glucose in animals.
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Liver and muscle
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Where glycogen is stored in animals.
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Cellulose
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A macromolecule that adds structure to cell walls of plant cells.
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Cellulose
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Not fully digested by humans but is very rigid and strong.
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Digestive system
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Cellulose cannot be broken down by human enzymes so it passes through this system without being absorbed.
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Chitin
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An important polysacharide . A polymer of glucose with an attached functional group found in the exoskeleton of Arthropods.
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Energy Storage
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What is a carbohydrate’s function?
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Quick Energy
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Simple sugars (monosacharides) can give this.
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Sustained Energy
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Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) can give this.
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Benedict’s Solution
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An indicator of monosacharides.
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Yellow, gold, orange, reddish-orange
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If monosacharides are present when mixed with Benedict’s Solution, these colors will appear.
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Lugol’s Iodine
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This is an indicator of Starch.
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Black
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If starch is present when mixed with Lugol’s Iodine, this color will appear.
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Proteins
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Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
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Amino Group, Carboxyl Group, R group
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Three main parts of an amino acid
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Amino Acid
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The subunit of a protein.
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Twenty
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There are this many different amino acids essential to living things.
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Shapes
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Proteins vary in this.
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R groups
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The difference of this group in amino acids will give proteins different shapes.
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Shape
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This will determine a protein’s function.
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Twelve
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There are this many non essential amino acids made by the body.
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Eight
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There are this many essential amino acids not made by the body and must be obtained by food.
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Hemoglobin
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Protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen in the blood
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Myoglobin
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Protein that carries oxygen in muscle tissues.
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Keratin
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Structural protein that makes up hair, nails, horns and hooves.
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Collagen
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Structural protein that makes up the elasticity of the skin.
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Actin/Myosin
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Structural proteins that make up protein fibers.
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Insulin
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Protein hormone that stimulates cells to absorb glucose.
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Enzymes
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Proteins that act as biological catalysts to lower activation energy and speed up chemical reactions.
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Specific, reusable, sensitive to their environment.
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Enzymes are……
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-ase
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Enzymes end in…..
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Structural Components and enzymes
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Enzymes function mainly as…….
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Biuret reagent
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When testing for proteins, this is an indicator for proteins and will turn PURPLE if proteins are present.
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Energy storage and formation of cell membranes
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Lipids
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Lipids
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Large, non polar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water and are composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.
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Glycerol and Fatty Acids
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Monomers of lipids.
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Energy storage, insulation and protection.
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Lipids function as long term…..
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Triglyceride
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Three fatty acids and glycerol make
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Fats
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Fatty acids and glycerol make…..
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Oil, water
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Lipids are soluble in this and insoluble in this.
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Saturated Fats
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These are solid at room temperature, have no carbon double bonds, and are unhealthy fats.
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Unsaturated Fats
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These are liquid at room temperature, have at least one carbon to carbon double bond and are healthy fats. Primarily found in seeds and fits.
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Phospholipids
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These have 2 fatty acids joined by a molecules of glycerol and the cell membrane is composed of two of these.
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Stable and effective
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The bilayer arrangement of molecules produce a barrier for a the cell that is……..
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Waxes
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These prevent water loss.
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Steroid Hormones
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These are made up of 4 rings of carbon, this is the chemical messenger that serves in various functions in living things.
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Brown Paper Test
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This is an indicator of lipids.
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Nucleic Acids
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Large and complex organic molecules that store important information in the cell.
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Nucleotides
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Monomers of nucleic acids.
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Sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base
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Nucleotides are made of these.
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DNA, RNA, ATP
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Examples of Nucleic Acids

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