Biology Chapter 18 Knowledge "The CLassification of Living Things"

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How are living things organized for study?
answer

To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner
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Describe the system for naming species that Linnaeus developed.
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Linnaeus developed a system called the binomial nomenclature. In binomial nomenclature, each specie is assigned a two-part scientific name which is written in italics
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Sequence the 7 taxonomic categories from smallest to largest.
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Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
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How is information about evolutionary relationships useful in classification?
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Now, biologists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just physical similarities. In other words, species placed within the same genus are put together
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How are genes used to help scientists classify organisms?
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The genes show important similarities at the molecular level. These similarities can be used as criteria to help determine classification
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What is the principle behind cladistics analysis?
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Cladistic analysis identifies and considers only those characteristics of organisms that are evolutionary innovations.
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How have new discoveries in molecular biology affected the way in which we classify organisms compared with the system used by Linnaeus?
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It helps scientists where it allows them to time different kinds of evolutionary events, such as they can compare modern bird species than they would to estimate the age of the common ancestor of yeasts and humans
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What are the six kingdoms of life as they are now identified?
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Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
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What are the 3 domains of life?
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Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
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Why was the kingdom Monera divided into 2 separate kingdoms?
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Scientists found that Monera is composed of two different groups and that these groups are a great deal different from one another
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Why might the kingdom Protista be thought as the odds and ends of kingdom?
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The Protista kingdom contains a wide variety of species that have opposite characteristics
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Which kingdoms include only prokaryotes? Eukaryotes?
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The kingdoms that contain prokaryotes are Eubacteria and Archaebactera and the kingdoms that contain eukaryotes are Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
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What characteristics differentiate between fungi and plantae?
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Fungi have cell walls of chitin while plantae have cell walls of cellulose. Fungi are heterotrophs and plantae are autotrophs.
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In which domain are organism from the most extreme environments placed?
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Archaea
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What do scientists conclude about the presence of myosin in both humans and yeast?
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Humans and yeasts share a common ancestry
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What is the purpose of dichotomous key?
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It allows scientists to determine the identity of different organisms in the natural world

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